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Irving  Squire 


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This  Opera  House  was  J?uUt  by  Oscar  Hammer- 
stein  in  1906  as  a  competitor  of  the  Metropolitan  of 
New  York.  For  twenty  vears  oreviQUs  to  that  time 
New  York  had  healra^afict^iipefffe&y  at  the  Metro- 
politan and  only  under  the  auspices  of  society.  The 
Manhattan  was  built  to  be  the  home  of  popular 
grand  opera,  and  more  attention  was  given  to  Italian 
Opera  than  to  German.  The  acoustic  properties  of 
the  auditorium,  which  holds  about  2000  people,  are 
good,  but  no  attempt  was  ma(^ij:9^'^4  expensive 



New  York  Chicago 



-isffirri;. ' 
lo  nslilu., 


'5    bi£7vuf    -^bBn. 

isii-g-hiB':)ii  bijii  >I-io'/    //■9.-- 
,  .'  -•  '  bnjn;g 





W.     L.     HUBBARD 




New  York  Chicago 

Copyright  1908  by 


Entered  Stationers'  Hall 




Manhattan  Opera  House        -----         Frontispiece 

Victor  Herbert    ----------16 

Joseph  Joachim       ---------         80 

Ruggiero  Leoncavallo  ---------   144 

Pietro  Mascagni      ---------        208 

Jules  Frederic  Emile  Massenet  ------  272 

Ignace  Jan  Paderewski  --------        836 

John  Philip  Sousa       -------._  400 

Eugene  Ysae  --••-••-..       4^4 



a  as  in  ah 

a  as  in  mate 

a  as  in  cat 

b  as  in  bat 

c  used  only  in  ch  as  in  churlish.  The 
Scotch  and  German  gutteral,  as 
loch  and  ich,  is  represented  by  kh. 

d  as  in  deem 

dh  as  in  thine 

dj  as  in  adjure 

e  as  in  be 

e  as  in  get 

f  as  in  file 

g  as  in  go 

h  as  in  hail 

i  as  in  light 

!  as  in  tin 

j  as  in  joke 

k  as  in  kite 

1  as  in  lump 

m  as  in  mine 

n  as  m  nme 

fi  represents  the  French  nasal  n  or  m. 

6  as  in  mote 

6  as  in  on 

6  as  in  song 

oo  as  in  loon 

ow  as  in  bow 

p  as  in  post 

r  as  in  roll 

s  as  in  sent 

t  as  in  tap 

th  as  in  thank 

th  as  these  is  represented  by  dh 

u  as  in  blue 

u  as  in  utter 

The   French  u  and  the  German  long 

u  are  represented  by  ti 
V  as  in  survive 
w  as  in  well 
y  as  in  yet 
z  as  in  zone 


MAAS  (mas),  Louis.  1852-1889. 
Pianist  and  composer  of  un- 
usual ability;  born  at  Wies- 
baden, Germany.  His  father  gave  him 
his  first  instruction  on  the  piano,  and 
from  1867  to  1871  he  studied  with 
Papperitz  and  Reinecke  at  the  Leipsic 
Conservatory,  and  for  three  sumrners 
was  under  the  instruction  of  Liszt. 
From  1875  to  1880  he  taught  piano  at 
the  Leipsic  Conservatory,  and  in  1880 
came  to  America,  settling  in  Boston, 
where  from  1881  to  1882  he  conducted 
the  Boston  Philharmonic  concerts. 
He  had  many  private  pupils  and  was 
for  a  time  connected  with  the  New 
England  Conservatory  of  Music.  As 
a  concert  pianist,  he  visited  many  of 
the  principal  cities  of  the  United 
States.  He  died  in  Boston  when  only 
thirty-seven  years  old.  Doctor  Maas 
was  a  great  addition  to  the  musical 
circle  of  Boston  and  he  contributed 
to  music  on  American  subjects  the 
interesting  symphony.  On  the  Prai- 
ries. His  other  compositions  are 
twelve  Phantasiestiick  for  piano;  vio- 
lin sonatas;  fantasies;  piano  concerto 
in  C  minor;  overtures;  suites  and 
marches  for  orchestra;  a  string  quar- 
tet and  some  songs. 

Mabellini     (ma-bel-le'-ne),     Teodulo. 


Italian  dramatic  composer.  Was 
born  at  Pistoia,  and  died  at  Florence. 
He  was  the  pupil  of  G.  Pilotti  at  his 
native  town,  and  then  studied  at  the 
Institutio  Reale  Musicale  at  Florence. 
His  first  opera,  Matilda  di  Toledo, 
was  produced  at  Florence  when  he 
was   nineteen  years   old  and  pleased 

Grand  Duke  Leopold  IL  to  such  an 
extent  that  he  had  the  young  musician 
instructed  further.  His  second  opera, 
Rolla,  appeared  at  Turin  in  1840.  In 
1843  he  went  back  to  Florence  where 
he  directed  the  Philharmonic  Society 
and    the   grand   annual   concerts.      In 

1847  he  was  made  Court  conductor,  in 

1848  conductor  at  the  Pergola  Thea- 
tre, and  in  1859  an  instructor  at  the 
Royal  Institute  of  Music,  where  he 
remained  until  1887.  Among  his  suc- 
cessful operas  are  Ginevra  degli 
Almieri;  II  Conte  di  Savagna;  I 
Veneziani  a  Constantinopoli;  Maria  di 
Francia;  II  Venturiero;  Baldassare; 
and  Fiammetta.  He  also  wrote  the 
oratorios,  Eudossia  e  Paolo,  and 
L'Ultimo  Giorno  di  Gerusalemme; 
the  cantatas  La  Caccia,  II  Ritorno, 
Elegiaca,  Rafaele  Sanzio,  and  _  Lo 
Spirito  di  Dante;  and  church-music. 

♦Macbeth,  Allan.     1856- 

Organist,  composer  and  teacher; 
son  of  Norman  Macbeth,  the  painter. 
Was  born  in  Greenock,  Scotland.  His 
early  years  were  passed  in  Edinburgh, 
whither  his  family  had  moved  soon 
after  his  birth;  but  in  1870  he  went  to 
Germany  where  his  musical  impulses 
were  aroused  during  the  course  of  his 
general  education.  He  returned  to 
Edinburgh  to  study  music  under  the 
best  masters  that  city  could  offer, 
then  went  to  Leipsic,  where  he  stud- 
ied in  the  Conservatory  under  Richter 
in  theory,  Wenzl  in  piano  and  Jadas- 
sohn in  composition.  He  returned  to 
Edinburgh  in  1879,  but  after  a  year 
there  went  to  Glasgow,  where  for 
seven  years  he  conducted  the  Glasgow 



Choral  Union.  He  has  held  various 
appointments  as  organist  and  conduc- 
tor, and  at  Woodside  Parish  Church, 
Glasgow,  he  organized  the  first  boy- 
choir  in  Scotland.  During  nine  years 
at  St.  George's-in-the-Fields  Parish 
Church  he  developed  the  music  to  an 
unusual  degree.  His  most  important 
service  to  music  has  been,  probably, 
in  connection  with  the  Glasgow 
Athenaeum  School  of  Music  of  which 
he  was  principal  from  1890  to  1902 
and  the  Glasgow  College  of  Music 
which  he  formed  in  1902.  In  these 
schools  he  has  given  particular  atten- 
tion to  the  study  of  opera,  and  for 
the  last  fourteen  years  has  presented 
annually  an  operatic  masterpiece,  usu- 
ally of  the  French  Comic  Opera 
School.  Although  the  greater  part  of 
Mr.  Macbeth's  time  has  been  taken  up 
by  teaching,  he  has  composed  a  num- 
ber of  pieces,  among  them  Forget- 
me-not,  an  intermezzo  for  string  or- 
chestra; The  Land  of  Glory,  a  cantata 
which  won  the  prize  of  the  Glasgow 
Society  of  Music  in  1890;  incidental 
music  to  the  drama,  Bruce,  Lord  of 
the  Isles;  In  Memoriam,  for  orches- 
tra; Silver  Bells;  Jubilee  chorus;  In- 
termezzo for  strings;  Serenata  Danze; 
Pizzicate  and  Ballet  for  orchestra; 
string  trios;  piano  trios;  suite  for 
violoncello  and  piano;  piano-music 
and  songs. 

MacCarthy,  Maud.     1884- 

Violinist;  born  at  Clonmel,  Ireland. 
Her  teacher  from  the  age  of  eight  to 
fifteen  was  Seiior  Arbos.  She  made 
her  debut  at  London  in  1894  very  suc- 
cessfully. She  then  studied  two  years 
more  without  appearing  in  public 
during  that  time.  Since  1896  she 
has  played  at  concerts  in  London,  at 
the  Saturday  concerts  at  the  Crystal 
Palace,  and  has  made  an  extensive 
American  tour  with  the  Boston  Sym- 
phony Orchestra  and  the  New  York 
Philharmonic  Society.  Her  playing 
shows  careful  training  and  no  effort. 
She  has  mastered  the  violin  classics 
from  Beethoven  to  Tschaikowsky, 
and  her  small  hands  in  no  way  hinder 
her  power  or  technical  skill. 

MacCunn  (m5k-kun),  Hatnish.     1868- 

Dramatic  composer,  who  is  impor- 
tant among  Scottish  musicians.  Was 
born  at  Greenock.  His  musical  abili- 
ties were  early  apparent  and  he  began 
to  study  when  only  six.  In  1883,  when 
the  National  Training  School  at  South 


Kensington  opened  as  the  Royal  Col- 
lege of  Music,  he  won  a  scholarship 
for  composition.  Here  he  studied 
under  Sir  Hubert  Parry.  His  first 
overture  entitled,  Cior  Mhor,  was  per- 
formed at  the  Crystal  Palace  in  1885, 
and  two  years  later  the  overture.  The 
Land  of  the  Mountain  and  the  Flood, 
brought  out  by  Sir  August  Manns,  re- 
ceived wide  notice.  The  following 
year  the  young  composer  produced 
his  first  cantata.  Lord  Ullin's  Daugh- 
ter, a  ballad  for  chorus  and  orchestra, 
and  for  a  commission  from  the  Glas- 
gow Choral  Union  he  composed  the 
cantata,  erU:itIed  The  Lay  of  the  Last 
Minstrel.  In  1889  he  was  married  to 
a  daughter  of  John  Pettie,  R.  A. 
From  1888  to  1894  he  was  professor 
of  harmony  at  the  Royal  Academy  of 
Music,  and  in  1892  he  became  con- 
ductor of  the  Hampstead  Conserv- 
atory Orchestral  Society.  In  1894  his 
opera,  Jeanie  Deans,  based  on  Scott's 
Heart  of  Midlothian,  was  given  by  the 
Royal  Carl  Rosa  Opera  Company  in 
Edinburgh,  and  after  a  successful  tour 
through  the  provinces  appeared  in 
London  in  1896  and  was  exceedingly 
well  received.  In  1898  MacCunn 
became  conductor  of  this  company 
and  for  some  years  directed  their 
performances.  He  has  had  much  ex- 
perience in  this  work  and  was  the  con- 
ductor under  whom  the  first  English 
production  of  Wagner's  later  works 
were  given.  On  the  death  of  Sir 
Arthur  Sullivan  he  took  his  place  at 
the  Savoy  Theatre  during  the  engage- 
ments of  Merrie  England  and  A 
Princess  of  Kensington.  As  a  com- 
poser his  work  shows  great  merit  and 
a  high  degree  of  individuality,  being 
strongly  Scottish  in  character.  His 
list  of  compositions  is  large  and  cred- 
itable and  contains  the  following: 
Operas,  Jeanie  Deans;  Dairmid;  The 
Masque  of  War  and  Peace;  and  The 
Golden  Girl.  Orchestral  compositions 
are  The  Land  of  the  Mountain  and 
The  Flood;  Highland  Memories;  the 
Dowie  Dens  o'  Yarrow;  and  The  Ship 
of  the  Fiend.  Other  works  are  a  num- 
ber of  songs  and  part-songs;  Scotch 
dances  for  piano;  and  The  Eighth 
Psalm  for  chorus  and  organ.  He  also 
wrote  the  following  ballads  and  can- 
tatas: Bonnie  Kilmeny;  The  Lay  of 
the  Last  Minstrel;  Lord  Ullin's 
Daughter;  Queen  Hynde  of  Caledon; 
The  Death  of  Parry  Reed;  The 
Wreck  of  the  Hesperus;  and  The 
Cameronian's  Dream. 


*  Macdougall,     Hamilton     Crawford. 


Head  of  the  department  of  music 
at  Wellesley  College.  Was  born  at 
Warwick,  Rhode  Island.  He  studied 
in  the  public  schools  of  Providence, 
then  studied  music  under  Robert  Bon- 
ner of  Providence,  and  in  Boston  had 
private  instruction  under  B.  J.  Lang, 
J.  D.  C.  Parker  and  S.  B.  Whitney. 
In  London,  England,  he  studied  under 
Dr.  E.  H.  Turpin  and  became  Asso- 
ciate of  the  Royal  College  of  Organ- 
ists, where  he  studied  in  1883,  and 
from  1885  to  1886.  From  1882  to 
1895  he  played  at  the  Central  Baptist 
Church  of  Providence,  then  went  to 
Boston  and  played  in  the  Harvard 
Church  at  Brookline  from  1896  to 
1900.  In  1900  he  became  professor  of 
music  at  Wellesley,  where  he  has 
'classes  in  counterpoint,  theory  and 
history  of  music.  In  1901  he  received 
the  degree  of  Doctor  of  Music  from 
Brown  University.  He  founded  the 
American  Guild  of  Organists  and  the 
American  College  of  Music,  and  is 
president  of  the  Rhode  Island  Musi- 
cal Association,  and  has  been  a  mem- 
ber of  the  Clef  Club  of  New  York 
and  of  the  Harvard  Musical  Associa- 
tion of  Boston.  He  has  written 
National  Graded  Course,  in  seven 
books;  Studies  in  Melody  Playing, 
in  two  volumes;  Music  for  Women's 
Voices;  Sacred  Music,  several  songs 
and  anthems,  and  a  number  of  arti- 
cles for  various  musical  periodicals. 

MacDowell,  Edward  Alexander.   1861- 


There  has  been  much  discussion  as 
to  whether  or  not  America  has  a 
national  music,  but  it  is  generally 
agreed  that  if  such  be  the  case,  Ed- 
ward Alexander  MacDowell  is  its 
most  gifted  and  most  characteristic- 
ally national  representative.  Educated 
in  French  and  German  Conserv- 
atories and  surrounded  during  the 
formative  j-ears  of  his  life  by  foreign 
models  and  musicians,  MacDowell  so 
thoroughly  assimilated  the  best  that 
was  presented  to  him  that  he  can 
never  be  accused  of  having  been 
unduly  influenced  by  methods  and 
characteristics  of  other  countries,  and 
even  from  the  first  he  was  singularly 
free  from  that  unconscious  imitation 
into  which  so  many  young  composers 
fall.  His  music  is  as  individual  as  the 
music  of  Chopin  or  Beethoven,  but  it 
will  be  for  the  future  to  prove  how 


much  of  this  individuality  is  national 
and  how  much  personal.  Thus  far 
we  can  only  accord  him  first  place  as 
an  American  composer.  Edward 
Alexander  MacDowell  was  born  in 
New  York  City,  Dec.  18,  1861.  In 
religion  his  grandparents  were 
Quakers,  and  from  them  we  may  trace 
an  admirable  earnestness  and  sim- 
plicity along  with  the  strong  Celtic 
strain  which  expressed  itself  in  his 
fine  understanding  of  and  sensitive- 
ness to  Nature  and  the  moods  inspired 
by  her.  When  MacDowell  was  about 
eight  years  old  he  began  taking  piano 
lessons  from  Mr.  Juan  Buitrago.  His 
next  teacher  was  Paul  Desvernine, 
with  whom  he  studied  until  he  was 
about  fourteen,  receiving  lessons  also 
from  the  noted  Venezuelan  pianist, 
Mme.  Teresa  Careno.  In  April, 
1876,  he  went  to  Paris  with  his 
mother  and  entered  the  Conservatory 
to  study  theory  and  composition  under 
Savard,  and  piano  under  Marmontel. 
About  this  time  his  French  teacher 
showed  a  sketch  he  had  made  to  an 
instructor  at  the  ficole  des  Beaux 
Arts,  who  saw  so  much  promise  in 
it  that  he  agreed  to  give  the  young 
man  three  years  of  free  instruction 
and  to  arrange  for  his  support  during 
that  time.  For  a  while  MacDowell 
hesitated  between  the  two  arts,  but 
finally  decided  to  continue  in  the  path 
he  had  chosen. 

At  this  time  he  heard  of  Carl  Hey- 
mann,  the  pianist,  who  taught  at  the 
Frankfort  Conservatory,  and  being 
dissatisfied  at  Paris,  at  the  invitation 
of  friends  he  went  to  Wiesbaden,  met 
Heymann,  and  was  most  favorably 
impressed  with  him.  He  remained  in 
Wiesbaden  studying  composition  and 
theory  with  Louis  Ehlert,  and  in  the 
autumn  of  1879  entered  Frankfort 
Conservatory.  Here  he  found  what  he 
wanted.  Heymann  proved  to  be  all 
he  had  expected  as  a  piano  teacher, 
and  in  Raff,  with  whom  he  studied 
composition,  he  found  a  most  under- 
standing and  appreciative  master.  If 
MacDowell  ever  showed  the  influence 
of  any  one  man  it  is  that  of  Raff,  and 
it  is  seen  in  the  Suite  No.  1  for 
orchestra,  of  which  he  has  named  the 
four  movements  as  follows:  In  a 
Haunted  Forest,  Summer  Idyll,  The 
Shepherdess'  Song,  Forest  Spirits, 
with  a  supplement,  entitled  In  Octo- 
ber. MacDowell  now  went  to  the 
Darmstadt  Conservatory  to  teach 
the  piano,   but   soon   discovered  that 




no  progress  was  to  be  made  there  and 
returned  to  Frankfort,  where  he  gave 
private  lessons  and  devoted  much 
time  to  composition.  He  visited  Liszt 
at  Weimar,  and  the  veteran  musician, 
recognizing  his  abihty,  invited  him 
to  play  his  first  piano  suite  at  the 
Allgemeiner  Deutscher  Musik-Verein 
held  at  Zurich  in  July,  1882.  In 
Frankfort  he  met  his  wife,  Marion 
Nevins,  of  New  York,  whom  Raff  had 
sent  to  MacDowell  for  lessons,  be- 
cause she  spoke  little  German.  They 
were  married  in  1884  and  the  follow- 
ing year  removed  to  Wiesbaden, 
where  for  about  two  years  they  lived 
a  delightfully  retired  life.  To  this 
period  belong  the  three  songs,  Mein 
Liebchen,  Du  Liebst  mich  nicht,  and 
Oben,  wo  die  Sterne  gliihen,  which 
comprise  Op.  2;  Nachtlied  and  Das 
Rosenband,  included  in  Op.  12;  a  pre- 
lude and  fugue;  the  second  piano 
suite;  the  first  piano  concerto;  the 
Serenade;  two  Fantasiestiicke;  Erzah- 
lung;  Hexantanz;  Barcarolle  and  Hu- 
moresque.  Op.  18;  the  Wald-Idyllen; 
Drei  Poesin  and  Mondbilder  for  four 
hands;  also  the  two  tone-poems  for 
orchestra,  entitled  Hamlet  and 
Ophelia,  and  dedicated  to  Sir  Henry 

In  the  autumn  of  1888  MacDowell 
returned  to  America  and  settled  in 
Boston.  He  was  already  well  known  as 
a  composer,  and  made  his  first  appear- 
ance as  a  pianist  at  Chickering  Hall 
with  the  Kneisel  Quartet  in  Novem- 
ber, 1888.  In  1889  he  played  at  a 
Thomas  Orchestra  concert  in  New 
York  and  achieved  instant  success. 
From  that  time  forward  his  reputation 
as  a  composer  and  performer  grew, 
until  in  1896  at  a  concert  in  New 
York,  the  Boston  Symphony  Orches- 
tra played  the  first  piano  concerto, 
The  Indian  Suite,  on  the  same  pro- 
gram. In  the  autumn  of  1896  a  Chair 
of  Music  was  endowed  at  Columbia 
University  in  New  York  City  and 
MacDowell  was  called  to  fill  it.  In- 
harmonious conditions  at  the  Uni- 
versity and  a  desire  to  devote  most  of 
his  time  to  composition  led  him  to 
resign  this  position  in  1904.  About 
two  years  later  in  New  York  City  he 
was  knocked  down  by  a  cab,  which 
passed  over  his  neck.  From  that  time 
an  incurable  mental  and  nervous  dis- 
ease set  in  and  he  died  in  New  York, 
Jan.  23,  1908. 

Picking  out  special  compositions  of 
MacDowell's  for  discussion  is  not  an 

easy  task,  owing  to  the  almost 
uniform  excellence  and  the  total  dis- 
similarity of  subject-matter  and  treat- 
ment. The  selections  in  this  case  are 
made  on  the  basis  of  those  composi- 
tions probably  best  known  to  the 
public.  Under  this  head  the  Indian 
Suite  for  orchestra  probably  comes 
first.  In  a  prefatory  note  Mr.  Mac- 
Dowell acknowledges  the  source  of 
his  themes  for  this  to  be  the  music 
of  American  Indian  folk-songs,  but 
the  treatment  is  quite  his  own.  Vigor- 
ous and  strong  in  construction,  mas- 
terly in  arrangement  of  theme  against 
theme,  it  is  finished  with  a  refinement 
and  delicacy  which  adds  much  of 
smoothness  in  the  sequence  of  its  un- 
usual and  at  times  almost  bizarre 
motives.  It  is  one  of  the  very  first 
American  compositions  for  orchestra 
and  holds  its  own  when  placed  on  a 
program  with  such  works  as  Tschai- 
kowski's  Sixth  Symphony.  The  four 
piano  sonatas  are  all  masterly.  In  the 
fifst,  the  Tragica,  unlike  most  of  his 
compositions,  the  poetical  inspiration 
is  not  definitely  designated,  but  this 
is  not  necessary,  and  the  directness 
and  the  dignity  with  which  he  has 
achieved  his  results  are  impressive. 
There  is  nothing  theatrical  or  senti- 
mental about  it.  It  is  a  simple  but 
marvelously  artistic  statement  of 
tragedy  as  one  of  the  facts  of  life. 
The  Eroica  is  the  second  sonata 
chronologically,  and  bears  the  sub- 
title, A  Flower  from  the  Realm  of 
King  Arthur.  Expressive  of  the  high- 
est human  emotion,  it  is  one  of  the 
most  adequate  musical  versions  of  the 
Arthurian  stories  that  has  been  made. 
Full  of  form  and  color,  and  wonderful 
in  its  descriptive  power  is  the  Norse 
Sonata,  dedicated  to  Edvard  Grieg. 
The  picturesqueness  of  this  subject 
appealed  to  the  poetic  side  of  the 
man,  and  the  result  is  a  tone-picture 
of  almost  barbaric  splendor.  Some 
of  the  passages  are  primitively  vigor- 
ous in  character,  others  are  poignant 
with  his  own  Gaelic  tenderness.  The 
Keltic  Sonata  is  probably  his  master- 
piece. Hauntingly  beautiful,  with  the 
strange,  dim  beauty  of  ancient  leg- 
ends, this  musical  compostion  mirrors 
all  the  dream  glory  of  the  heroic 
Gaelic  world.  Another  field  in  which 
MacDowell  has  composed  much  is 
that  of  song-writing.  In  this  smaller 
form  of  musical  composition  he  has 
written  some  things  that  are  wonder- 
ful bits  of  musical  expression.     It  is 



often  said  that  these  songs  demand 
almost  impossible  tone  sequences  of 
the  human  voice,  yet  for  sheer  beauty 
of  conception  and  absolute  union  of 
poetic  sentiment  and  musical  expres- 
sion, they  command  admiration.  In 
his  smaller  pieces  for  piano  we  have 
another  development  of  his  genius, 
one  which  is  perhaps  more  intimate 
than  all  the  others.  A  pianist  of  ex- 
cellent abilities,  he  was  able  to  give 
his  own  interpretation  to  these  pieces 
as  a  sort  of  key  by  which  could  be 
deciphered  all  the  mystery  and  beauty 
of  his  larger  works.  The  fascination 
of  his  sympathetic  treatment  of  nature 
is  keenly  felt  in  such  pieces  as  those 
which  comprise  the  series  he  calls 
Woodland  Sketches.  The  lightness 
and  grace  with  which  he  has  treated 
Will  o'  the  Wisp  and  To  a  Wild 
Rose;  the  dignity  and  simple  strength 
Jie  has  given  the  Indian  theme  in 
From  an  Indian  Lodge;  the  tender- 
ness and  poetic  feeling  shown  in  At 
an  Old  Trysting  Place,  a  Deserted 
Farm,  and  in  Autumn,  place  this  set 
of  sketches  high  in  the  list  of  his 
works.  In  his  Sea  Pieces  he  is  wonder- 
fully true  to  nature  and  has  caught  and 
portrayed  the  majesty,  the  mystery 
and  fascination  of  this  mighty  force 
with  remarkable  fidelity.  And  in  his 
Moon  Pictures,  suggested  by  themes 
from  Hans  Christian  Andersen,  one 
feels  the  poetry,  romance  and  charm 
all  clearly  expressed.  The  leading 
characteristics  of  this  composer  are 
imagination  and  poetic  feeling.  As  a 
man  he  was  retiring  and  modest,  but 
staunch  in  the  support  of  his  ideals 
and  convictions.  We  live  too  near  to 
him  to  estimate  the  ultimate  value  of 
his  work  and  its  influence  on  our 
national  music,  or  to  rightly  place 
him  among  the  musicians  of  the 

M'Ewen,   John   Blackwood.    1868- 

Scottish  composer  of  considerable 
importance;  was  born  at  Hawick. 
After  studying  at  the  Glasgow  High 
School  and  University,  where  he  re- 
ceived the  degree  of  M.  A.,  he  entered 
the  Royal  Academy  of  Music,  from 
which  he  received  the  degree  of  Fel- 
low. In  1896  he  became  professor  and 
lecturer  at  the  Glasgow  Athenaeum, 
and  two  years  later  he  became  pro- 
fessor of  composition  and  harmony 
at  the  Royal  Academy  of  Music.  He 
has  written  many  compositions 
strongly  Scotch  in  character,  among 


them  being  Six  Highland  Dances  for 
piano  and  violin;  Three  Highland 
Dances  for  strings;  Graih,  My  Chree, 
a  recitation  with  accompaniment  of  a 
string  quartet,  drum  and  piano. 
Other  works  are  The  Last  Chantey, 
for  chorus  and  orchestra;  a  Scene 
from  Hellas,  for  female  chorus  and 
orchestra;  an  arrangement  for  Mil- 
ton's Hymn  on  the  Nativity  for 
soprano  solo,  chorus  and  orchestra; 
and  orchestral  suite  in  E;  a  symphony 
in  A  minor;  two  overtures;  a  string 
quartet  in  F  and  one  in  E  minor. 

Macfarren,     Sir     George     Alexander. 


English  musician,  who,  though 
blind  part  of  his  life,  accomplished  an 
enormous  amount  of  work,  and  won 
a  remarkable  musical  reputation  for 
himself  in  his  own  country.  He  was 
a  son  of  the  dramatist,  George  Mac- 
farren, and  was  born  at  London.  He 
did  not  begin  to  study  music  until 
1827,  and  then  became  a  pupil  of 
Charles  Lucas.  In  1829  he  entered 
the  Royal  Academy  of  Music,  where 
he  studied  the  piano,  trombone  and 
composition.  In  1834  he  became  a 
professor  at  the  Royal  Academy  and 
the  same  year  produced  his  sym- 
phony in  F  minor.  In  1836  his  over- 
ture, Chevy  Chase,  appeared;  in  1838 
his  Devil's  Opera  was  presented;  and 
in  1840  his  Emblematic  Tribute  on 
the  Queen's  marriage  was  given  at 
Drury  Lane.  In  1843  he  became  a 
member  of  the  Handel  Society  and 
edited  Belshazzar,  Judas  Maccabaeus 
and  Jephthah;  in  1845  he  directed 
Mendelssohn's  Antigone  at  Covent 
Garden;  in  1846  produced  his  own 
opera,  Don  Quixote;  and  in  1849  his 
opera,  Charles  II.  In  1851  his  can- 
tata, Leonora,  appeared;  in  1856 
another  cantata,  May  Day,  was  given, 
and  in  1859  his  cantata,  Christmas, 
was  produced.  In  1860  he  brought 
out  Robinhood,  one  of  his  most  suc- 
cessful works,  and  in  1863  his  masque, 
Freya's  Gift,  written  in  honor  of  the 
Prince  of  Wales'  marriage;  also  his 
opera,  Jessy  Lea;  and  in  1864  three 
other  operas.  She  Stoops  to  Con- 
quer, The  Soldiers'  Legacy,  and 

About  this  time  the  composer 
became  totally  blind,  but  continued 
his  work  of  teaching  and  writing  with 
unceasing  energy  with  the  aid  of 
helpers  to  take  dictation  from  him. 
In    1873    his    oratorio,    St.    John    the 




Baptist,  was  produced,  and  in  1875  he 
was  given  the  degrees  of  Bachelor 
and  Doctor  of  Music  and  was  made  a 
professor  of  music  at  Cambridge.     In 

1876  he  became  principal  of  the  Royal 
Academy  of  Music  and  brought  out 
his    oratorio,    The    Resurrection.      In 

1877  his  oratorio,  Joseph,  and  his  can- 
tata, The  Lady  of  the  Lake,  were  pro- 
duced. In  1883  he  again  appeared 
with  an  oratorio.  King  David,  and  in 
the  same  year  was  knighted.  Among 
his  other  compositions  are  overtures 
to  The  Merchant  of  Venice,  Romeo 
and  Juliet,  and  Hamlet.  He  wrote 
many  excellent  educational  musical 
works  which  had  much  influence  at 
the  time,  as  The  Rudiments  of  Har- 
mony, and  Six  Lectures  on  Harmony. 
He  contributed  to  The  Musical 
World  and  wrote  the  lives  of  musi- 
cians for  the  Imperial  Dictionary  of 
Universal  Biography.  He  also  de- 
livered many  lectures  in  London  and 
elsewhere.  His  active  life  ended  in 
1877,  and  he  was  buried  at  Hamp- 
stead  cemetery.  A  life  of  him  by 
H.  C.  Banister  was  published  in  1891. 
Macfarren  wrote  in  almost  every  form 
of  music  and  attracted  much  attention 
in  his  time,  but  his  works  seem  to 
lack  the  life  and  spontaneity  of  mod- 
ern composers. 

Macfarren,  Walter  Cecil.     1826-1905. 

English  musical  composer  and  edi- 
tor; was  the  brother  of  Sir  George 
Alexander  Macfarren.  He  was  born  at 
London;  was  a  chorister  at  Westmin- 
ster from  1836  to  1841,  then  studied 
piano  at  the  Royal  Academy  of  Music 
from  1842  to  1846  as  the  pupil  of 
Holmes;  Potter  and  his  brother.  He 
taught  piano  there  from  1846  to  1903 
and  also  conducted  the  Academy  con- 
certs. He  was  also  director  and  treas- 
urer of  the  Philharmonic  Society.  He 
died  at  London.  He  wrote  the  over- 
tures to  Henry  V.,  Hero  and  Leander, 
Beppo,  a  Winter's  Tale,  Othello,  and 
The  Taming  of  the  Shrew;  two  church 
services;  piano  concertos  and  sonatas; 
and  various  kinds  of  songs.  He  also 
edited  Beethoven's  sonatas;  Mozart's 
piano  works;  and  Popular  Classics. 

Macirone  (ma-che-ro'-ne),  Clara  An- 
gela.    1821- 

Composer  of  songs,  pianist  and 
teacher.  Was  born  at  London,  and 
educated  at  the  Royal  Academy  of 
Music  as  the  pupil  of  Potter,  Holmes, 
Lucas  and  Negri.     She  was  made  a 

professor  of  the  Academy  and  an 
associate  of  the  Philharmonic  Society, 
and  was  for  several  years  the  head 
music-teacher  at  Aske's  School  for 
Girls,  and  later  at  the  Church  of 
England  High  School  for  Girls,  and 
during  this  time  she  also  conducted 
a  singing  society  called  The  Village 
Minstrels.  She  has  now  retired.  Her 
Te  Deum  and  Jubilate,  sung  at  Han- 
over Chapel,  were  the  first  service  com- 
posed by  a  woman  ever  sung  in  tlie 
church.  She  has  published  an  admir- 
able suite  for  the  violin  and  piano,  and 
many  part-songs,  some  of  which  have 
been  sung  at  the  Crystal  Palace  by 
choruses  of  three  thousand  voices; 
she  has  also  written  anthems  and 
many  solos  for  the  voice. 

Mackenzie,  Alexander  Campbell.  1847- 
Stands  in  the  front  rank  of  British 
composers.  He  was  born  in  Edin- 
burgh, where  he  received  his  general 
education  at  Hunter's  School.  His 
father  was  probably  his  first  teacher 
in  music,  but  he  was  soon  put  under 
the  care  of  Johann  Durner,  a  com- 
poser. At  the  earnest  recommendation 
of  Durner  he  was  taken  to  Schwartz- 
burg-Sondershausen,  Germany,  to 
begin  his  serious  musical  study,  and 
placed  in  surroundings  exceedingly 
favorable  to  his  musical  advancement. 
He  obtained  a  position  in  the  ducal 
orchestra  and  began  the  study  of 
theory  with  the  conductor,  Edouard 
Stein,  and  the  violin  with  Ulrich.  His 
training  was  of  the  best,  and  he  had 
frequent  opportunities  to  play  the 
music  of  such  masters  as  Wagner, 
Berlioz  and  Liszt,  besides  becoming 
acquainted  with  many  of  the  great  mu- 
sicians, among  them  Liszt  and  Max 
Bruch.  Returned  to  Scotland  in  1862, 
and  after  a  short  stay  in  Edinburgh, 
went  to  London  to  study  the  violin 
under  his  father's  old  friend  and  mas- 
ter. Prosper  Sainton,  at  whose  advice 
he  competed  for  the  King's  Scholar- 
ship in  the  Royal  Academy  of  Music, 
an  honor  which  he  was  so  fortunate 
as  to  win.  He  supported  himself  by 
playing  in  an  orchestra  and  studied 
violin  under  Sainton,  harmony  and 
counterpoint  under  Lucas,  and  piano 
under  Jewson.  At  the  close  of  his 
course  at  the  Royal  Academy  in  1865 
he  returned  to  Edinburgh  and  began 
to  teach.  He  soon  became  known  as 
a  violinist  and  performer  of  chamber- 
music,  and  in  1873  became  conductor 
of  the  Scottish  Vocal  Music  Associ- 


ation  and  St.  George's  Church,  besides 
teaching  at  the  Church  of  Scotland 
Normal  College.  He  played  first  vio- 
lin in  the  Edinburgh  Classical  Cham- 
ber concerts,  at  which  were  performed 
some  of  his  own  compositions,  among 
them  his  piano  quartet  in  E  flat, 
which  is  in  a  measure  the  foundation 
of  his  success.  Mackenzie's  overture, 
Cervantes,  was  given  with  decided 
success.  Other  compositions  which 
Mackenzie  found  time  to  work  on  dur- 
ing these  busy  years  are  a  scherzo, 
and  his  beautiful  Scotch  rhapsody. 
He  played  in  the  orchestra  at  the  Bir- 
mingham Festivals  in  1864,  1867,  1870 
and  1873,  until  under  the  strain  of  so 
much  work  his  health  gave  out  and 
he  was  forced  to  rest. 

He  had  long  wished  to  visit  Italy, 
so  went  to  Florence  for  six  months, 
until  his  health  had  somewhat  recov- 
*ered.  Then  he  set  about  serious  work, 
producing  The  Bride,  and  Jason,  in 
which  his  power  of  writing  descriptive 
music  begins  to  appear.  His  next 
work,  the  opera  Colomba,  was  under- 
taken to  meet  an  offer  from  The  Carl 
Rosa  Opera  Company.  In  spite  of 
its  uninspiring  libretto  it  was  a  dis- 
tinct success.  The  Rose  of  Sharon,  a 
dramatic  oratorio  written  for  a  Nor- 
wich Festival,  is  regarded  by  some 
critics  as  his  best  work.  In  1884  he 
received  an  offer  from  Novello  to 
conduct  a  revival  of  the  series  of  Ora- 
torio concerts.  This  offer  he  subse- 
quently accepted.  While  he  was  in 
London,  at  this  time,  he  wrote  the 
Troubadour,  around  a  libretto  which 
proved  even  more  unworthy  his  music 
than  his  Colomba.  During  the  years 
1886  and  1887  he  produced  his  Story 
of  Sayid,  his  Jubilee  Ode,  at  the  Crys- 
tal Palace,  and  his  Twelfth  Night 
Overture,  and  received  the  degree  of 
Doctor  of  Music  at  St.  Andrews.  In 
1892  he  was  appointed  conductor  of 
the  Philharmonic  Society.  He  went 
back  to  Italy  in  1887,  but  at  the  death 
of  Sir  George  Macfarren  he  was 
elected  principal  of  the  Royal  Acad- 
emy of  Music,  and,  returning  to  Eng- 
land, he  at  once  identified  himself 
with  that  institution,  which  he  has 
greatly  benefited. 

His  work  in  composition  may  be 
divided  into  three  periods,  the  early 
period  to  which  belong  his  piano  quar- 
tet in  E  flat,  his  two  Scotch  rhap- 
sodies, the  overture  Cervantes,  and 
the  scherzo  for  orchestra;  The  Flor- 
entine   period,    including    The    Bride, 

Jason,  Colomba,  The  Rose  of  Sharon, 
and  his  beautiful  music  for  Keats'  La 
Belle  Dame  sans  Merci;  his  late 
period,  including  the  Troubadour,  the 
comic  opera,  His  Majesty,  Story  of 
Sayid,  Twelfth  Night  overture,  music 
for  Marmion  and  Ravenswood,  and 
Veni  Creator.  It  is  generally  con- 
ceded that  the  works  which  best  ex- 
press his  musical  genius  are  La  Belle 
Dame  sans  Merci  and  the  overture, 
Twelfth  Night. 

*  Macmillen,  Francis.    1885- 

Young  American  violinist,  who  dur- 
ing the  past  three  years  has  taken  a 
prominent  place  in  the  musical  world. 
Was  born  in  Marietta^  Ohio.  His 
mother  was  a  musician  of  ability,  and 
has  devoted  herself  to  her  son's  musi- 
cal education.  His  remarkable  talent 
was  awakened  during  his  fourth  year, 
when  he  demanded  a  violin,  and  was 
soon  in  possession  of  an  instrument 
which  cost  a  dollar  and  a  half.  About 
this  time  the  family  moved  to  Spring- 
field, Ohio,  where  their  next  door 
neighbor  was  a  violin-teacher,  Mr. 
Robert  Brain,  who  undertook  to  give 
the  little  boy  lessons.  The  Christmas 
after  his  fifth  birthday  he  played  the 
overture  from  the  Caliph  of  Bagdad 
in  public  with  great  success.  He  was 
taken  immediately  to  Chicago  and 
placed  under  the  tutelage  of  Bernard 
Listeman  of  the  Chicago  Musical  Col- 
lege, at  the  same  time  studying  piano 
under  Fraulein  Clara  Krause.  He  dis- 
played equal  talent  for  this  instru- 
ment, and  is  today  a  proficient 
performer  on  it.  When  only  seven  he 
performed  with  orchestra  at  the  old 
Schiller  Theatre  in  Chicago.  At  the 
age  of  eight  Macmillen  was  taken  to 
Germany,  where  he  became  the  pupil 
of  Herr  Karl  Markees  in  Berlin. 
From  Herr  Markees  he  passed  to 
Herr  Kalir,  remaining  in  Berlin  until 
he  was  thirteen  years  old,  then  enter- 
ing the  Brussels  Conservatory,  where 
he  became  a  pupil  of  Cesar  Thom- 
son. When  fifteen  he  won  second 
prize  with  great  distinction  at  the 
annual  concour,  and  the  following 
year  was  declared  laureate  of  the 
Conservatory  and  given  the  first  prize 
with  the  greatest  distinction,  together 
with  the  Van  Hal  cash  prize  of  five 
thousand  francs.  These  awards 
marked  the  first  time  in  the  history  of 
the  Conservatory  that  such  honors 
had  been  given  an  American.  In  the 
autumn  of  1902  he  made  his  debut  in 




the  celebrated  Vauxhall  of  Brussels, 
achieving  instant  success.  This  was 
followed  by  tours  through  Belgium 
and  Germany  and  two  tours  of  Eng- 
land, where  he  was  enthusiastically 
received.  Lady  Palmer,  wife  of  Sir 
Walter  Palmer,  M.  P.,  presented  him 
with  an  eight-thousand-dollar  Strad- 
ivarius  violin.  Macmillen's  American 
debut  occurred  at  Carnegie  Hall,  Dec. 
7,  1906,  on  which  occasion  he  was 
assisted  by  the  New  York  Symphony 
Orchestra,  Walter  Damrosch  conduct- 
ing. This  was  followed  by  a  tour  of 
ninety-eight  concerts,  which  took  him 
through  the  east  and  middle  west.  In 
the  summer  of  1907  he  returned  to 
London,  where  he  gave  three  recitals, 
assisted  by  the  Queen's  Hall  Orches- 
tra under  Henry  T.  Wood.  His  tour 
of  1907-1908  includes  one  hundred  and 
sixty  concerts  through  the  east,  south 
and  middle  west  in  the  United  States. 
Tours  of  Russia,  Germany  and  Eng- 
land have  been  planned  for  the  next 
two  years.  Although  only  twenty-two 
years  old,  Macmillen  has  played  as 
soloist  with  many  great  orchestras 
of  the  world,  including  the  Theodore 
Thomas  Orchestra  of  Chicago. 

*  Macpherson,  Charles.    1870- 

Composer  and  teacher.  Was  born 
in  Edinburgh,  where  his  father  was 
city  architect  and  engineer.  In  1879 
he  entered  St.  Paul's  Cathedral,  re- 
maining there  until  his  appointment 
as  choirmaster  at  St.  Clement's,  East- 
cheap,  in  1887.  He  studied  organ  with 
Sir  George  Martin,  and  in  1890  en- 
tered the  Royal  Academy  of  Music, 
taking  the  Charles  Lucas  prize  in  1892. 
He  is  at  present  teacher  of  counter- 
point and  harmony  in  this  institution, 
and  in  1895  he  became  suborganist 
at  St.  Paul's  Cathedral.  He  wrote 
nine  anthems;  an  arrangement  of  the 
137th  Psalm  for  orchestra  and  choir, 
and  other  church  music;  the  overture, 
Cridhe  an  Ghaidhil,  on  a  Scottish 
theme;  three  Gaelic  melodies  with 
accompaniment  of  strings  and  harp; 
a  suite,  Hallowe'en;  a  Highland  suite 
for  orchestra;  the  glee,  There  Sits 
a  Bird,  which  took  a  prize  at  the 
Bristol  Orpheus  Glee  Society  in  1893; 
a  quartet  in  E  flat  for  piano  and 
strings;  and  other  music. 

*  Macpherson,  Stewart.    1865- 

Musical  educator  and  composer; 
born  in  Liverpool,  England.  He  went 
first   to   the   City  of   London   School, 


then  winning  the  Sterndale  Bennett 
open  scholarship  he  entered  the  Royal 
Academy  of  Music  in  1880  and  studied 
composition  under  Sir  G.  A.  Mac- 
farren  and  piano  under  Walter  Mac- 
farren.  His  record  in  this  school  was 
a  brilliant  one,  for  he  won  the  Balfe 
Scholarship  in  1882,  and  the  Charles 
Lucas  medal  for  composition  in  1884, 
and  the  Potter  Exhibition  prize  in 
1885.  On  completing  his  course  in 
1887  he  was  made  professor  of  com- 
position and  harmony  and  elected  an 
associate  of  the  institution,  being  ad- 
vanced to  the  rank  of  Fellow  in  1892. 
In  1885  he  became  organist  of  the 
Immanuel  Church  of  Streatham  Com- 
mon, and  from  1885  to  1902  he  con- 
ducted the  Westminster  Orchestral 
Society,  an  institution  which  has  done 
much  good  work  in  bringing  out 
works  by  English  composers.  He 
also  conducted  the  Streatham  Choral 
Society  from  1886  to  1904.  In  1898 
he  became  an  examiner  to  the  Associ- 
ated Board  of  the  Royal  Academy  of 
Music,  in  which  position  he  has  vis- 
ited Canada,  Australia,  New  Zealand, 
Ceylon  and  South  Africa.  In  1903  he 
became  professor  of  composition  at 
the  Royal  Normal  College  for  the 
Blind,  and  was  appointed  a  member 
of  the  Board  of  Musical  Studies  at 
the  University  of  London.  He  is  also 
a  lecturer  at  the  Royal  Academy  of 
Music  and  the  Royal  College  of  Music, 
and  a  member  of  the  Philharmonic 
Society  of  London.  Among  his  theo- 
retical works  widely  known  in  Great 
Britain  are  Practical  Harmony,  which 
has  been  translated  into  German; 
Appendix  to  Practical  Harmony;  Prac- 
tical Counterpoint;  Three  Hundred 
and  Fifty  Exercises  in  Harmony; 
Counterpoint  and  Modulation;  and 
Rudiments  of  Music.  In  1907  he  was 
engaged  with  the  publication  of  Form 
in  Music  which  it  is  expected  will 
appear  early  in  1908.  Among  his  mu- 
sical compositions  may  be  mentioned 
the  fine  mass  in  D  for  soprano  solo, 
chorus  and  orchestra;  violin  concerto 
in  G  minor;  ballade  for  orchestra; 
nocturne  and  idyll  for  orchestra; 
many  songs;  piano-pieces;  and  church 

Mader  (ma'-der),  Raoul  Maria.  1856- 
Hungarian  dramatic  composer;  born 
at  Presburg.  He  studied  law  at  the 
University  of  Vienna  from  1874  to 
1878,  then  attended  the  Conservatory 
from  1879  to  1882,  studying  composi- 


tion  with  Krenn,  harmony  with 
Bruckner,  and  piano  with  Schmitt  and 
Schenner,  and  taking  first  prizes  in 
composition  and  piano,  the  great  sil- 
ver medal  in  1880,  and  the  Liszt  piano 
prize.  On  leaving  the  Conservatory 
he  took  a  position  with  the  Vienna 
Court  Opera  as  coach  of  solo  singers 
and  was  also  conductor  of  ballets  and 
minor  operas,  and  in  1895  he  became 
chorusmaster  of  the  Academy  Gesang- 
verein.  Both  these  positions  were 
given  up  in  1895,  when  he  became 
chief  conductor  of  the  Royal  Opera. 
His  compositions  are  the  ballets.  Die 
Hochzeit  in  Frisirsalon,  Die  rothen 
Schuhe,  She,  Die  Sireneninsel,  and 
Tanzblut;  a  parody  on  Mascagni's 
Cavalleria  Rusticana;  the  three-act 
comic  opera,  Die  Fliichtlinge  and  the 
three-act  operetta,  Cceur  d'ange.  He 
also  wrote  some  songs  and  choruses. 

Maelzel  (mel'-tsel),  Johann  Nepomuk. 


An  early  inventor  of  automatic 
musical  instruments.  He  was  born  at 
Ratisbon,  where  his  father  was  an 
organ-builder,  and  in  1792  he  went  to 
Vienna  as  a  music-teacher.  His  first 
mechanical  work  was  an  automaton 
composed  of  a  trumpet,  drum  and 
other  instruments,  which  played  selec- 
tions from  ^lozart  and  Haydn  and 
which  he  sold  for  three  thousand 
florins.  He  next  invented  the  pan- 
harmonicon  by  making  some  additions 
to  his  former  instrument.  This  was 
exhibited  at  Vienna  in  1804.  Then  he 
bought  Kempelen's  chessplayer  and 
took  it  and  his  own  instrument  to 
Paris.  He  sold  the  former  soon,  and 
then  made  a  trumpeter  playing  mili- 
tary marches  and  signals.  He  was 
made  Court  mechanic  in  1808.  He 
invented  an  ear-trumpet,  and  in  1812 
opened  an  Art  Cabinet  showing  his 
inventions.  He  made  a  public  chro- 
nometer which  was  an  improvement  on 
all  similar  instruments  in  existence. 
He  was  a  friend  of  Beethoven's  and 
at  one  time  started  to  England  with 
him  for  the  purpose  of  exhibiting  the 
panharmonicon.  On  the  way  Bee- 
thoven composed  a  battle-piece  for 
the  instrument  which  Maelzel  appro- 
priated as  his  own.  This  made  Bee- 
thoven so  angry  that  he  took  the  mat- 
ter to  court,  but  the  only  result  of 
the  affair  was  that  Maelzel  gave  up 
going  to  England  and  went  to  Munich 
instead  with  the  panharmonicon,  and 
also  the  battle-piece.     He  then  went 

to  Amsterdam,  where  he  bought  the 
metronome,  an  instrument  for  time- 
keeping, from  the  Dutch  inventor, 
Winkel.  In  1816  he  established  a 
metronome  factory  in  Paris,  advertis- 
ing the  instrument  as  his  own  idea. 
Winkel  objected  and  was  finally 
recognized  as  the  real  inventor  when 
it  was  too  late  to  do  much  good. 
Maelzel  then  journey  to  Munich  and 
Vienna  to  rebuy  the  chessplayer  and 
help  along  the  metronome.  He  at  last 
went  to  the  United  States  and  ex- 
hibited his  curious  inventions  there 
and  in  the  West  Indies. 

Maggini  (mad-je'-ne),  Giovanni  Paolo. 

(Magino  or  Magicino.)     1581-1632. 

Italian  fiddle-maker,  called  the  father 
of  the  violin,  because  he  was  the  first 
to  create  that  instrument  as  a  distinct 
type.  He  was  born  at  the  little  mili- 
tary town  of  Brescia.  Nothing  is 
known  of  his  early  boyhood,  but  a 
legal  document  dated  1602  proves  that 
he  was  then  the  apprentice  of  Gasparo 
da  Salo,  a  famous  old  maker  of 
doublebasses  and  violas.  In  1615  he 
had  started  his  business,  with  the  aid 
of  an  apprentice,  Jacopo  de  Lanfran- 
chini.  He  manufactured  citharas,  vio- 
loncellos, violas  and  violins,  and 
seems  to  have  been  very  successful, 
for  in  1626  he  bought  another  house, 
and  also  a  residence  and  lands  m  the 
hill  country.  The  date  of  his  death 
is  unknown,  but  it  is  very  probable 
that  Maggini  was  a  victim  of  the 
plague  in  1632.  Naturally  his  first 
work  was  much  like  that  of  his  mas- 
ter, Gasparo.  His  violins  were  of 
large  size,  resembling  small  viols, 
were  rather  roughly  made,  and  had 
the  wood  cut  across  the  grain  and  the 
dark  varnish  of  Gasparo.  After  Gas- 
paro's  death  his  pupil  began  using  the 
wood  the  straight  way  of  the  grain, 
and  cutting  the  sound-holes  more  deli- 
cately and  beveled  inwards.  He  used 
the  best  of  material,  produced  beauti- 
ful purfling,  gave  up  Gasparo's  dark 
brown  varnish  for  a  rich  orange  and 
golden  color,  and  greatly  reduced  the 
amount  of  ornamentation  which  had 
hitherto  decorated  similar  instruments 
to  the  disadvantage  of  their  tone.  His 
violoncellos  were  in  general  rather 
small.  The  tone  of  his  instrument  is 
full,  melodious,  and  plaintive.  They 
are  not  dated  and  only  about  fifty 
violins  and  half  that  number  of  cellos 
and  tenors  are  known  to  exist  at 



Magnus  (man-yoos').  Desire.    (Prop- 
erly Magnus  Deutz.)     1828-1884. 

A  Belgian  pianist,  composer  and 
teacher.  Born  at  Brussels,  and  died  at 
Paris.  He  was  a  pupil  of  Vollweiler  at 
Heidelberg,  and  also  studied  at  the 
Brussels  Conservatory,  winning  the 
first  prize  there  in  1843.  He  then 
toured  England,  Russia  and  Spain  as 
a  pianist.  He  afterwards  remained  at 
Paris  as  a  teacher,  critic  and  com- 
poser. He  wrote  La  Toledane,  a 
short  opera  presented  at  Paris;  an 
Elementary  Method  of  the  Piano;  a 
Grand  sonata;  studies  for  melody  and 
velocity;  and  drawing-room  compo- 

Magnard     (man-yar'),   Lucien    Denis 
Gabriel  Alberic.     1865- 

French  composer  of  decided  prom- 
ise, who  was  born  in  Paris.  He  stud- 
ied law  at  the  Lycee  Condorcet,  but 
later  decided  to  make  music  his  life- 
work  and  entered  the  Paris  Conserv- 
atory, where  he  studied  under  Massenet 
and  Dubois  and  took  the  harmony 
prize  in  1888.  Then  he  studied  with 
Vincent  d'Indy.  He  is  one  of  the 
most  interesting  of  modern  French 
composers,  owing  to  the  sincerity  and 
boldness  of  his  style.  He  has  writ- 
ten Hymne  a  la  Justice;  Hymne  a 
Venus;  three  symphonies,  a  chant 
Funebre  and  a  suite  in  ancient  style 
for  orchestra;  the  one-act  opera, 
Yolande,  and  the  three-act  opera, 
GuerccEur,  to  both  of  which  he  wrote 
the  librettos;  some  chamber-music, 
including  a  string  quartet;  a  trio  for 
piano  and  strings;  a  quintet  for  piano 
and  wind-instruments;  and  a  violin 

Mahler  (ma'-lcr),  Gustav.     1860- 

One  of  the  most  prominent  of  con- 
temporary operatic  conductors  and  a 
composer  of  symphonies  in  the  modern 
German  style.  Born  at  Kalischt,  Bo- 
hemia. His  early  education  was  re- 
ceived at  the  Gymnasium  at  Iglau, 
and  at  Prague,  and  in  1877  he  went 
to  Vienna,  where  he  studied  phil- 
osophy at  the  University,  and  at  the 
Conservatory  took  counterpoint  and 
composition  of  Bruckner  and  piano  of 
Epstein.  In  1880  he  began  his  career 
as  conductor,  and  for  three  years  led 
theatrical  orchestras  in  various  towns 
in  Austria,  until  his  appointment  as 
second  conductor  in  the  Court 
Theatre  at  Cassel,  where  he  remained 
two    years.       In     1885     he     went    to 


Prague  for  a  year  as  Anton  Seidl's 
successor,  and  in  1886  to  Leipsic, 
where  he  filled  the  place  of  Nikisch 
as  director  of  the  Opera  for  about  six 
months.  In  1888  he  became  conduc- 
tor of  the  Royal  Opera  at  Pesth, 
which  he  completely  reorganized  and 
greatly  improved.  He  stayed  here 
until  1891,  when  he  obtained  the  posi- 
tion of  conductor  of  the  Hamburg 
City  Theatre,  a  post  which  he  left  in 
May,  1897,  to  become  Court  conductor 
at  the  Court  Opera  in  Vienna.  The 
following  October  he  succeeded  Wil- 
helm  Jahns  as  director  of  the  Opera, 
and  Hans  Richter  as  conductor  of 
Philharmonic  concerts,  and  from  1898 
to  1900  he  also  led  the  concerts  of 
the  Gesellschaft. 

In  1892  he  conducted  German 
Opera  at  Covent  Garden  and  proved 
himself  a  masterly  director  of  Wag- 
nerian music.  He  was  engaged  to 
conduct  Grand  Opera  at  the  Metro- 
politan Opera  House  in  New  York 
during  the  season  of  1907-1908. 
Temperamentally  Mahler  is  extremely 
well  qualified  as  an  operatic  conduc- 
tor. He  rules  orchestra  and  singers 
alike  with  iron  hand.  His  firmness 
and  energy  make  for  good  discipline, 
and  his  enthusiasm  infuses  itself  into 
all  who  work  for  him.  The  perform- 
ances that  he  conducts  are  notable  for 
their    smoothness    and   artistic   unity. 

As  a  composer  Mahler  arouses 
much  discussion  in  Germany  today, 
some  critics  declaring  him  a  man  of 
distinguished  talents  and  others 
esteeming  him  mediocre.  In  operatic 
composition  he  is  represented  by 
Riibezahl  and  Die  Argonauten,  both 
unsuccessful,  and  Die  drei  Pintos,  an 
opera  which  Weber  began  to  write 
a  short  time  before  his  death,  and 
which  Mahler  arranged  from  his 
notes  and  sketches.  This  also  proved 
unsuccessful.  His  six  symphonies  are 
his  most  important  compositions.  Of 
these  the  first  to  appear  were  the  sym- 
phony in  D  major,  called  the  Titan 
Symphony,  written  in  1891,  and  the 
symphony  in  C  minor,  called  Ein 
Sommermorgentraum.  Both  of  these 
works  are  tremendous,  the  C  minor 
requiring  two  hours  for  performance, 
and  the  other  being  little  shorter; 
both  require  the  fullest  of  modern 
orchestras  with  an  unusual  number  of 
percussion  instruments  and  several 
kinds  of  bells,  and  on  the  first  hear- 
ing, despite  the  admirable  simplicity 
of  the  themes  chosen,  seem  noisy  and 



confused.  The  third  symphony,  writ- 
ten in  F,  is  called  the  Xaturleben 
Symphony.  It  is  pantheistic  in  idea. 
The  fourth  symphony,  brought  out  in 
1901;  the  fifth,  or  D  minor  symphony, 
entitled  Riesensymphonie,  and  the 
sixth,  which  appeared  in  1906,  are  his 
other  compositions  in  this  form  of 
music.  They  are  all  thoroughly  Ger- 
man in  character;  their  chief  excel- 
lence lies  in  broadness  and  simplicity 
in  theme  and  an  intense  richness  of 
treatment.  Mahler's  elaborateness  of 
orchestration  is  at  times  almost  over- 
whelming. Two  other  important 
compositions  are  the  Humoresken  for 
orchestra,  and  the  cantata.  Das 
klagende  Lied.  As  a  man  Mahler  is 
quiet  and  studious  and  most  modest 
concerning  his  own  compositions,  but 
full  of  unfailing  energy  and  enthusi- 
asm. Comparatively  a  young  man,  he 
*is  one  of  those  of  whom  the  musical 
world  expects  further  development. 

Maillart  (mi-yar),  Louis  Aime.    1817- 


Composer  for  the  stage;  best 
known  as  the  writer  of  the  opera,  Les 
Dragons  de  Villars.  He  was  born  in 
Paris,  where  at  the  Conservatory  he 
studied  the  violin  with  Guerin,  com- 
position with  Halevy,  and  harmony 
under  Leborne.  In  1841  he  obtained 
the  Grand  Prize  of  Rome  by  a  com- 
position entitled  Lionel  Foscari. 
After  this  he  spent  two  years  in 
Italy,  besides  visiting  Vienna  and 
traveling  through  Germany.  In  1847 
he  produced  his  opera,  Gastibelza, 
which  proved  very  successful.  His 
other  operas  are  Les  Dragons  de  Vil- 
lars; Lara;  and  Les  Pechers  de  Ca- 
tane;  besides  two  cantatas.  He  died 
at  Moulins,  Alliers. 

Mailly  (mi-ye),  Jean  Alphonse  Ernest. 


Great  Belgian  organist  and  pianist. 
Was  born  at  Brussels  and  educated 
at  the  Conservatory  there  as  a  pupil 
of  Girschner.  He  then  played  at  the 
Theatre  de  la  Monnaie,  was  organist 
at  St.  Joseph's  Church,  in  1861  was 
piano  professor  at  the  Conservatory, 
in  1869  became  organ  professor  there 
and  also  played  the  organ  in  the 
Carmelite  Church.  He  made  a  good 
musical  reputation  for  himself  in 
France,  England  and  Holland.  He 
has  written  sonatas;  fantasias;  tj-pe 
pieces;  music  for  the  organ  and  other 
instrumental  music. 


Mainzer     (min'-tser),     Joseph    Abbe. 


Was  born  in  Treves,  where  he  re- 
ceived his  musical  education  at  the 
Maitrise  of  Treves  Cathedral.  He  at 
first  turned  his  attention  to  engineer- 
ing, then  to  the  ministry,  being  or- 
dained priest  in  1826,  and  later  being 
made  abbe.  He  began  his  musical 
career  by  teaching  in  Treves,  writing 
his  Singschule,  or  Method,  which  was 
published  in  1831.  His  political 
beliefs  caused  him  to  leave  Germany 
and  go  to  Brussels,  where  he  wrote 
his  opera,  Triomphe  de  la  Pologne, 
and  was  musical  editor  on  L'Artiste. 
In  1834  he  went  to  Paris,  where  he 
opened  classes  and  was  on  the  staff 
of  the  Musical  Gazette.  In  1841  he 
settled  at  Manchester,  England, 
where  he  conducted  successful  classes 
in  Wilhelm's  System.  In  1842  he 
started  a  periodical  called  Mainzer's 
^lusical  Times,  which  was  the  basis 
of  the  present  Musical  Times.  He  has 
written  many  musical  treatises,  chiefly 
educational,  among  them  Methode  du 
chant  pour  les  enfants;  Bibliotheque 
elementaire  du  chant;  ficole  chorale, 
and  his  Musical  Anthenseum.  His 
two  operas,  Triomphe  de  la  Pologne, 
and   La  Jacquerie,  were  unsuccessful. 

Maitland    (mat'-land),    John    Alexan- 
der Fuller.     1856- 

Musical  writer,  critic  and  per- 
former on  harpsichord  and  piano. 
Was  born  in  London.  In  1882  he 
took  his  degree  of  M.  A.  at  Trinity 
College,  Cambridge,  and  from  1882  to 
1884  was  a  writer  on  the  Pall  Mall 
Gazette,  writing  for  the  Guardian 
from  1884  to  1889.  In  1890  he  suc- 
ceeded Heuffer  as  musical  critic  on 
The  Times.  He  was  one  of  the  con- 
tributors to  Grove's  Musical  Diction- 
ary and  edited  the  appendix.  Beside 
his  literary  work  he  has  delivered  lec- 
tures on  Music  During  the  Reign  of 
Queen  Victoria,  and  a  series  on  Pur- 
cell.  He  is  known  as  an  excellent 
piano-player,  and  appeared  at  a  series 
of  concerts  of  the  Bach  Choir.  He  is 
also  a  performer  on  the  harpsichord, 
which  instrument  he  played  at  a  series 
of  concerts  of  ancient  music.  His 
edition  of  Purcell's  King  Arthur  was 
produced  at  the  Birmingham  Musical 
Festival  in  1897.  His  contributions 
to  musical  literature  consist  of  hvj 
Life  of  Schumann  in  the  Great  Mt^ 
sician  Series;  Catalogue  of  Music  ih 
the  Fiztwilliam  Museum;  Fitzwilliam 




Virginal  Book;  Masters  of  German 
Music;  a  translation  of  Spitta's  Life 
of  John  Sebastian  Bach,  made  with 
Clara  Bell;  an  edition  of  English 
Country  Songs;  Purcell's  twelve  so- 
natas for  three  parts;  and  ode  on  St. 
Cecilia's  Day. 

Malherbe    (mal-arb),    Charles    Theo- 
dore.   1863- 

Composer  and  musical  journalist; 
born  in  Paris.  After  studying  law 
and  being  admitted  to  the  bar  he 
made  music  his  profession,  studying 
with  Massenet,  Danhauser  and 
Wormser.  He  was  secretary  to  M. 
Danhauser  during  a  tour  through 
Belgium,  Holland  and  Switzerland, 
made  with  a  view  to  investigating  the 
systems  of  teaching  music  used  in  the 
public  schools  of  those  countries. 
Returning  from  this  trip  he  settled  in 
Paris,  where  in  1896  he  was  made 
assistant  archivist  to  the  Grand 
Opera,  becoming  archivist  in  1899.  He 
edits  le  Menestrel,  writes  for  several 
other  journals  and  periodicals  and  has 
published  some  original  compositions 
and  transcriptions.  Among  his  com- 
positions are  Duo  Concertant,  a 
piano  composition  for  four  hands; 
Menuet  de  Lucette;  and  other  piano- 
pieces;  a  quickstep  for  orchestra; 
entitled  En  Route;  several  comic 
operas;  orchestral  and  chamber-music. 
He  has  written  notices  of  Ascanio 
and  Esclarmonde  and  the  Catalogue 
bibliographique  des  ceuvres  de  Doni- 
zetti. He  is  said  to  own  the  finest 
private  collection  of  musical  auto- 
graphs in  the  world. 

Malibran  (mal-i-brah),  Marie  Felicita. 

Brilliant  and  popular  opera-singer; 
born  in  Paris;  coming  from  a  family 
of  famous  musicians.  Her  father, 
Manuel  Garcia,  was  a  singer  and 
teacher,  as  was  her  brother  Manuel, 
and  her  sister,  Pauline  Viardot,  was 
an  opera-singer,  composer  and  teacher. 
At  the  age  of  three  she  went 
to  Italy,  where  at  the  age  of  five  she 
took  a  child's  part  in  Paer's  opera, 
Agnese,  which  was  being  performed 
at  Naples.  At  the  age  of  seven  she 
studied  solfeggio  with  Panseron  of 
Naples,  and  piano  with  Herold.  In 
1816  she  was  taken  back  to  Paris, 
and  in  1817  to  London,  where  she 
stayed  for  two  years  and  a  half,  learn- 
ing English  during  this  time.  When 
she  was  fifteen  years  old  her  father 


took  charge  of  her  vocal  training  and 
proved  a  very  stern  but  proficient 
teacher.  Her  voice  was  by  no  means 
a  perfect  one,  and  great  credit  is  due 
Garcia  for  the  remarkable  mastery  of 
it,  which  he  taught  her.  In  1824  she 
made  her  debut  before  a  musical  club 
which  her  father  had  just  organized. 
Two  months  later  her  father  accepted 
a  position  as  principal  tenor  in  Lon- 
don and  started  a  singing  class,  in 
which  he  continued  his  daughter's 
education.  In  1825  Malibran  made 
her  debut  in  opera.  Her  first  role 
was  that  of  Rosina  in  the  Barber  ot 
Seville,  which  she  sang  with  such 
success  that  she  was  immediately 
engaged  for  the  remainder  of  the 
season.  When  the  season  was  over 
she  came  to  America  under  the  man- 
agement of  her  father,  who  sought  to 
introduce  Italian  Opera  in  New  York. 
During  her  stay  in  this  city  she  sang 
roles  in  the  operas,  Otello,  Romeo, 
Don  Giovanni,  Tancredi,  and  Cener- 
entola;  also  in  two  operas  written  for 
her  by  her  father,  entitled  L'amante 
astuto,  and  La  Figlia  dell'  aria.  She 
was  received  with  the  greatest  en- 
thusiasm by  her  New  York  audiences, 
and  had  many  extravagant  admirers, 
among  them  P""rangois  Eugene  Mali- 
bran, a  supposedly  wealthy  and  mid- 
dle-aged merchant,  whom  she  married 
in  1826.  It  was  a  very  unhappy  mar- 
riage, and  when  her  husband  went 
into  bankruptcy,  in  1827,  she  left  him 
and  returned  to  Paris,  where  in  1828 
she  appeared  in  the  role  of  Semiram- 
ide.  Her  ability  was  at  once  recog- 
nized and  she  was  warmly  received. 
She  signed  a  contract  with  the  Italian 
Opera  Company  for  that  season,  and 
during  1829  appeared  in  London.  In 
1830  and  1831  she  sang  with  the 
Italian  Opera  Company  in  Paris,  and 
it  was  during  this  period  that  she  met 
Charles  de  Beriot,  the  violinist,  whom 
she  later  married.  She  toured  Italy 
in  1832,  in  the  spring  of  1833  sang  in 
London,  later  that  year  went  back  to 
Italy,  remaining  there  until  1835, 
when  she  sang  again  in  London,  after- 
ward making  an  extended  tour  of 
Italy.  In  1836  her  marriage  to  Mali- 
bran was  annulled  by  the  courts  at 
Paris  and  immediately  she  married 
De  Beriot,  and  went  with  him  to  a 
villa  they  had  previously  built  near 
Brussels.  In  April,  1836,  she  went  to 
London,  and  while  there  fell  from  her 
horse,  sustaining  injuries  which  after- 
wards proved  fatal.     She  returned  to 



Brussels,  then  to  Aix-la-Chapelle, 
where  with  her  husband  she  gave  two 
concerts.  In  September,  1836,  she 
went  to  England  to  sing  at  the  Man- 
chester Festival,  but  while  there  she 
was  taken  ill  of  a  fever  brought  on 
by  the  injuries  she  had  received  in 
the  accident,  and,  though  she  fulfilled 
her  engagement,  she  died  a  few  days 
later.  According  to  critics  who  heard 
her,  Malibran's  power  lay  not  alone 
in^  her  voice  but  in  her  remarkable 
originality  and  style  and  in  her  won- 
derfully magnetic  personality.  Her 
delightful  mental  powers  constituted 
half  her  charms. 

Mallinger     (mal'-ling-er),     Mathilda. 

Opera-singer  and  teacher,  who  has 
been  a  great  public  favorite  at  Berhn. 
»She  was  born  in  Agram,  in  Croatia,  and 
received  her  first  music  lessons  from 
her  father,  a  music-teacher  there.  She 
then  studied  with  Professor  Lichte- 
negger,  with  Gordigiani  and  VogI  at 
the  Prague  Conservatory,  which  she 
attended  from  1863  to  1866,  and  with 
Richard  Lewy  at  Vienna.  Lachner 
helped  her  to  get  a  position  at  Munich, 
and  she  made  her  debut  as  Norma  in 
1866.  In  1868  she  created  the  part  of 
Eva  in  Die  Meistersinger,  and  in  1869 
was  engaged  for  the  Court  Opera  at 
Berlin,  where  she  appeared  as  Elsa 
and  Norma,  and  where  her  popularity 
began.  She  married  Baron  Schimmel- 
pfennig  von  der  Oye  and  stayed  at 
Berlin  until  1882.  She  also  sang  at 
Munich,  Vienna,  St.  Petersburg  and 
Moscow.  Her  best  known  roles  are 
Fideho,  Jessonda,  Leonora,  in  Trova- 
tore;  and  Susanna.  In  1890  she  taught 
at  the  Prague  Conservatory,  and  in 
1895  became  an  instructor  at  the 
Eichelberg  Conservatory  at  Berlin. 

Malten  (mal'-ten),  Therese.    1855- 

Prussian  opera-singer,  especially 
noted  for  her  representation  of  Wag- 
nerian roles.  She  was  born  in  Inster- 
burg.  Eastern  Prussia,  and  appeared 
for  the  first  time  as  Pamina  and 
Agatha  in  Dresden.  She  continued 
singing  the  soprano  parts  in  the 
Italian  Opera  in  Dresden  for  many 
years,  and  was  finally  given  a  pension. 
In  1880  she  was  chamber-singer  to 
the  King  of  Saxony;  in  1882  sang  the 
part  of  Kundry  at  Bayreuth  to  the 
satisfaction  of  Wagner,  and  in  1884 
appeared  in  the  same  role  before  King 
Ludwig  at  Munich,  for  which  he  gave 


her  a  gold  medal  of  Arts  and  Science. 
In  1882  she  accompanied  Richter  on 
his  successful  Wagnerian  enterprise, 
and  in  1883  was  appointed  by  Wagner 
to  sing  the  part  of  Isolde  at  Bay- 
reuth, but  his  death  prevented  the  pre- 
sentation. In  1886  she  sang  in  Tristan 
and  Siegfried  at  Richter's  concerts, 
and  it  is  said  that  her  voice  was  never 
better  than  at  this  time.  She  appeared 
in  1896  at  the  Bristol  Festival.  Among 
her  roles  are  Iphigenia;  Fidelio;  Leo- 
nora in  Trovatore;  Margaret;  Gold- 
mark's  Queen  of  Sheba;  Fulvia  in 
Hofmann's  Arminus;  and  many  Wag- 
nerian roles. 

Mancinelli      (man-chi-nel'-li),     Luigi. 

One  of  the  most  popular  and  suc- 
cessful of  modern  opera  conductors. 
Was  born  at  Orvieto,  in  the  Papal 
States,  Italy.  Although  his  father 
intended  him  for  a  commercial  career, 
he  taught  him  piano  when  he  was  only 
about  six  years  old.  By  the  time 
he  was  twelve  his  love  of  music  had 
developed  to  such  an  extent  that  he 
went  to  Florence  to  study  with  Pro- 
fessor Sbolci,  a  celebrated  violoncel- 
list, and  to  take  counterpoint  and 
harmony  for  a  short  time  of  Mabelli. 
This  was  the  only  musical  schooling 
he  ever  had,  although  he  educated 
himself  further  by  careful  study  of 
the  compositions  of  the  masters. 
When  he  was  about  fifteen  years  old 
he  became  third  violoncellist  at  the 
Pergola  Theatre  in  Florence,  and  for 
about  eight  years  supported  himself 
by  playing,  teaching  and  composing 
songs.  He  then  went  to  Rome  as 
violoncellist  at  the  Apollo  Theatre, 
and,  when  this  theatre  was  unexpect- 
edly bereft  of  its  conductor  in  1875, 
he  was  given  the  position,  which  he 
filled  satisfactorily.  In  1876  he  was 
musical  director  of  the  fetes  in  honor 
of  Spontini's  Centenary  at  Jesi,  and 
revived  that  master's  Le  Vestale  with 
such  success  that  he  was  re-engaged 
as  conductor  of  the  Apollo  Theatre. 
During  this  year  his  first  composition 
appeared,  an  intermezzo  to  Pietro 
Cossa's  Messalina,  and  in  1877  he 
wrote  an  intermezzo  to  the  drama, 
Cleopatra,  by  the  same  author.  In 
1881  he  went  to  Bologna,  where  as 
director  of  the  Conservatory  he  had 
great  influence,  improving  that  insti- 
tution until  it  became  one  of  the  best 
musical  schools  of  Italy.  He  also 
held  the  position  of  conductor  at  his- 



toric  San  Petronio,  Basilica,  and  at 
the  Teatro  Comunale.  In  1884  he 
produced  his  first  opera,  Isora  di  Pro- 
venza,  which  was  well  received.  In 
1886  he  decided  to  try  his  fortune  in 
London,  where  he  gave  a  concert  of 
classical  music,  interspersed  with  a 
few  of  his  own  compositions,  which 
was  such  a  success  that  he  was  asked 
to  compose  an  oratorio  for  the  Nor- 
wich Festival,  and  wrote  Isaias,  which 
was  well  received.  In  1887  Sir  Augus- 
tus Harris  engaged  him  to  conduct 
Italian  Opera  at  Drury  Lane,  when 
he  embarked  on  that  enterprise,  which 
not  only  introduced  Mancinelli  to  the 
British  public  as  a  first-rate  conductor 
but  was  the  beginning  of  Jean  de 
Reszke's  immense  popularity  as  a 
tenor.  The  following  year  Harris 
engaged  Covent  Garden  Theatre,  and 
Mancinelli  conducted  a  company 
which  included  both  De  Reszkes, 
Melba,  Nordica  and  Lasalle.  He  was 
also  conductor  for  Harris'  Italian 
Opera  Company  in  New  York.  From 
1888  to  1895  he  was  conductor  of  the 
Royal  Theatre  at  Madrid,  returning  to 
England  every  year  for  the  season 
at  Covent  Garden,  where  he  may  still 
be  found.  His  compositions  include 
the  operas,  Isora  di  Provenza,  and 
Ero  e  Leandro;  the  oratorio,  Isaias; 
several  orchestral  suites;  and  masses. 

Mangold    (man'-golt),    Johann    Wil- 
helm.    1796-1875. 

Composer  of  operas  and  instru- 
mental music,  who  was  born  and  died 
at  Darmstadt.  He  was  the  pupil  of 
his  father,  Georg  Mangold,  on  the 
violin,  then  of  Rinck  and  Abt  Vogler 
at  the  Paris  Conservatory,  and  from 
1815  to  1818  of  Mehul  and  Cherubini. 
He  played  the  violin  in  an  orchestra 
at  the  age  of  fourteen.  When  he 
returned  to  Darmstadt  in  1819  he 
became  Court  musician  and  concert- 
master,  and  held  the  position  of  chap- 
elmaster  from  1825  until  1858,  when 
he  was  pensioned.  Among  his  works 
are  the  operas,  Merope,  the  best;  Graf 
Ory,  and  Die  vergeblische  Vorsicht; 
overtures  to  Macbeth,  and  the  Mer- 
chant of  Venice;  some  well-known 
music  for  wind-instruments;  some  for 
stringed-instruments;   and   songs. 

Mangold,  Karl.    1813-1889. 

Brother  of  Johann  Wilhelm  Man- 
gold; was  a  successful  dramatic  com- 
poser. He  was  born  at  Darmstadt, 
and  died  at  Oberstdorf,  in  Algati.   He 


was  the  pupil  of  his  father  and  his 
brother,  of  Berton  and  Bordogni  at 
the  Paris  Conservatory,  and  later  of 
Neukomm  and  Saussaye.  He  went  back 
to  Darmstadt  in  1839  and  became 
director  of  the  Musikverein,  the  Sang- 
erkranz  and  the  Cacilia,  and  from  1869 
to  1875  of  the  Mozartverein.  He  was 
a  violinist  in  the  Court  Orchestra 
from  1848  to  1869,  and  at  the  same 
time  director  of  the  Court  music.  He 
was  pensioned  in  1859.  He  wrote  sev- 
eral successful  operas,  Das  Kohler- 
madchen,  Tannhauser,  Gudrun,  and 
Dornroschen;  some  oratorios,  Abra- 
ham, Wittekind,  and  Israel  in  der 
Wiiste;  the  concert  dramas,  Frithjof, 
Hermann's  Tod,  Ein  Morgen  am 
Rhein,  and  Barbarossas  Erwachen;  a 
symphony  cantata,  Elysium;  a  dra- 
matic scene,  Das  Madchens  Klage;  a 
prize  cantata.  Die  Weisheit  des  Mirza 
Schaffy;   and   male   quartets. 

Mann,  Arthur  Henry.     1850- 

Noted  organist,  choirmaster  and 
composer;  born  at  Norwich,  England. 
Under  Dr.  Buck,  he  was  a  chorister 
in  Norwich  Cathedral.  In  1871  he  was 
made  a  Fellow  of  the  College  of 
Organists.  Received  his  degree  of 
Bachelor  of  Music  from  Oxford  in 
1874,  and  that  of  Doctor  of  Music  in 
1882.  His  experience  as  an  organist 
has  been  varied  and  began  with  the 
position  of  organist  of  St.  Peter's,  at 
Wolverhampton,  in  1870.  He  played 
at  Tottenhall  Parish  Church  in  1871, 
and  in  1875  at  Beverly  Minster.  The 
following  year  he  became  director  of 
the  choir  and  organist  at  Queen's  Col- 
lege, Cambridge,  where  his  teaching 
has  had  most  satisfactory  results.  He 
received  the  appointment  of  choirmas- 
ter at  the  Norwich  Festival  in  1902. 
He  is  well  known  as  an  admirer  of 
Handel,  and,  with  E.  Prout,  discovered 
the  original  wind-instrument  parts  of 
the  Messiah,  which  was  given  com- 
plete with  those  parts  in  1894.  Mann 
was  musical  editor  of  the  Church  of 
England  Hymnal,  and  is  a  writer  of 
church-music,  among  his  compositions 
being:  the  oratorio  Ecce  Homo;  Te 
Deum;  services;  anthems;  a  number 
of  popular  hymn  tunes;  several  suc- 
cessful hymn  books;  and  an  edition 
of  Tallis'   Forty   Part-Songs. 

*  Manney,  Charles  Tontejm.    1872- 

Composer  and  musical  editor;  born 
in  Brooklyn,  N.  Y.  He  received  his 
education  at  the  Brooklyn  Polytechnic 





Institute,  and  as  a  lad  was  soprano 
soloist  at  St.  Paul's  Church  and  at 
the  Church  of  The  Redeemer,  Brook- 
lyn. In  Brooklj'n  he  studied  harmony 
with  W.  A.  Fisher,  and,  on  removing 
to  Boston  in  1898,  he  became  the  pupil 
of  Wallace  Goodrich  and  Dr.  Percy 
Gottschius,  with  whom  he  studied 
counterpoint,  composition  and  har- 
mony. He  is  associate  editor  with 
Oliver  Ditson  in  Boston,  and  is  well 
known  as  a  composer  of  vocal  and 
piano-pieces,  having  written  canta- 
tas; songs  and  part-songs;  anthems; 
two  sacred  cantatas;  and  a  comic 
opera.  The  Duke's  Double.  He  has 
also  edited  various  collections  and 
writings.  He  is  a  member  of  a  num- 
ber of  musical  societies,  among  them 
The  Boston  Chorister  Club,  The  Har- 
vard Musical  Association  and  The 
Manuscript  Society. 

Manners,  Charles.  (Real  name  South- 
cote  Mansergh.)  1857- 
English  opera-singer  and  manager; 
born  at  London.  He  studied  in  Dub- 
lin and  London  and  then  in  Italy,  and 
in  1881  was  in  the  chorus  in  Carte's 
traveling  opera  company.  In  1882 
he  made  his  debut  as  Private  Willis 
in  lolanthe  at  the  Savoy  Theatre.  He 
then  toured  in  the  provinces  with  the 
Carl  Rosa  Company,  and  in  1890 
appeared  as  Bertram  at  Covent  Gar- 
den. In  1892  he  sang  the  part  of 
Prince  Gremin  in  Tschaikowsky's 
Eugen  Onegin  at  the  Olympic,  and 
later  appeared  as  the  King  in  Lohen- 
grin. In  1893  he  visited  America. 
From  1894  to  1896  he  was  with  Har- 
ris, in  English  and  Italian  Opera.  In 
1896  he  made  a  South  African  tour. 
He  then  organized  the  Moody-Man- 
ners Opera  Company  and  toured  the 
provinces  with  it.  In  1892  he  was 
at  Covent  Garden  and  in  1894  at 
Drury  Lane.  His  most  recent  musical 
venture  was  an  operatic  festival  at 
Sheffield,  for  the  University. 

Manners,  Fanny  Moody.     1866- 

Celebrated  English  opera-singer; 
born  at  Redruth,  in  Cornwall.  Her 
teacher  was  Mme.  Sainton-Dolby,  and 
the  young  prima  donna's  first  public 
appearance  was  made  in  1885,  when 
she  sang  the  leading  part  in  her 
teacher's  cantata,  Florimel.  In  1887 
she  made  her  operatic  debut  as  Arline 
in  The  Bohemian  Girl.  She  was 
then  with  the  Carl  Rosa  Company, 
yrith   which   she   rnade  3.  three-years' 

tour  in  the  provinces.  In  1890  she 
made  a  very  favorable  impression  as 
Mignon  and  Margaret  at  Drury  Lane, 
and  the  same  year  married  Charles 
Manners.  In  1892  she  created  in  Eng- 
lish the  part  of  Tatiana  in  Tschai- 
kowsky's opera,  Eugen  Onegin.  She 
made  many  tours  with  her  husband, 
appearing  in  many  roles,  among  them 
Elizabeth,  Elsa  and  Briinnhilde.  In 
1902  she  appeared  in  Pizzi's  Rosalda; 
in  1903  as  Militza  in  M'Alpin's  Cres- 
cent and  Cross,  and  in  1904  in  the 
Flying  Dutchman. 

Manns  (mans),  Sir  August  Friedrich. 


Orchestra  conductor,  to  whom  the 
British  public  owes  much  of  its  knowl- 
edge of  the  works  of  great  composers. 
He  was  born  at  Stolzenburg,  North 
Germany.  His  earliest  acquaintance 
with  music  began  in  a  family  quintet, 
and  his  first  instruction  was  received 
at  Torgelow,  from  the  village  musi- 
cian, with  whom  he  studied  violin, 
clarinet^  and  flute.  Later  he  was 
apprenticed  to  Urban  at  Elbing,  where 
he  played  in  the  orchestra  of  the 
Danzig  Opera  Company  when  it  came 
to  Elbing.  Finally  he  obtained  a  posi- 
tion to  play  first  clarinet  in  a  regi- 
mental band  of  Danzig,  and  at  the 
same  time  played  a  first  violin  at  the 
theatre.  When  his  band  was  sent 
to  Posen  in  1848  Manns  became 
acquainted  with  Wieprecht,  who  helped 
him  get  a  place  in  Gungl's  Orchestra 
in  Berlin,  where  later  he  became  con- 
ductor and  solo  violin  at  Kroll's 
Garden.  In  1851  he  was  appointed 
bandmaster  to  Colonel  von  Roon's 
infantry  regiment  at  Konigsberg,  in 
which  position  he  had  unusual  free- 
dom in  his  methods  of  work.  When 
the  regiment  was  moved  to  Cologne, 
its  band  enjoyed  great  reputation,  and 
in  1854  Manns  was  offered  a  position 
of  subconductor,  under  Schallehn,  of 
the  band  at  the  Crystal  Palace  in 
London.  Owing  to  trouble  with 
Schallehn  he  resigned  his  position,  and 
for  a  few  months  conducted  the  sum- 
mer concerts  at  Amsterdam,  but  in 
1855  he  was  appointed  conductor  in 
Schallehn's  place.  As  conductor  of 
the  band  at  the  Crystal  Palace,  Manns 
did  great  work.  He  transformed  the 
band  from  a  wind  band  into  a  full 
orchestra,  succeeded  in  getting  the 
concert-room  enclosed  and  roofed  in, 
and  began  his  famous  Saturday  con- 
certs, through  which  he  did  much  to 



develop  the  musical  taste  of  his  Lon- 
don public.  With  untiring  zeal  and 
energy  he  worked  to  place  before  the 
people  the  works  of  the  classical  mas- 
ters as  a  whole.  He  was  also  quick 
to  recognize  and  encourage  British 
musicians.  He  was  a  tremendous 
worker,  and,  beside  his  daily  music 
and  the  Saturday  concerts,  had  the 
arrangement  of  special  music  for  many 
extra  occasions  and  fetes.  He  re- 
placed Sir  Michael  Costa  as  con- 
ductor of  the  Handel  festivals  in  1883, 
continuing  this  work  until  1900.  In 
1896  and  1899  he  conducted  the  music 
at  the  Sheffield  Festival.  In  1903  he 
was  knighted.  During  forty-three 
years*  work  he  is  said  to  have  con- 
ducted about  twelve  thousand  con- 
certs.    He  died  in  London. 

Manzuoli   (man-tsoo-6'-le),   GiovannL 
1725-Date  of  death  unknown. 

Italian  opera-singer,  having  a  won- 
derful soprano  voice.  Was  born  in 
Florence.  He  soon  became  well 
known  in  Italy,  and  was  engaged  by 
Farinelli  to  sing  in  opera  at  Sladrid 
in  1753.  He  sang  in  London  from 
1764  to  1765,  and  was  received  with 
the  greatest  enthusiasm.  Many  operas 
were  written  for  him,  among  them 
II  Re  Pastore,  of  which  most  of  the 
rnusic  is  by  Giordini;  and  the  Olim- 
piade,  by  Dr.  Arne.  His  most  suc- 
cessful role  was  in  Ezio.  In  1771  he 
was  made  singer  to  the  court  of  the 
Grand  Duke  of  Tuscany,  and  the  same 
year  he  sang  at  Milan  in  the  Serenata 
composed  by  the  young  Mozart  in 
honor  of  the  marriage  of  Archduke 
Ferdinand.^  He  was  a  friend  of  Mo- 
zart, and  is  mentioned  in  several  of 
that  musician's  letters.  In  1788  he 
retired  from  the  stage  at  Florence. 

Mapleson,  Col.  James  Henry.     1830- 

Well-known  impresario,  who  for 
many  years  promoted  Italian  Opera 
in  England  and  America.  When 
fourteen  years  old  he  became  a  stu- 
dent at  the  Royal  Academy  of  Music, 
where  for  about  two  years  he  studied 
violin  under  Watson  and  harmony 
under  Lucas.  In  1848  he  played  among 
the  first  violins  in  the  orchestra  of 
Her  Majesty's  Theatre.  He  studied 
singing  with  Balfe,  Gardoni  and  Bel- 
leti,  and  determined  to  go  to  Italy 
for  further  vocal  instruction.  Before 
going,  however,  he  spent  several 
months  during  1849  touring  the  prov- 


inces  with  a  company  which  included 
Sontag,  Calzolani,  Belleti,  Lablache 
and  the  pianist,  Thalberg;  in  1850 
taking  out  another  company,  in  which 
were  Madame  Viardot  and  Rogers. 
Several  times  during  these  tours,  when 
his  tenors  failed  him,  Mapleson  him- 
self sang  the  tenor  parts.  During 
this  period  he  contributed  many  arti- 
cles on  musical  subjects  to  various 
London  journals  and  periodicals. 
After  some  time  in  Italy  he  returned 
to  England,  but,  contracting  a  disease 
of  the  throat,  he  had  to  undergo  an 
operation  which  ruined  his  voice.  Bit- 
terly disappointed  at  this  misfortune, 
he  opened  a  musical  agency  in  1856, 
which  enterprise  was  prospering, 
when,  in  1858,  he  undertook  the  man- 
agement of  Italian  Opera  for  E.  T. 
Smith.  Encouraged  by  a  very  suc- 
cessful first  season  in  1860,  he  made 
an  unsuccessful  attempt  to  lease  Her 
Majesty's.  In  1861,  at  the  Lyceum,  he 
introduced  the  experiment  of  giving 
English  Opera  on  alternate  nights  with 
Italian,  engaging  Charles  Halle  as  his 
English  conductor.  In  1862  he 
obtained  a  lease  of  Her  Majesty's  and 
in  1863  produced  Gounod's  Faust, 
which  had  been  indifferently  received 
on  the  Continent,  but  which,  owing  to 
a  clever  maneuver  on  his  part,  was 
well  received  by  the  British  public. 
During  a  long  career  of  varying  suc- 
cess and  failure  he  produced  many 
operas  never  before  heard  in  England 
and  introduced  many  stars  to  the 
British  public.  In  1867  Her  Majesty's 
burned  during  the  night,  but  the  enter- 
prising impresario  sent  his  agent  early 
the  next  morning  to  negotiate  a  lease 
of  Drury  Lane.  He  joined  Mr.  Gye, 
in  1869,  for  a  few  seasons,  carrying  on 
Italian  Opera  at  Drury  Lane  and  the 
National  Opera  House,  until  Her 
Majesty's  was  rebuilt  in  1877.  In  1878 
he  was  induced  to  bring  Italian  Opera 
to  New  York,  and  came  to  America 
with  a  company  of  a  hundred  and 
forty  persons,  among  whom  were 
numbered  Etelka  Gerster,  Minnie 
Hauk,  Trebelli,  Campanini,  Galassi, 
Del  Puente,  Foli  and  his  faithful  con- 
ductor, Arditi.  He  made  an  extensive 
tour,  going  as  far  west  as  St.  Louis, 
and  south  to  Washington  and  Balti- 
more. This  venture  was  so  successful 
that  Colonel  Mapleson  was  embold- 
ened to  come  back  almost  every  suc- 
ceeding season  until  1886,  with  varying 
success.  He  is  said  to  have  had  enor- 
mous receipts  at  the  musical  festivals 



at  Cincinnati  and  at  Chicago. 
Mapleson's  direction  a  large  r.t 
of  stars  have  made  their  English  and 
American  debuts,  among  them  bein^ 
Bolton,  Minnie  Hauk,  Campanini, 
Etelka  Gerster,  Christine  Nilsion, 
Patti  and  many  others.  Among  the 
operas  he  was  the  first  to  put  on  the 
boards^  may  be  mentioned  Verdi's 
Ballo  in  Maschera;  Gounod's  Faust; 
and  Bizet's  Carmen.  From  the  delight- 
ful Mapleson  Memoirs,  published  in 
1888,  Colonel  Mapleson  seems  to  have 
been  a  man  of  infinite  resource  and 
diplomacy  and  much  daring.  He  died 
in  London. 



(mr-ra).    GtrtrvtAt    SKifdMf 



re  she  sang  at  the  Handel 
.  "".Vestminster  Abbey.     Her 
■n  this  occasion  was  of 
e  that  she  was  engaged 
^el    Festival   of   the   fol- 
and  she  also  sang  in  the 
stivals  of  1787  and  1788.    In 
1791   she  was  in   Italy,  but 
rvi'.ii..t.a  to  London  in  1792  for  a  ten- 
years'  stay.    In  1802  she  went  to  Mos- 
cow.    Here   trouble   came   upon   her, 
for  her  husband  dissipated  her  earn- 
ings, and,  in  the  burning  of  Moscow, 
in   1812,  what   little  remained  to   her 
was  swept  away     In  1816  she  retired 
'"       '       '  ''^c  taught  for  some 

-^  returned  to  Lon- 


5ing  m 

Qrchestra  qoiMjHctGrj  bandmaster  and  composer; 

•taraous.  h^dm  fc  .©libliii  m'-1859-.    -He  iS  a  grandson  of  Samuel 
Germany,     her    Jitter     wr:.)--.-^?:-        -; ,  ,      «? 
was    SchJn§Ff^f,   Wft  greftt:J|-isk  novelist.  .,     ^^ , 

mediocre    abilAjJ    ari'o^cltcsti^   ieader   Herbert    tS-^6nfe'W  tft^fe 

<■  rmtv    income    by    r;i>o:r!n^,  v-.x:,u:..    ,  „    .;;,.,./,.;   ^^aer  defiaencies?' 



'"^iu    'h  "ii'ii:'-S-    -    i    •  ^'^       .       .    •  :rtit030    mi    ihe ,  bass    viol,    who 

:5e*Mpilst-itnree;©  AixmBU.  hMQrJSti^bfiefipnsy  adding 
poser- t5f'^s6tfi^  o^'tW'most''pobtiTai*i]tf^fedf<^ci5ttlR?^ing  the 

■  :i'..:>c.n:\...-i^    ■    •.■<v       •(*::^    ■■:    the   tnref'   Tower    sTrmffs    by 

operas  of  the  present  time.  ■-        /; 

ilaished  rau- 
'    a    soloist   o! 

he  made  her  debut  at   Ber- 
ing  in    an    opera    by    Hasse. 
the  Great,  after  hearing  her, 
Tier  as  Court  singer  for  life. 
'•":?  in  Berlin  she  met  the 
Mara,    with    whom    she 
-J  being  refused     '  ^^  mn- 
f    or   her  royal   patron.  ,!i 

;ra   proved    a   dissolute   a:  ! 

band.  Madam  Mara  was  oev*. 
i  all  her  life.     For  seven  j-ear 
^   at   Berlin,  going  to  Vienna   lu: 
years,  then  touring  Germany,  Rol- 
and Belgium.    In  1782  she  went 
:  aris,    where    she    received    nrreat 
ons.     In    1784  she  wpv*   tr,  "    .n- 

.    Lully  ;. 

.     of   the   c   _ _. 

He  retired  from  active  work  in  1725, 
and  died  in  1728.  Among  his  com- 
positions are  his  book,  Pieces  de 
Viole;  the  Idylle  Dramatique,  pro- 
duced at  court;  his  opera,  Alcide, 
written  with  Lully;  Ariane  et  Bacchus; 
Alcione;  Pantomime  des  Pages;  trios 
for  flute,  violin  and  viol  da  gamba; 
and  other  books  of  instrumental 

Marcello     (mar-chel'-lo),     Benedetto. 


Italian  composer  of  noble  birth; 
borii  at  Venice.  Was  a  pupil  of 
T  Tti    -.-irj    Gasparir*     -•'»—--   ...-i.- 

P98oqrnoo  bns  i^ief.fnbnfid  ,-to?oubnoD  «=! 

,  .„.,     .,,r,|   :}gorn   aril   "io  Dmo- 
.omii  i£i9^ 




at  Cincinnati  and  at  Chicago.  Under 
Mapleson's  direction  a  large  number 
of  stars  have  made  their  English  and 
American  debuts,  among  them  being 
Bolton,  Minnie  Hauk,  Campanini, 
Etelka  Gerster,  Christine  Nilsson, 
Patti  and  many  others.  Among  the 
operas  he  was  the  first  to  put  on  the 
boards^  may  be  mentioned  Verdi's 
Ballo  in  Maschera;  Gounod's  Faust; 
and  Bizet's  Carmen.  From  the  delight- 
ful Mapleson  Memoirs,  published  in 
1888,  Colonel  Mapleson  seems  to  have 
been  a  man  of  infinite  resource  and 
diplomacy  and  much  daring.  He  died 
in  London. 

Mara    (ma'-ra),    Gertrude    Elizabeth. 


Brilliant  opera  and  concert-singer, 
whose  rendition  of  Handel's  music 
alone  was  enough  to  have  made  her 
famous.  Was  born  at  Hesse  Cassel, 
Germany.  Her  father,  whose  name 
was  Schmaling,  was  a  musician  of 
mediocre  ability  who  eked  out  his 
scanty  income  by  repairing  musical 
instruments.  One  day  he  discovered 
his  little  daughter  playing  upon  a 
violin  he  was  repairing,  and  was  so 
impressed  with  her  ability  that  he 
began  to  give  her  lessons.  Her  prog- 
ress was  rapid,  and  Schmaling  took 
her  to  the  fair  at  Frankfort,  where 
she  received  much  applause.  Father 
and  daughter  then  toured  Germany 
and  Holland,  giving  concerts,  and 
when  Mara  was  ten  years  old  went 
to  London,  where  she  attracted  much 
attention  and  played  before  royalty. 
Here  she  turned  her  attention  to  sing- 
ing, it  is  said,  because  violin-playing 
was  then  not  considered  a  feminine 
accomphshment.  Her  first  singing- 
teacher  was  an  Italian  named  Para- 
disi.  Later  she  studied  at  Hiller's 
Academy  at  Leipsic  for  five  years. 
In  1771  she  made  her  debut  at  Ber- 
lin, singing  in  an  opera  by  Hasse. 
Frederick  the  Great,  after  hearing  her, 
engaged  her  as  Court  singer  for  life. 
While  singing  in  Berlin  she  met  the 
violoncellist,  Mara,  with  whom  she 
eloped,  twice  being  refused  the  con- 
sent of  her  royal  patron.  Although 
Mara  proved  a  dissolute  and  brutal 
husband,  Madam  Mara  was  devoted  to 
him  all  her  life.  For  seven  years  she 
sang  at  Berlin,  going  to  Vienna  for 
two  years,  then  touring  Germany,  Hol- 
land and  Belgium.  In  1782  she  went 
to  Paris,  where  she  received  great 
ovations.     In   1784  she  went  to  Lon- 

don,  where  she  sang  at  the  Handel 
Festival  in  Westminster  Abbey.  Her 
performance  on  this  occasion  was  of 
such  brilliance  that  she  was  engaged 
for  the  Handel  Festival  of  the  fol- 
lowing year,  and  she  also  sang  in  the 
Handel  Festivals  of  1787  and  1788.  In 
1789  and  1791  she  was  in  Italy,  but 
returned  to  London  in  1792  for  a  ten- 
years'  stay.  In  1802  she  went  to  Mos- 
cow. Here  trouble  came  upon  her, 
for  her  husband  dissipated  her  earn- 
ings, and,  in  the  burning  of  Moscow, 
in  1812,  what  little  remained  to  her 
was  swept  away.  In  1816  she  retired 
to  Revel,  where  she  taught  for  some 
years.  In  1819  she  returned  to  Lon- 
don, but,  on  attempting  to  sing  in 
concert  there,  found  that  her  voice 
was  quite  gone.  She  returned  to 
Revel,  where  she  died  in  poverty  in 
1833,  at  the  age  of  eighty-four.  Upton 
says  of  her:  "Insignificant  in  appear- 
ance, an  indifferent  actress,  her  sweet 
and  powerful  voice  her  unrivaled 
skill  in  bravura  music  more  than 
atoned  for  other  deficiencies." 

Marais  (ma-re),  Marin.    1656-1728. 

Virtuoso  on  the  bass  viol,  who 
improved  his  instrument  by  adding 
the  seventh  string  and  increasing  the 
depth  of  the  three  lower  strings  by 
twisting  or  covering  them.  He  was 
born  in  Paris,  where  he  entered  the 
choir  of  Sainte-Chapelle,  becoming 
the  pupil  of  Chaperon.  Later  he 
began  to  study  the  bass  viol  with 
Hottemann  and  Sainte-Colombe,  and 
after  six  months  with  the  latter  he 
was  dismissed  as  a  finished  musician. 
In  1685  he  became  a  soloist  of  the 
Royal  band,  and  belonged  to  the 
orchestra  of  the  Royal  Academy  of 
Music,  where  he  studied  composition 
under  Lully  and  shared  the  director- 
ship of  the  orchestra  with  Colasse. 
He  retired  from  active  work  in  1725, 
and  died  in  1728.  Among  his  com- 
positions are  his  book.  Pieces  de 
Viole;  the  Idylle  Dramatique,  pro- 
duced at  court;  his  opera,  Alcide, 
written  with  Lully;  .Ariane  et  Bacchus; 
Alcione;  Pantomime  des  Pages;  trios 
for  flute,  violin  and  viol  da  gamba; 
and  other  books  of  instrumental 

Marcello     (mar-chel'-lo),     Benedetto. 


Italian  composer  of  noble  birth; 
born  at  Venice.  Was  a  pupil  of 
Lotti    and    Gasparini,    studying   violin 




first  and  afterward  turning  his  atten- 
tion to  singing  and  composition.  In 
obedience  to  his  father  he  studied 
law,  but  when  he  returned  to  Venice, 
on  his  father's  death,  he  gave  as 
much  attention  to  music  as  to  his 
legal  practice.  He  held  important 
positions  under  the  government,  being 
a  member  of  the  Council  of  Forty  in 
1711,  and  in  1730  receiving  the  appoint- 
ment of  Provveditore  of  Pola.  Owing 
to  the  climate  of  Pola,  his  health  gave 
out,  and  he  was  made  Camerlango  at 
Brescia,  where  he  died.  He  was  made 
Cavaliere  of  the  Filarmonici  of 
Bologna  and  also  a  member  of  the 
Pastori  Arcadi  at  Rome.  The  work 
for  which  he  is  remembered  is  his 
Estro  poetico-armonico,  Parifrasti 
sopra  i  primi  50  Psalmi,  Poesia  di 
Girolamo  Giustiniani,  a  work  in  eight 
volumes,  which  appeared  in  Venice 
in  1724  to  1727.  They  are  written  for 
one,  two,  three  and  four  voices,  with 
figured  basses,  sometimes  with  two 
violins  and  violoncello  obbligati,  and 
are  considered  very  fine  work  of  the 
kind.  An  English  edition  of  them 
appeared  in  London,  1757.  Besides 
his  music,  Marcello  showed  great 
ability  as  a  poet,  and  is  said  to  have 
written  the  libretto  for  Ruggieni's 
Arato  in  Sparta.  The  manuscript  of 
many  of  his  musical  works  may  be 
found  in  various  libraries  and  muse- 
ums in  Italy.  Rossini  is  said  to  have 
used  the  whole  of  Marcello's  twenty- 
first  Psalm  in  his  music  for  the  over- 
ture of  the  Siege  of  Corinth. 

Marchand    (mar-shah),   Louis.     1669- 

Known  principally  for  his  wild, 
extravagant  life  and  his  connection 
with  Sebastian  Bach.  He  was  born 
at  Lyons,  became  organist  at  the 
Cathedral  of  Nevers  in  1684,  later  at 
Auxerre  and  at  the  Jesuit  Church  in 
Paris,  and  at  other  churches.  He 
became  very  popular  at  Paris  and 
soon  attained  to  the  position  of  organ- 
ist at  Versailles.  His  wild,  dissipated 
life  and  a  quarrel  with  the  King  ended 
in  his  exile  in  1717.  He  then  went 
to  Dresden  and  again  sought  royal 
favor.  The  King  of  Poland  wished 
to  make  him  Court  organist,  but 
his  Court  chapelmaster,  Volumier, 
strongly  disapproving,  had  Bach  come 
from  Weimar  in  order  to  outdo 
M.  Marchand.  Bach  challenged  the 
Frenchman  to  a  contest,  but  it  proved 
too  much  for  Marchand's  courage,  and 


he  failed  to  appear.  He  then  returned 
to  Paris,  as  his  sentence  of  banish- 
ment had  been  removed.  There  he 
became  organist  at  St.  Honore,  and 
was  very  popular  as  a  teacher.  He 
charged  enormous  prices  for  his  les- 
sons, but  the  money  he  received  was 
not  sufficient  to  pay  his  numerous 
expenses,  and  he  died  in  poverty  at 
Paris.  He  wrote  an  opera,  Pyramus 
and  Thisbe,  which  was  never  pro- 
duced; and  harpsichord  and  piano 
music.  His  works  on  the  whole  are 
poor  and  insignificant. 

*  Marchesi       (mar-ka'-ze),      Blanche. 

Brilliant  dramatic  soprano;  a  daugh- 
ter of  Mathilde  and  Salvatore  Mar- 
ches!. Was  born  in  Paris.  She 
received  her  early  education  in  a 
boarding-school  at  Frankfort-on-the- 
Main,  and  in  1878  was  placed  in  a 
boarding-school  in  Paris.  When  only 
eleven  years  old  she  took  violin  les- 
sons of  Arthur  Nikisch,  then  a  stu- 
dent in  the  Vienna  Conservatory,  and 
when  she  went  to  Paris  in  1878  she 
continued  with  Davela  at  the  Paris 
Conservatory,  and  later  with  Colonne. 
Her  beautiful  soprano  voice  was  care- 
fully trained  by  her  mother,  who  has 
done  such  wonderful  work  in  forming 
female  voices.  She  made  her  first 
appearance  in  Paris  at  a  matinee  musi- 
cale  of  her  mother's  school  in  1881, 
but  did  not  make  her  public  debut 
until  1895,  in  BerHn.  This  was  fol- 
lowed by  severe  illness,  and  it  was 
not  until  1896  that  Blanche  Marchesi 
appeared  in  London.  She  was  well 
received,  and  soon  made  engagements 
to  sing  in  all  the  important  English 
concerts,  appearing  before  Queen  Vic- 
toria in  1897  and  receiving  from  her 
the  Diarnond  Jubilee  Medal.  In  1898 
Marchesi  made  a  notably  successful 
tour  in  America.  In  1899  she  sang 
the  Fidelio  air  at  the  Halle  concert 
at  Manchester,  her  conductor  being 
Hans  Richter.  Impressed  by  the 
beauty  of  her  voice  and  by  her  pro- 
nounced ability,  Richter  persuaded  her 
to  appear  in  opera,  and  in  1900  she 
appeared  as  Briinnhilde  in  Die  Wal- 
kiire  at  the  Prague  Royal  Opera 
House.  After  filling  an  engagement 
at  the  Brussels  Royal  Opera  House, 
she  sang  two  seasons  in  English  Opera 
at  Covent  Garden,  appearing  in  the 
roles  of  Isolde,  Santuzza,  Briinnhilde, 
Elsa,  Elizabeth,  Gioconda,  Leonore, 
and  Carmen.    In  1904  she  sang  at  the 




Sheffield  Opera  Festival,  and  at  Leeds 
in  1906  she  received  command  to  sing 
at  the  Court  of  Brussels,  where  she 
was  most  graciously  received.  She 
then  went  to  Berlin,  after  an  absence 
of  ten  years,  and  scored  a  great  tri- 
umph. In  spite  of  much  work  in 
opera  and  concert  Madame  Blanche 
Marchesi  has  formed  a  large  class  in 
London,  and  has  developed  some  very 
fine  pupils.  She  is  exceedingly  versa- 
tile, and  is  said  to  regret  that  she 
was  unable  to  follow  a  career  as  a 
dramatic  writer,  in  which  line  of  work 
she  was  encouraged  by  Dumas,  Laube 
and  Bjdrnson. 

Marchesi,  Luigi  or  Lodovico.     1755- 

Called  Marchesini.  Handsome  and 
brilliant  opera-singer;  born  at  Milan. 
His  father  played  the  horn  at  Modena 
and  was  his  first  teacher.  He  received 
training  at  Bergamo,  as  a  sopranist, 
under  Caironi  and  Albujoi,  later  com- 
pleting his  musical  education  at  Alilan 
under  the  conductor,  Fioroni.  In  1774 
he  made  his  debut  at  Rome  in  a 
woman's  part,  and  was  immediately 
successful.  In  1775  the  Elector  of 
Bavaria  engaged  him  to  sing  at  his 
chapel,  but  this  engagement  lasted 
only  until  the  Elector's  death,  two 
years  later.  Marchesi  now  sang  in 
Milan,  Venice  and  Treviso,  and  also 
in  Munich,  receiving  the  greatest 
applause.  By  1778  he  had  obtained  a 
place  in  the  San  Carlo  Theatre,  where 
he  sang  two  seasons.  In  1780  he 
sang  in  the  principal  cities  of  Italy,  in 
Vienna  and  Berlin,  and  in  1785  went 
to  St.  Petersburg,  but,  fearing  the 
rigorous  climate,  he  went  to  London 
in  1788,  where  he  sang  until  1790.  He 
retired  from  the  stage  in  1806,  passing 
the  remainder  of  his  life  in  Milan.  He 
composed  some  songs. 

Marchesi,  Mathilde.    1826- 

Concert-singer  and  teacher;  born 
at  Frankfort-on-the-Main,  where  her 
father  was  a  wealthy  merchant.  In 
1843,  on  the  loss  of  his  fortune,  she 
began  to  study  singing  at  Vienna  with 
Nicolai,  going  to  Garcia  in  Paris  in 
1845,  and  at  the  same  time  studying 
declamation  with  Samson,  who  was 
Rachel's  teacher.  In  1849  she  settled  in 
London,  and  became  well  known  as  a 
concert-singer.  She  married  Salvatore 
Marchesi  in  1852,  and  with  him  toured 
Germany,  Holland,  Belgium,  Swit- 
zerland   and     France.      In    1854    she 


became  professor  of  singing  at  Vienna 
Conservatory,  where  she  developed 
lima  de  Murska  and  Fricci  Kraus.  In 
1861  she  went  to  Paris,  where  she 
published  her  ficole  du  Chant,  consid- 
ered by  such  masters  as  Rossini  as  a 
superior  text-book.  From  1865  to  1868 
she  taught  at  Cologne  Conservatory, 
leaving  to  continue  her  work  at  the 
Vienna  Conservatory,  where  she 
remained  until  1878,  having  as  her 
pupils  Etelka  Gerster,  Madame 
Schuch,  Proska  and  others.  She 
returned  to  Paris  in  1881,  and,  although 
advanced  in  years,  she  is  still  teaching, 
and  is  considered  the  foremost  teacher 
for  feminine  voices.  Among  her  for- 
mer pupils  are  Melba,  Calve,  Sander- 
son, Fames  and  Adams.  The  Emperor 
of  Austria  awarded  her  the  Cross  of 
Merit  of  the  first  class,  besides  which 
honor  she  has  been  decorated  by  the 
Emperor  of  Germany,  the  King  of 
Saxony  and  the  King  of  Italy.  She 
belongs  to  the  St.  Cecilia  Society  at 
Rome  and  to  the  Academy  at  Flor- 
ence. She  has  published  twenty- 
four  books  of  vocal  exercises;  a  Grand 
Practical  Method;  Exercises  filemen- 
taires;  fitudes  d'agilite  avec  par  les; 
ficole  Marchesi,  I'Art  du  Chant,  Voca- 
lises pour  une,  deux  et  trois  voix; 
besides  her  reminiscences,  Marchesi 
and  Music,  which  appeared  in  1897. 

Marchesi,  Salvatore,  Cavaliere  de  Cas- 
trone,  Marchese  della  Rojata.    1822- 

Italian  barytone  singer  and  teacher; 
born  at  Palermo.  While  studying  law 
at  Palermo  he  also  took  singing  and 
composition  of  Raimonde;  continuing 
his  musical  education  at  Milan  under 
Fontana  and  Lamperti.  Banished  from 
Italy  in  1848,  he  came  to  America, 
where  he  made  his  debut  in  the  opera, 
Ernani.  He  went  to  London,  study- 
ing there  with  Garcia,  and  appeared 
in  concert  for  many  years,  marrying 
Mile.  Graumann  in  1852  and  afterward 
appearing  in  concert  with  her  in  Ber- 
lin, Brussels,  London  and  in  Italy. 
In  1854  he  taught  singing  at  the  Con- 
servatory in  Vienna.  In  1862  he  was 
appointed  Court  singer  to  the  Duke 
of  Saxe-Weimar,  and  in  1865  he 
went  to  the  Cologne  Conservatory, 
remaining  there  until  1869.  He  was 
in  Vienna  again  from  1869  to  1881, 
and  has  since  then  stayed  in  Paris. 
He  has  written  some  beautiful  music 
for  French,  German  and  Italian  words, 
as  well  as  a  Vocal  Method,  his  twenty 
vocallizzi     elementari     e     progressivi. 



and  some  Italian  translations  of  Ger- 
man and  French  Opera  librettos.    He 
received  the  orders  of  St.  Maurice  and 
St.  Lazarus  from  the  King  of  Italy. 

Marchetti  (mar-ket'-ti),  Fillippo.  1831- 

Italian  opera-singer  and  teacher; 
born  in  the  Province  of  Macerata, 
Italy.  When  twelve  years  old  he 
began  the  study  of  music  under  Bindi, 
going  to  Naples  in  1850  to  study  at 
the  Real  Collegio  di  San  Pietro  a 
Manjello  with  Carlo,  Conti  and  Giu- 
seppe Lillo.  In  1854  he  returned  home, 
and  devoted  himself  to  writing  the 
opera.  Gentile  da  Verano,  which  was 
very  successfully  performed  at  the 
Teatro  Nazionale  at  Turin  in  1856. 
This  was  so  well  received  that  the 
manager  of  the  theatre  immediately 
secured  the  rights  to  produce  La 
Demente,  an  opera,  upon  which  he 
was  then  at  work.  This  opera  was 
performed  at  the  Teatro  Carignano  at 
Turin  in  1856  and  the  following  year 
at  Rome  and  Jesi.  Although  both 
these  operas  had  been  successful,  Mar- 
chetti could  get  no  one  to  stage  II 
Paria,  his  next  opera,  and  for  a  while 
wrote  only  ballads  and  chamber-music. 
In  1862  he  moved  to  Milan,  where  he 
met  the  poet,  Marcelliano  Marcello, 
who  prevailed  upon  him  to  write 
music  for  a  libretto  he  had  prepared 
from  Romeo  and  Juliet.  When  this 
opera  was  performed  at  Trieste  in 
1865  it  received  but  little  attention, 
but  on  its  appearance  at  Milan  two 
years  later  it  was  well  received, 
although  Gounod's  Romeo  and  Juliet 
was  running  at  La  Scala  at  that  time. 
His  best  work,  Ruy  Bias,  came  out  at 
La  Scala  in  1869  and  brought  him  wide 
recognition,  being  performed  success- 
fully at  Her  Majesty's  Theatre  under 
the  management  of  Mapleson.  Gus- 
tavo Wasa,  which  appeared  in  1875, 
and  Don  Giovanni  d'Austria,  per- 
formed in  1880,  were  neither  very 
successful,  and  after  these  Marchetti 
gave  all  his  attention  to  teaching.  In 
1881  he  became  president  of  the  Reale 
Accademia  di  Santa  Cecilia  of  Rome, 
and  in  1885  he  was  made  director  of 
the  Liceo  Musicale,  a  position  which 
he  occupied  until  his  death. 

Marchettus  (mar-ket-toos)   of  Padua. 

Early  Fourteenth  Century  theorist, 
who  made  praiseworthy  efforts  to 
enlarge  and  simplify  the  means  of 
musical      expression.        Nothing      is 


known  of  his  life  except  that  he  was 
at.  one  time  employed  by  Rainier,  the 
Prince  of  Monaco.  His  two  great 
works,  Lucidarium  in  arte  musica 
planse,  and  Pomerium  artis  musicae 
miserabilis,  may  have  been  written  at 
Verona  and  Cesena.  Manuscripts  of 
them  at  Milan  and  Rome  indicate  that 
the  works  date  from  1274  to  1283, 
but  their  dedications  lead  to  the  belief 
that  they  did  not  appear  until  later 
than  1309.  _  The  Lucidarium  is  inter- 
esting for  its  peculiar  system  of  chro- 
maticism, and  the  Pomerium  as 
showing  the  change  from  the  French 
to  the  Italian  form  of  notation.  The 
writer  realized  that  improvement  was 
necessary  in  writing  the  notes  of  small 
value,  but  his  solution  of  this  and 
other  theoretical  problems  which  he 
studied  lacked  the  simplicity  necessary 
for  success. 

Marechal  (mar-a-shal),  Charles  Henri. 

A  French  dramatic  composer;  born 
in  Paris;  studied  at  the  Paris  Con- 
servatory, where  he  took  the  Grand 
Prize  of  Rome  in  1870.  His  first 
dramatic  composition  was  the  one- 
act  comic-opera,  Les  amoureux  de 
Catherine,  which  was  produced  at  the 
Opera  Comique  in  1876.  Other  operas 
which  have  been  produced  are  Der- 
damie;  Calendal;  La  Taverne  des 
Trabans;  I'fitoile,  also  musique  de 
scene  for  Les  Rantzau;  Crime  et 
chatiment;  I'Ami  Fritz;  the  sacred 
drama,  Le  miracle  de  Naim;  orches- 
tral-pieces; sacred  music;  piano-pieces; 
and  songs. 

Marenzio  (ma-ren'-tsi-6),  Luca.    1550- 

Called  by  his  Italian  contempo- 
raries, "  il  piu  dolce  Cigno  d'ltalia;  " 
born  at  Coccaglia,  between  Brescia 
and  Bergamo.  The  date  of  his  birth 
is  generally  placed  about  1550  to  1560. 
He  was  descended  from  a  noble  fam- 
ily of  Brescia,  to  which  city  he  went 
when  very  young  to  study  music  under 
the  patronage  of  the  Archpriest 
Andrea  Mazetto.  He  became  a  choir- 
boy in  the  cathedral  and  studied  under 
Contini,  then  cathedral  organist.  He 
began  to  publish  his  madrigals  in  1581, 
in  Venice,  dedicating  the  first  book  to 
the  Duke  of  Ferrara.  He  became 
Court  musician  to  King  Sigismond  III. 
of  Poland,  who  took  great  delight  in 
him,  paying  him  one  thousand  scudi 
a  year  for  his  services,  besides  giving 




him  the  order  of  knighthood.  In  1591 
ill  health  compelled  him  to  give  up 
his  post  at  the  Court  of  Poland  and 
return  to  Rome.  He  was  warmly  wel- 
comed in  Rome,  and  in  1595  he  was 
made  cantor  to  the  Pontifical  Chapel 
by  Cardinal  Cintio  Aldobrandino,  which 
position  he  held  until  his  death, 
in  1599.  He  was  buried  with  great 
pomp  at  San  Lorenzo,  in  Lucina.  He 
perfected  the  madrigal,  in  which  form 
he  wrote  much  music,  his  principal 
works  being  nine  books  of  madrigals 
for  five  voices;  six  books  for  six 
voices,  each  book  containing  from 
thirteen  to  twenty  numbers;  five 
books  entitled  Villanelle  e  Arie  alia 
Napolitani;  a  hundred  and  thirteen 
numbers  for  three  voices  and  one  for 
four  voices;  one  book  of  twenty-one 
numbers  for  four  voices;  and  two 
books  of  four-part  motets.  Many  of 
his  madrigals  were  published  in  Eng- 
land, where  they  enjoyed  great  vogue 
for  a  while,  and  Avhere  some  of  them 
were  preserved  by  the  Madrigal  So- 

Maretzek  (ma-ret'-shek),  Max.     1821- 

Conductor  and  composer;  born  at 
Briinn,  in  Moravia.  He  graduated 
from  the  University  of  Vienna,  study- 
ing medicine  two  years,  and  under 
Kapellmeister  von  Seyfried  studying 
composition  and  theory.  As  conduc- 
tor of  an  orchestra  he  traveled  in 
Germany,  France  and  England,  where, 
in  1844,  he  assisted  Balfe  in  his  duties 
at  Her  Majesty's  Theatre.  In  1848 
he  came  to  the  United  States,  where, 
from  1849  to  1878,  he  produced  Italian 
Opera  in  New  York,  Havana  and  Mex- 
ico. Beside  his  work  as  conductor 
and  manager  of  operas,  he  has  written 
two  operas,  Hamlet,  produced  at 
Briinn  in  1843,  and  Sleepy  Hollow, 
which  came  out  in  1879;  also  some 
piano-music;  songs;  and  chamber  and 
orchestral  music. 

Mariani   (ma-ri-a'-ne),  Angelo.     1822- 


Italian  orchestra  conductor;  born 
in  Ravenna.  As  a  child  he  studied 
violin  with  Pietro  Casolini,  later  tak- 
ing up  harmony  and  composition 
under  Levrini,  a  monk  of  Rimini,  and 
studying  with  Rossini  in  the  Liceo 
Filarmonico  at  Bologna.  For  a  while 
he  appeared  as  solo  violinist  in  con- 
certs, or  played  first  violin  in  various 
orchestras,  becoming  conductor  of  the 


orchestra  at  Messina  in  1844.  Later 
he  was  conductor  at  Milan  and 
Vicenza.  In  1847  he  went  to  Copen- 
hagen as  conductor  of  the  Court  Thea- 
tre, writing  his  Requiem  Mass  for  the 
funeral  of  Christian  III.,  during  this 
engagement.  When  revolution  broke 
out  in  Italy  in  1848  he  returned  to 
his  native  land  and  joined  the  ranks 
of  the  volunteers.  At  the  close  of 
the  war  he  went  to  Constantinople, 
where  he  composed  a  hymn  dedicated 
to  the  Sultan,  also  his  two  grand 
cantatas,  La  Fidanzata  del  guerriero, 
and  Gli  Esuli,  works  which  both  rep- 
resent Italy's  struggles  for  freedom. 
In  1852  he  returned  to  Genoa,  where 
he  was  immediately  appointed  con- 
ductor of  the  Teatro  Carlo  Felice 
orchestra,  which  he  made  the  first 
in  Italy.  He  conducted  at  Venice  and 
Bologna  for  short  periods,  but  gave 
most  of  his  attention  to  the  orchestra 
at  Genoa.  At  Pesaro  in  1864  he 
directed  the  grand  fetes  arranged  in 
honor  of  Rossini.  In  1871  he  intro- 
duced Lohengrin  to  the  Italian  pubhc 
at  Bologna,  conducting  that  opera  so 
successfully  that  he  received  the 
enthusiastic  commendation  of  Wag- 
ner himself.  He  died  in  Genoa  in 
1873,  and  was  buried  at  Ravenna. 
The  city  of  Genoa  placed  a  bust  of 
him  in  the  vestibule  of  Carlo  Felice, 
gave  his  letters  to  the  town  library, 
had  the  portrait  of  Wagner,  which 
that  musician  gave  to  him,  hung  in 
the  Palazzo  Civico,  and  placed  his 
baton  in  the  Civic  Museum,  beside 
the  violin  of  Paganini.  He  was  a 
man  of  magnetic  personality,  beloved 
by  all  the  members  of  his  orchestra. 
He  published  several  collections  of 
charming  songs:  Rimembranze  del 
Bosforo;  II  Trovatore  nella  Liguria; 
Liete  e  tristi  rimembranze;  Nuovo 
Album  Vocale;  and  Alto  pezzi  vocali. 

Marin   (ma-rah),  Marie  Martin  Mar- 
cel.   1769-1830. 

French  violinist,  harpist  and  com- 
poser; born  at  Saint-Jean-de-Luz,  near 
Bayonne;  first  taught  music  by  his 
father,  Guillaume  Marcel  de  Marin, 
then  studied  the  violin  with  Nardini, 
and  the  harp  for  a  short  time  under 
Hockbunker  in  France,  though  he 
taught  himself  nearly  all  he  knew  of 
the  latter  instrument.  In  1783  he  went 
to  Italy,  and  was  made  a  member  of 
the  Society  of  Arcadians  in  Rome. 
He  then  went  to  a  military  school  at 
Versailles,    where    he    remained   until 



1786,  and  became  a  captain  of  dra- 
goons. After  a  short  military  service 
he  was  given  a  leave  of  absence,  and 
toured  Austria,  Prussia  and  Spain. 
During  the  French  Revolution  he 
went  to  England,  where  he  became 
a  successful  teacher.  He  returned  to 
France  during  the  Consulate,  and  set- 
tled at  Toulouse,  where  he  died  about 
1830.  He  was  a  thorough  musician 
both  of  the  harp  and  violin,  being 
especially  known  for  his  remarkable 
harp  compositions  of  various  kinds. 

Mario   (ma-ri-6),  Giuseppe,  Conte  di 

Candia.     1810-1883. 

Operatic  tenor,  whose  elegance  and 
personal  beauty  helped  to  make  him 
a  great  favorite  of  his  time.  Cagliari 
is  generally  conceded  to  be  his  birth- 
place, and  though  the  date  is  uncer- 
tain, being  given  as  1808,  1810  and 
1812,  there  is  reason  to  believe  1810  is 
correct.  Of  noble  family,  his  father 
had  been  a  general  in  the  Piedmontese 
Army  and  he  himself  studied  the  pro- 
fession of  arms  in  the  Military  Acad- 
emy at  Turin,  and  later  became  an 
oflficer  in  the  Piedmontese  Guard.  In 
1836  he  went  to  Paris,  where  he  was 
urged  to  go  on  the  stage.  He  hesi- 
tated, but  at  last  signed  a  contract 
with  the  manager  of  the  Opera,  where, 
in  1838,  he  appeared  in  Robert  le 
Diable.  He  had  spent  some  time 
studying  under  the  direction  of 
Michelet,  Ponchard  and  Bordogni, 
but  was  not  a  finished  singer  on  his 
first  appearance,,  and*  owed  his  imme- 
diate success  in  great  measure  to  the 
natural  beauty  of  his  voice  and  to 
his  personal  charm.  In  1839  he  sang 
in  London  in  Lucrezia  Borgia,  and 
in  1840  he  became  a  member  of  the 
Italian  Opera  Company  in  Paris. 
From  1843  to  1846  he  sang  in  Rubini's 
place  in  the  quartet  with  Tanborini, 
Lablache  and  Mme.  Grisi,  who  after- 
ward became  his  wife.  For  twenty- 
five  years  he  and  Grisi  appeared  in 
opera  in  Paris,  London  and  St.  Peters- 
burg. They  came  to  America  for  the 
season  of  1854  under  Hackett's  man- 
agement, and  opened  the  new  build- 
ing of  the  Academy  of  Music,  New 
York.,  with  a  performance  of  Norma. 
In  1867  Mario  retired  from  the  stage, 
living  for  a  while  in  Paris,  then  going 
to  Rome,  where  he  died.  Among  the 
operas  he  has  appeared  in  are  Don 
Pasquale,  Ugonotti,  La  Favorita,  and 
Don  Giovanni;  and  the  roles  of  Alma- 
vivo,   Raoul,   and   Gennaro.     He   was 

more  than  ordinarily  successful  in 
chamber-concerts,  where  his  elegance 
and  grace  appeared  to  the  best  advan- 
tage. His  voice  was  delightful,  and 
his  style  of  delivery  and  stage  pres- 
ence unusually  charming.  He  had 
also  great  taste  in  the  matter  of 
costume,  and  always  appeared  on  the 
stage  artistically  dressed. 

Markull    (mar-kool'),   Friedrich   Wil- 

helm.    1816-1887. 

Organist,  pianist,  composer  and 
critic;  was  born  at  Reichenbach,  near 
Elbing,  in  Prussia.  He  was  the  pupil 
of  his  father  and  of  Karl  Kloss  at 
Urban,  and  studied  the  organ  and 
composition  with  Friedrich  Schneider 
at  Dessau.  In  1836  he  was  made  first 
organist  of  the  Marienkirche  at  Dan- 
zig and  conductor  of  the  Gesang- 
verein.  He  was  also  critic  for  the 
Danziger  Zeitung.  In  1847  he  became 
Royal  musical  director.  He  composed 
three  operas,  Maja  und  Alpino,  or  Die 
bezauberte  Rose;  Der  Konig  von  Zion, 
and  Das  Walpurgest;  the  oratorios 
Johannes  der  Taufer,  and  Das  Ge- 
dachtniss  der  Entschlafenen;  sympho- 
nies; piano  works;  and  a  Choralbuch. 

Marmontel     (mar-mon-tel),     Antoine 

Frangois.    1816-1898. 

Piano-player  and  teacher;  was  born 
at  Clermont-Ferrand,  Puy-de-D6me. 
He  received  his  musical  education  at 
the  Paris  Conservatory,  studying 
piano  under  Zimmermann,  composi- 
tion under  Lesueur,  fugue  under 
Halevy  and  harmony  under  Dourlen. 
In  1832  he  received  first  prize  for 
piano-playing,  and  in  1848  he  was  made 
professor  of  piano  at  the  Conserva- 
tory, succeeding  Zimmermann.  In 
this  capacity  he  gained  a  wide  repu- 
tation and  was  the  master  of  such 
pupils  as  Bizet,  Th.  Dubois,  Plante, 
Wieniawski,  E.  Duvernoy  and  Thome. 
He  composed  a  great  deal  of  piano 
music,  mostly  of  an  instructive  nature, 
among  his  writings  being  a  hundred 
easy  studies,  entitled  L'Art  de 
dechiffrer,  fitudes,  ficole  de  mecan- 
isme,  fitudes  de  salon,  and  ficole 
elementaire  de  mecanisme  et  de  style; 
besides  sonatas,  serenades,  salon- 
music,  and  some  dances.  Besides  his 
compositions  he  has  written  much  on 
musical  subjects,  his  literary  work 
including  Virtuoses  contemporains; 
Les  Pianistes  celebres;  L'Art  clas- 
sique  et  moderne  du  piano;  and  a 
Petite  Grammaire  populaire. 



Marpurg     (mar'-poorkh),     Friedrich. 

Distinguished  violinist  and  pianist; 
grandson  of  Friedrich  Wilhelm  Mar- 
purg; born  at  Paderborn.  Studied 
in  Leipsic  under  Mendelssohn  and 
Hauptmann,  and  after  completing  his 
musical  education  toured  Poland, 
Prussia  and  Pomerania.  Was  appointed 
conductor  of  the  Opera  at  Konigsberg 
and  also  led  the  local  symphony  and 
chamber  concerts.  Taught  for  a 
while  as  director  at  the  Musical  Acad- 
emy and  later  at  a  school  of  his  own. 
In  1854  he  was  appointed  director  of 
the  Liedertafel  at  Mainz  and  in  1864 
Hofkapellmeister  at  Sondershausen. 
From  1866  to  1868  he  lived  at  Wies- 
baden, then  went  to  Darmstadt,  suc- 
ceeding Mangold  in  the  directorship 
of  the  Court  Orchestra.  In  1872  he 
gave  up  this  position  to  become 
Chapelmaster  at  Freiburg, 'going  to 
Laybach  in  1875,  then  returning  to 
Wiesbaden.  He  is  accredited  with 
three  operas,  Musa,  der  letzte  Maur- 
enkonig;  Agnes  von  Hohenstaufen 
and  Die  Lichtensteiner. 

Marpurg,   Friedrich   Wilhelm.      1718- 


Eminent  German  writer  on  the 
theory  of  music;  was  born  at  See- 
hausen,  in  Altmark,  Saxony.  In  1746 
he  was  appointed  secretary  to  Gen- 
eral Rothenburg  at  Paris,  where  he 
came  in  contact  with  Voltaire, 
d'Alembert  and  Rameau.  He  lived 
for  a  while  in  Berhn,  then  in  Harn- 
burg,  and  in  1763  he  settled  in  Berlin 
to  take  charge  of  the  government 
lottery.  In  1750  he  started  a  musical 
journal,  entitled  Der  Kritische  Musi- 
kus  an  der  Spree,  of  which  only  fifty 
numbers  were  issued.  In  1754  he 
began  to  publish  Historisch-Kritsche 
Beytrage  zur  aufnahne  der  Musik, 
and  from  1759  to  1764  he  published 
Kritsche  Briefe  iiber  die  Tonkunst. 
He  also  wrote  the  celebrated  Hand- 
buch  bei  dem  Generalbasse  und  der 
Composition,  which  exploits  Ra- 
meau's  system,  Anleitung  zur  Singe- 
composition,  Abhandlung  von  der 
Fuge,  six  sonatas  for  piano,  and  some 
sacred  and  secular  songs.  He  was 
preparing  a  History  of  the  Organ 
when  he  died. 

Marschner      (marsh'-ncr),     Heinrich. 


One  of  the  most  talented  disciples 
of    Weber     and     Spohr     in     German 


romantic  opera;  was  born  at  Zittau. 
In  childhood  he  studied  music  and 
made  such  rapid  progress  that  he  soon 
outgrew  the  teachers  under  whom  he 
was  placed.  He  studied  at  the  Gym- 
nasium and  sang  in  the  choir  of  the 
church  at  Bautzen.  He  went  to  Leip- 
sic to  study  law  in  1813  and  while 
there  pursued  the  study  of  music 
under  the  cantor,  Schicht.  In  1817 
he  went  to  Vienna  with  Count  Thad- 
daus  von  Amadee,  and  while  there 
met  Beethoven,  Klein  and  Kozeluch, 
who  advised  him  to  devote  himself 
to  the  composition  of  sonatas,  sym- 
phonies and  such  music.  He  taught 
music  for  a  time  in  Presburg,  and 
wrote  Der  Kyffhauserberg,  Saidor 
and  Heinrich  IV.,  which  Weber  pro- 
duced at  the  German  Opera  in 
Dresden  in  1820.  This  made  so  favor- 
able an  impression  that  in  1823 
Marschner  was  made  chapelmaster  of 
German  Opera,  acting  with  Weber. 
This  relationship  proved  a  harmoni- 
ous one,  and  in  1824  Marschner  was 
made  music-director.  He  resigned  his 
position  on  the  death  of  Weber  and 
became  chapelmaster  of  the  Leipsic 
Theatre.  The  following  year  he  pro- 
duced Der  Vampyr,  which  in  spite 
of  its  gruesome  libretto  attained  re- 
markable success,  and  was  even  pro- 
duced in  England  in  1829,  where  it 
ran  for  about  two  months  and  re- 
ceived great  applause.  In  1829  he 
produced  Der  Templer  und  die  Jiidin, 
for  which  with  his  brother-in-law, 
Wohlbriick,  he  constructed  the  libretto 
from  Scott's  Ivanhoe.  In  1831  he 
became  Court  chapelmaster  at  Han- 
over, a  post  he  held  for  twenty-eight 
years.  In  1833  he  produced  his  mas- 
terpiece, Hans  Heiling,  to  a  libretto 
by  Eduard  Devrient.  This  opera  im- 
mediately attained  the  greatest  suc- 
cess and  has  ever  since  held  a  place 
on  the  stage  in  Germany.  In  1830 
he  directed  its  performance  at  Copen- 
hagen and  made  so  good  an  impres- 
sion that  he  was  offered  the  general 
music  directorship  of  Denmark,  which 
honor  he  declined.  This  opera  proved 
his  last  important  work;  in  1859  he 
was  pensioned  and  given  the  title  of 
General  -  music  -  director;  two  years 
later  he  died  at  Hanover.  Some  of 
his  other  compositions  are  Schon  Ell; 
Der  Babu;  Adolf  von  Nassau;  La 
Fiancee  du  Fauconnier;  Le  Chateau 
au  Pied  du  Mont  Etna;  overture  to 
Le  Prince  de  Hombourg;  Austin; 
Lucretia;    Der    Holzdiet;    Incidental 




music  to  Die  Hermannsschlacht;  ten 
collections  of  songs  for  four  male 
voices;  twenty  collections  of  songs; 
romances;  German  and  Italian  airs 
for  high  voice  with  piano  accompani- 
ment; sonatas;  songs  and  fantasies. 

As  a  writer  of  the  dramatic  roman- 
tic school,  Marschner  ranks  next  to 
Weber  and  Spohr.  His  compositions 
are  smooth  and  melodious  and  have 
excellent  and  full  orchestration,  which 
shows  him  a  master  of  his  craft.  His 
ideas  show  the  influence  of  Rossini 
and  still  more  of  Weber.  His  favor- 
ite subject  seems  to  have  been  the 
ghostly  and  uncanny,  which  he  treated 
with  unusual  skill.  He  wrote  rapidly 
in  spite  of  the  elaborate  orchestration 
of  most  of  his  works  and  the  difficult 
harmony  he  _  employed.  Although 
most  of  his  minor  works  are  forgot- 
ten, Der  Vampyr,  Hans  Heiling  and 
Der  Templer  und  die  Jiidin  are 
standards  of  the  German  opera  stage 

*  Marshall,  John  Patton.    1877- 

Composer  and  musical  instructor; 
born  at  Rockfort,  Massachusetts.  In 
1894  he  went  to  Boston,  where  he 
studied  piano  with  B.  J.  Lang  and 
Edward  MacDowell,  and  composition 
under  H.  A.  Norris  and  G.  W.  Chad- 
wick.  In  1895  he  became  organist  and 
choirmaster  of  St.  John's  Church, 
Boston,  and  held  this  position  for 
ten  years.  When  the  Department  of 
Music  was  founded  at  Boston  Univer- 
sity in  1903  he  was  appointed  profes- 
sor of  h'istory  and  theory  of  music, 
and  is  still  serving  in  this  capacity, 
1908.  He  has  published  a  number  of 
songs  and  piano-pieces. 

Marsick     (mar-sik),     Martin     Pierre 

Joseph.     1848- 

Belgian  violinist,  celebrated  as  a 
quartet  and  solo-player;  born  at 
Jupille,  near  Liege.  When  eight 
years  old  he  entered  the  music-school 
at  Liege  and  after  two  years'  study, 
was  given  first  prize  in  preparatory 
classes.  In  1864  he  gained  the  gold 
medal  awarded  to  pupils  showing 
unusual  talent.  The  following  year 
he  entered  the  Brussels  Conservatory 
where  he  studied  violin  with  Leonard 
and  composition  under  Kufferath  until 
1867.  In  1868  he  went  to  Paris  for  a 
year  of  study  under  Massart  and  in 
1870,  receiving  an  allowance  from 
the  Belgian  government,  he  went  to 
Joachim.    He  made  a  successful  debut 


at  the  Concerts  Populaires  in  Paris, 
in  1873,  then  traveled  in  Belgium, 
England,  France  and  Germany  with 
good  success.  In  1877  he  organized 
a  quartet  in  Paris  which  consisted  of 
Delsart,  Remy,  Waefelghem  and  him- 
self and  which  became  noted  through- 
out Europe.  In  1892  he  received  the 
appointment  of  professor  of  violin  at 
the  Paris  Conservatory,  succeeding 
Massart.  He  toured  the  United  States 
in  1895  and  1896  and  was  well  re- 
ceived although  he  did  not  create  so 
profound  an  impression  as  have 
Ysaye,  Kubelik  and  others.  His 
technique  is  marvelous,  his  tone  light 
and  clear,  and  his  rendition  smooth 
and  graceful,  but  there  is  a  coldness 
about  his  playing  that  keeps  him  from 
making  a  deep  or  lasting  impres- 
sion. He  has  composed  three  violin 
concertos;  two  reveries;  intermezzo; 
berceuse;  tarentelle;  agitate;  romance; 
adagio  in  G  minor;  adagio  scherzando 
and  other  concert  pieces  for  his 

Marston,  George  W.     1840- 

American  composer  of  piano-music; 
born  at  Sandwich,  Massachusetts. 
When  twelve  years  old  he  began  the 
study  of  music  in  his  native  town, 
and  at  the  age  of  sixteen  was  organ- 
ist in  a  church.  Removing  to  Port- 
land, Maine,  he  studied  under  John 
W.  Tufts,  and  has  been  twice  to 
Europe  studying  at  Florence,  Lon- 
don and  Munich.  Especially  note- 
worthy is  his  music  written  for 
Heine's  Du  bist  wie  eine  blume,  and 
his  score  to  There  Was  an  Aged 
Monarch.  Among  other  well-known 
pieces  are  Ariel's  Songs,  from  The 
Tempest;  Im  Wunderschonen  Monat 
Mai;  Wen  der  Friihling  auf  die  Berge 
Steigt;  Douglas,  Tender  and  True; 
The  Boat  of  My  Lover;  and  On  the 
Water.  He  has  also  written  a  sacred 
cantata,  David;  Te  Deums  and  an- 
thems for  church  use. 

Marteau   (mar-to),  HenrL     1874- 

Noted  French  violinist;  born  at 
Rheims.  His  musical  talents  were 
early  fostered  because  his  parents 
were  both  musically  inclined,  his 
father  being  an  amateur  violinist, 
president  of  the  local  Philharmonic 
Society  and  his  mother  a  finished 
pianist  who  had  studied  with  Clara 
Schumann.  When  he  was  five  years 
old  Sivori  visited  his  parents  and 
took   the    greatest    interest   in    him, 




giving  him  a  violin  and  persuading 
his  father  to  educate  him  to  be  a 
professional  violinist.  For  three  years 
he  was  taught  by  Bunzl,  then  sent  to 
Leonard  in  Paris,  and  when  ten  years 
old  he  made  his  debut  under  Richter 
at  a  concert  of  the  Vienna  Philhar- 
monic Society,  and  afterward  played 
in  Germany  and  Switzerland.  In  1885 
Gounod  chose  him  to  play  the  violin 
obbligato  of  a  piece  he  had  written  for 
the  Joan  of  Arc  Centenary  celebration 
at  Rheims,  which  he  had  dedicated 
to  him.  At  the  Paris  Conserv- 
atory he  received  first  prize  for  violin 
playing  in  1892  and  Massenet  wrote 
a  concerto  for  him.  He  came  to 
America  first  in  1893,  when  he  was 
most  cordially  received  and  his  ren- 
dering of  Bruch's  G  minor  concerto 
was  given  twelve  recalls  at  a  Boston 
Symphony  concert  He  also  played 
in  Russia  in  1897  and  the  spfing  of 
1899.  He  returned  to  America  in 
1898  and  this  time  he  played  a  violin 
concerto  written  for  him  by  Dubois, 
with  whom  he  had  studied  composi- 
tion and  harmony  at  the  Conserv- 
atory, Marteau's  tone  is  warm  and 
brilliant  and  his  technique  is  re- 
markable for  its  sureness  and  delicacy. 
His  violin  is  a  fine  Maggini  which 
once  belonged  to  Maria  Theresa  of 
Austria,  and  was  given  by  her  to  one 
of  her  chamber  musicians  who  car- 
ried it  back  to  Belgium,  where  it  fell 
into  the  hands  of  a  collector  who  sold 
it  to  Leonard,  from  whom  Marteau 
received  it  at  that  master's  death.  It 
is  an  instrument  of  almost  viola-like 
depth  of  tone  and  is  heard  to  special 
advantage  in  the  marvelous  chords  of 
a  Bach  sonata.  In  the  field  of  com- 
position Marteau  is  represented  by  a 
cantata,  entitled  La  Voix  de  Jeanne 
d'Arc.  At  the  present  he  is  occupy- 
ing the  position  of  professor  of  vio- 
lin at  Geneva  Conservatory. 

Martin,  Sir  George  Clement.    1844- 

English  organist,  composer  and 
teacher;  born  at  Chipping-Lambourn, 
Berkshire.  When  sixteen  years  old 
he  took  up  the  study  of  music  alone, 
studied  with  J.  Pearson,  and  later 
with  Sir  John  Stainer,  organist  and 
composer  at  Magdalen  College,  Ox- 
ford, receiving  his  degree  of  Bachelor 
of  Music  in  1868,  and  becoming  Fel- 
low of  the  College  of  Organists  in 
1871.  He  was  made  organist  at  Lam- 
bourn  and  while  filling  that  position 
he  organized  a  choral  society  which 

Martin  y   Solar 

later  performed  many  standard  works. 
He  used  the  village  brass  band  in 
connection  with  his  church-music  and 
in  after  years  he  wrote  church-music 
with  a  part  for  brasses.  In  1871  he 
was  made  organist  at  Balkeith  Palace, 
and  for  a  time  played  the  organ  of 
St.  Peter's  Church  in  Edinburgh;  in 
1873  he  went  to  London  to  take 
charge  of  the  choir  in  St.  Paul's 
Cathedral,  where  Sir  John  Stainer  had 
become  organist,  and  where  in  1876 
he  became  suborganist,  succeeding 
Stainer  in  •  1888.  He  took  charge  of 
the  music  for  Queen  Victoria's  Dia- 
mond Jubilee,  and  for  his  services 
on  that  occasion  was  knighted.  In 
1883  he  received  the  degree  of  Doctor 
of  Music  from  the  Archbishop  of 
Canterbury  and  was  appointed  teacher 
of  organ  at  the  Royal  College  of 
Music,  a  position  which  he  has  since 
resigned.  Among  his  church  compo- 
sitions may  be  mentioned  Morning 
and  Evening  Communion  and  Even- 
ing Service  in  C  for  voices  and 
orchestra;  a  Magnificat  and  Nunc 
Dimittis  in  A;  Communion  Service  in 
A;  seven  anthems;  songs  and  part- 

Martin    y  Solar  (mar-ten'  e  s6-lar'), 
Vicente.     1754-1810. 

Spanish  writer  of  operas,  who  for 
a  time  rivaled  Mozart  in  popular 
favor;  born  at  Valencia.  He  sang  in 
the  choir  of  Valencia  and  later  be- 
came organist  at  Alicante.  In  1871 
he  went  to  Florence,  where  he  wrote 
the  opera,  Ifigenia  in  Aulide,  to  be 
performed  at  the  following  carnival. 
His  next  works  were  Astartea  and  the 
ballet,  La  Regina  di  Golconda.  In 
1783  he  produced  La  Donna  festig- 
giata  and  L'accorta  cameriera  at 
Turin,  and  in  1784  he  brought  out 
Ipermestra  in  Rome.  In  1785  he 
went  to  Vienna,  where  he  met  Da 
Ponte  who  wrote  the  libretto  to  his 
II  burbero  di  buon  cuore,  which  was 
so  successful  that  he  published  La 
capricciosa  coretta,  L'arbore  di  Diana 
and  Une  Cosa  Rara  very  soon  after- 
ward. Of  these  Une  Cosa  Rara 
becam^e  immensely  popular,  quite  over- 
shadowing Mozart's  Figaro  which 
came  out  about  that  time.  In  1788 
Martin  went  to  St.  Petersburg,  where 
he  became  director  of  Italian  Opera 
and  was  made  an  Imperial  councillor 
by  Emperor  Paul  I.  When  French 
Opera  was  substituted  for  Italian  in 
1801  Martin  was  deprived  of  his  posi- 



Martin  y   Solar 

tion  and  forced  to  fall  back  upon 
teaching  for  a  living.  He  died  at  St. 
Petersburg  in  1810.  Besides  his 
operas  mentioned  he  wrote  the  operas 
Gli  sposi  in  contrasto  and  Ille  de 
I'amour  and  the  cantata,  II  Sogno; 
a  mass;  Domine  salvum  fac;  some 
canons  and  twelve  Italian  ariettas. 

Martinez     (mar-te'-neth),     Marianne. 


Pianist  and  composer;  well  known 
and  esteemed  in  the  musical  circles 
of  her  time;  born  at  Vienna.  Her 
father  was  in  the  service  of  the  Pope, 
and  Metastasio,  who  lived  for  many 
years  in  their  household,  superin- 
tended her  education.  Haydn,  who 
also  lived  with  them  in  an  attic-room, 
taught  her  harpsichord  lessons  and 
Porpora  taught  her  singing.  The 
hopes  of  these  illustrious  instructors 
for  her  were  fully  realized,  for  she 
became  an  excellent  musician  and  a 
brilliant  woman.  Her  musical  even- 
ings were  frequented  by  such  men 
as  Mozart,  Hasse,  Gerbert  and  Bur- 
ney  She  devoted  much  of  her  time 
to  the  instruction  of  prominent 
young  musicians,  and  in  1773  became 
a  member  of  the  Musical  Academy 
of  Bologna.  In  1788  her  oratorio, 
Isacco,  with  words  by  Metastasio,  was 
given  with  great  success  by  the 
Tonkunstler  Societat  and  is  thought 
to  be  her  masterpiece.  Among  her 
other  works  are  two  oratorios;  a 
mass;  a  Miserere,  in  four  parts;  sev- 
eral songs  for  four  and  eight  voices; 
motets  and  other  sacred  music;  or- 
chestral symphonies  and  '  overtures; 
and  concertos  for  the  piano. 

Martini  (mar-te'-ne),  Giambattista  or 
Giovanni  Baptista.     1706-1784. 

Composer  and  writer,  whose  vast 
musical  knowledge  brought  him  world- 
wide reputation;  born  at  Bologna. 
His  father  began  his  musical  educa- 
tion by  teaching  him  violin  and  piano; 
later  he  sent  him  to  Padre  Predieri 
for  singing  and  to  Riecieri  for  coun- 
terpoint. He  entered  the  Franciscan 
Convent  at  Lago,  taking  orders  in 
1822,  and  in  1825  returning  to  Bologna, 
where  he  became  conductor  at  San 
Francisco  Church.  With  Giacomo 
Perti  he  studied  music,  and  with 
Zanotti,  the  mathematician,  he  is  said 
to  have  studied  mathematics  eagerly 
in  order  to  fit  himself  thoroughly  for 
the  work  he  wished  to  do.  He  grad- 
ually acquired   the   most  comprehen- 


sive  knowledge  of  music  and  amassed 
a  library  on  that  subject  which  out- 
classed every  other  library  in  exist- 
ence. He  became  famous  throughout 
Europe,  and  from  every  country  musi- 
cians flocked  to  him  for  advice  or 
criticism.  The  very  greatest  musi- 
cians of  his  day  considered  him  the 
final  authority  on  disputed  questions 
and  were  glad  to  accept  his  opinion. 
He  had  many  students  and  his  gentle- 
ness and  eagerness  to  serve  them 
coupled  with  his  vast  knowledge  won 
him  universal  admiration  and  affec- 
tion. Among  his  most  celebrated 
students  were  Ruttini,  Ottani  Stan- 
islao  Paolucci,  Sarti  and  his  favorite 
pupil,  Mattel,  with  whom  he  after- 
ward founded  the  Liceo  Filarmonico 
of  Bologna.  Among  the  many  famous 
personages  whose  friendship  he  en- 
joyed were  Frederick  the  Great  and 
Pope  Clement  XIV.  He  died  at 
Bologna  in  1784  and  so  great  was  the 
mourning  of  his  countrymen  and  the 
esteem  in  which  he  was  held  that  a 
medal  was  struck  in  his  honor  by 
Tadolini.  Most  of  his  magnificent 
library  was  given  to  the  Liceo  Filar- 
monico of  Bologna,  and  the  remainder 
became  the  property  of  the  Imperial 
Library  at  Vienna.  Martini  was  a 
member  of  the  two  academies  at 
Bologna  and  of  the  Arcadians  of 
Rome.  His  two  greatest  works  are 
Storia  della  Musica,  in  three  volumes; 
and  Esemplare  ossia  Saggio  a  di  con- 
trapunto,  in  two  volumes;  besides 
which  he  has  written,  Litanse; 
twelve  Sonata  d'intavolatura;  Duetta 
da  camera  a  diversi  voci,  which  were 
printed.  In  manuscript  form  we  have 
two  oratorios,  masses  a  farsetti  and 
three  intermezzi. 

Martini,  Jean  Paul  £gide.     1741-1816. 

Composer  of  stage  music,  whose 
real  surname  is  Schwartzendorf;  born 
at  Freistadt  in  Upper  Palatine.  At 
the  age  of  ten  played  the  organ  in 
the  Jesuit  Seminary  at  Neustadt,  and 
during  his  studies  at  the  University 
of  Freiburg  he  was  organist  at  the 
Franciscan  Convent.  He  went  to 
France,  and,  arriving  penniless  at 
Nancy  in  1760,  he  was  befriended  by 
the  organ-builder  Dupont,  and  saw 
the  building  of  an  organ  with  fifty 
stops  for  the  Nancy  Cathedral,  which 
inspired  his  ficole  d'Orgue  In  1864 
he  won  a  prize  offered  for  a  march 
for  a  regiment  of  Swiss  Guards.  By 
the  influence  of  the  Due  de  Choiseul 




he  was  made  officer  of  a  hussar  regi- 
ment, and  given  an  opportunity  to 
compose  much  miHtary  music.  In 
1771  he  brought  out  his  first  opera, 
L'Amoreux  de  Quinze  Ans,  which 
proved  so  successful  that  he  left  the 
army  and  became  musical  director  to 
the  Prince  de  Conde,  later  being  made 
conductor  of  the  Theatre  Feydeau,  a 
position  which  he  held  until  the 
French  Revolution.  After  the  Revo- 
lution he  Hved  in  Lyons,  returning  to 
Paris  in  1794  and  being  made  inspec- 
tor at  the  Conservatory  in  1798,  where 
he  remained  until  1802.  At  the  res- 
toration in  1814  he  became  superin- 
tendent of  Court  music  and  wrote  a 
Requiem  Mass  for  Louis  XVI.,  which 
was  performed  in  1816,  and  for  which 
he  was  decorated  with  the  Grand 
Cordon  of  the  Order  of  St.  Michael. 
His  music  was  very  brillian^  and  his 
church-music  more  dramatic  than  re- 
ligious. Among  his  writings  are  his 
operas,  L'Amoreux  de  Quinze  Ans;  Le 
Rendezvous  nocturne;  Le  Poete  sup- 
pose; La  Bataille  d'lvry  and  Le  Fer- 
mier  cru  sourd.  He  also  wrote  his 
cantata  for  the  marriage  of  Napoleon 
and  Marie  Louise;  the  charming  song, 
Plaisir  d'amour  and  much  chamber- 
music  as  well  as  some  church-music. 

*  Martucci  (mar-toot'-che),  Giuseppe. 

Composer,  concert  pianist  and  con- 
ductor; born  at  Capua,  January  6, 
1856.  His  early  musical  education 
was  directed  by  his  father  who  was 
a  trumpet-player.  When  ten  years 
old  Martucci  began  appearing  in  pub- 
lic, and  in  his  eleventh  year  scored 
a  pronounced  success  in  Naples.  He 
was  admitted  to  the  Royal  Conserv- 
atory of  Music  in  that  city  in  1867 
and  for  five  years  studied  there,  tak- 
ing counterpoint  and  composition  of 
Lauro  Rossi  and  P.  Serrao,  harmony 
of  Carlo  Casta  and  piano  of  Cesi. 
After  graduating  from  the  Conserv- 
atory he  taught  and  played  piano  in 
concerts  for  about  two  years,  and  in 
1874  competed  for  a  professorship  at 
the  University,  winning  it  from  such 
competitors  as  Bonchard,  Palumbo 
and  Simonetti,  although  he  was  then 
but  a  youth  of  eighteen.  At  about 
the  same  time  he  became  leader  of 
the  Neapolitan  Quartet  Society,  di- 
recting the  work  for  eight  years  with 
pronounced  success.  He  was  also 
conductor  of  the  Orchestral  concerts 
instituted   by   the    Prince   of   Ardore, 


and  in  that  position  did  excellent 
work,  giving  a  series  of  concerts  at 
the  Exposition  of  Turin  in  1884.  In 
1888  he  had  charge  of  all  vocal  and 
orchestral  music  performed  at  the 
Exposition  of  Bologna.  In  1902  he 
was  made  director  of  the  Royal  Con- 
servatory of  Music  at  Naples.  He  is 
now  at  the  head  of  the  Musical  Ly- 
ceum at  Bologna. 

In  1875  he  made  an  extended  tour 
through  Germany,  France  and  Eng- 
land, remaining  four  months  in  Lon- 
don, and  plaj-ing  in  Dublin.  In  1878 
he  appeared  in  Paris  and  was  heard 
by  Rubinstein,  who  expressed  the 
highest  admiration  for  him,  calling 
him  the  "  Glory  of  Italy,"  and  per- 
sonally conducting  a  performance  of 
Martucci's  Concerto  in  B  minor.  He 
greatly  broadened  musical  knowledge 
in  Italy  and  introduced  the  English 
composers  Parry  and  Stanford.  Iri 
1866  he  succeeded  Luigi  Mancinelli 
as  director  of  the  Lyceum  at  Bologna 
and  devoted  most  of  his  time  and 
energy  to  orchestral  direction.  Under 
his  baton  the  orchestral  concerts  of 
Bologna  and  Milan  developed  into  the 
highest  type  of  artistic  and  intellec- 
tual interpretation.  He  is  a  member 
of  the  Accademia  Reale  of  Naples,  as 
well  as  Cavaliere  dei  San  Maurizio  e 
San  Lazzaro  and  Commentadore  della 
Corona  d'ltalia. 

Of  Martucci's  one  hundred  and  fifty 
compositions  the  first  symphony,  in 
D  minor  is  usually  considered  the 
finest.  It  was  performed  at  the  Royal 
College  of  Music  in  London  in  1898. 
Others  are  the  piano  concerto  in  B 
flat  minor  and  an  admirable  quintet  in 
E  flat;  piano  quintet  in  C;  variations 
and  fantasia  for  two  pianos;  capriccio 
and  toccata  for  piano;  novelletta, 
scherzo  and  notturno  for  piano;  a 
concerto  for  piano  and  orchestra  in 
D  minor;  a  sonata  for  organ;  piano 
trio  in  E  flat;  sonata  for  piano  and 
cello;  six  volumes  of  compositions 
for  piano;  Pagine  Sparse  for  voice 
and  piano;  also  many  other  composi- 

*  Marty    (raar-te),    Eugene    Georges. 


Modern  French  composer  and  con- 
ductor, whose  work  shows  the  influ- 
ence of  Massenet;  born  in  Paris.  At 
the  age  of  twelve  he  entered  the 
Conservatory,  where  he  took  a  course 
in  tonality  from  Gillet,  piano  from 
Crohare,  harmony  from  Dubois,  organ 




and  counterpoint  for  Cesar  Franck, 
and  fugue  and  composition  from 
Massenet.  He  took  first  prize  in  har- 
mony and  tonality  in  1882  and  by  the 
unanimous  vote  of  the  jury  was 
awarded  the  Grand  Prize  of  Rome, 
for  his  cantata,  Edith.  Traveling  in 
Germany,  Sicily,  Tunis  and  Italy,  he 
sent  home  a  number  of  compositions 
from  Rome  and  returned  to  France  in 
1890.  He  immediately  became  general 
director  of  the  choir  in  the  Lyric 
Theatre,  and  in  this  capacity  mounted 
Samson  and  Delilah,  In  1892  he  was 
made  professor  of  classics  in  choral 
singing  at  the  National  Conservatory, 
where  he  remained  until  1904,  when 
he  was  given  the  title  of  Professor 
of  Harmony  by  the  ministry.  From 
1893  to  1896  he  directed  Grand  Opera. 
In  1899  he  was  made  leader  of  an 
orchestra  at  Barcelona,  and  from  1890 
to  1892  held  a  similar  position  at  the 
Opera  Comique  in  Paris  and  at  the 
same  time  became  chief  of  the  orches- 
tra at  the  Conservatory  concerts,  a 
position  which  he  is  still  filling.  In 
1906  he  was  made  director  of  orches- 
tra for  Classic  concerts  at  Vichy;  in 
1898  he  was  named  an  officer  of 
public  instruction,  and  in  1900  was 
made  Chevalier  of  the  Legion  of 
Honor.  His  most  important  works 
are  a  two-act  opera,  Daria;  the  three- 
act  opera,  Le  Due  de  Ferrare;  La 
Grande  Mademoiselle;  the  panto- 
mime, Lysic;  Ballade  d'hiver,  for 
orchestra;  overture  de  Balthasar; 
drarnatic  poem,  Merlin  enchante; 
Matinee  de  printemps;  orchestra 
suite;  choruses  and  songs;  and  a 
suite,  Les  Saisons. 

Marx  (marx),  Adolf  Bernhard.    1799- 

Editor,  lecturer,  musical  director  and 
composer;  born  in  Halle.  He  studied 
for  the  bar,  but  his  love  for  music 
soon  led  him  to  abandon  the  legal 
profession.  He  studied  harmony 
under  Tiirck  at  Halle,  and  in  Berlin 
he  was  a  pupil  of  Logier  and  Zelter. 
He  taught  composition,  piano  and 
singing  until  1824  when,  with  a  musi- 
cal publisher,  Schlesinger,  he  founded 
the  Berliner  allgemeine  musikalische 
Zeitung,  which  during  the  seven  years 
of  its  existence  had  much  influence 
on  the  musical  development  of  Ger- 
many, widening  the  appreciation  of 
Beethoven  and  bringing  to  the  fore 
some  little  known  works  of  Handel 
and   Bach.     In   1827  he  received  the 


degree  of  Doctor  of  Music  from  the 
University  of  Marburg,  and  in  1830 
was  appointed  professor  in  Berlin 
Conservatory,  where  he  became  direc- 
tor in  1832.  In  1850  he  was  instru- 
mental in  founding  the  Berlin  Con- 
servatory, but  in  1856  he  withdrew 
from  it  to  devote  himself  to  his 
pupils,  literary  work,  and  lectures  at 
the  University.  At  one  time  he  was 
intimate  with  Mendelssohn,  but  the 
latter's  adverse  criticism  of  his  writ- 
ings offended  him  and  the  friendship 
cooled.  His  theoretical  writings  and 
his  work  on  the  musical  paper  which 
he  edited  did  much  for  the  advance- 
ment of  music  in  Germany.  Among 
his  works  are  the  oratorios  Moses 
and  Johannes  der  Taufer;  music  for 
the  drama,  Jery  und  Biitely;  some 
cantatas;  songs;  and  choruses.  Among 
his  literary  works  are  Die  Kunst  des 
Gesangs;  Die  Lehre  von  der  musi- 
kalischen  komposition;  and  many 
other  writings  on  the  theory  of  music. 

Marxsen  (marx'-zen),  Eduard.     1806- 


German  organist  and  pianist;  was 
at  one  time  instructor  of  Brahms.  He 
was  born  at  Nieustadten,  near  Al- 
tona,  which  was  the  place  of  his 
death.  He  began  preparing  for  the 
ministry  but  gave  it  up  for  musical 
pursuits,  studying  first  with  his 
father,  whom  he  assisted  as  organist, 
then  with  Clasing  at  Hamburg  and 
later  at  Vienna  with  Bocklet  and  Sey- 
fried.  He  finally  settled  at  Hamburg, 
gave  a  successful  concert  of  his  own 
compositions  and  became  prominent 
as  a  teacher,  Brahms  and  Deppe  being 
among  his  pupils.  He  wrote  Bee- 
thoven's Schatten,  considered  his  best 
work;  orchestral  symphonies  and 
overtures;  marches;  sonatas;  and 
other  piano-music. 


(mar-tsi-als'),     Theophilus. 

Composer  of  vocal  music  and  poet; 
born  at  Brussels.  Was  a  pupil  of 
Malcolm  Leonard  Lawson  in  London 
and  later  studied  in  Paris  and  Milan. 
Since  1870  he  has  superintended  the 
musical  department  of  the  Library  of 
the  British  Museum.  He  is  a  bary- 
tone singer  of  some  merit.  Among 
his  compositions  are  the  songs  May 
Music,  The  Miller  and  the  Maid,  Ask 
Nothing  More,  When  My  Jim  Comes 
Home,  The  Garland,  Twichenham 
Ferry,  and  Three  Sailor  Boys. 



*  Marzo  (mar'-tso),  Eduardo.    1852- 

Composer,  teacher  and  at  one  time 
accompanist  of  many  of  the  great 
singers;  born  in  Naples,  Italy,  where 
he  received  his  musical  education 
under  Nacciarone,  Miceli  and  Pap- 
palardo.  He  came  to  the  United 
States  as  pianist  and  accompanist  for 
Carlotta  Patti,  and  he  also  accom- 
panied De  Murska,  Titiens,  Mario, 
Cary,  Kellogg,  Thursby,  Sauret  and 
Sarasate.  In  1878  he  settled  in  New 
York,  teaching  singing  and  playing 
the  organ,  first  at  St.  Agnes  Roman 
Catholic  Church  and  then  at  All 
Saints.  In  1881  he  was  knighted  by 
the  King  of  Italy  and  in  1892  elected 
member  of  the  Academy  of  St. 
Cecilia  in  Rome.  Of  his  compositions 
the  church-music  is  ten  masses,  four 
vespers;  over  thirty  anthems;  besides 
forty  songs,  sacred  and  secular;  also 
four  operettas;  twenty  part-songs; 
orchestra  and  piano-music  He  has 
edited  several  collections,  among  them 
Folk-sones  of  Italy;  Neapolitan 
Songs;  and  his  text-book.  The  Art  of 

Mascagni  (mas-kan'-ye),  Pietro.  1863- 

Italian  operatic  composer;  born  at 
Leghorn,  December  7,  1863.  His 
father,  a  baker,  intended  him  for  the 
law  so  he  was  compelled  to  study 
secretly,  and  took  a  course  at  the 
Instituto  Luigi  Cherubini,  studying 
piano,  counterpoint,  composition  and 
harmony,  chiefly  under  Alfredo  Sof- 
fredini.  On  learning  of  his  son's 
musical  studies  the  elder  Mascagni 
would  have  stopped  them  at  once, 
but  a  kindly  uncle  offered  to  adopt 
the  young  musician,  and  allow  him 
to  pursue  his  chosen  career.  In  this 
uncle's  house  he  wrote  his  first  musi- 
cal compositions,  a  sj'mphony  in  C 
minor  for  small  orchestra  and  a 
Kyrie  in  honor  of  Cherubini's  birth- 
day which  were  both  performed  at 
the  Instituto  Luigi  Cherubini  in  1879. 
In  1881  appeared  In  Filanda,  a  can- 
tata for  solo  voices  and  orchestra, 
which  was  favorably  mentioned  at  a 
prize  composition  arranged  by  the 
International  Exhibition  of  Music  at 
Milan.  During  this  same  year  Mas- 
cagni's  uncle  died  and  he  returned  to 
his  father,  who  had  now  become  rec- 
onciled to  his  musical  pursuits.  His 
next  effort  was  a  musical  setting  for 
a  translation  of  Schiller's  Ode  to  Joy, 
which,  performed  at  the  Teatro  degli 
Avvalorati,   attracted    the   interest   of 


Count  Florestano  de  Larderel,  a  musi- 
cal amateur,  who  offered  to  send  the 
young  composer  to  Milan  Conserv- 
atory. The  offer  was  accepted,  but 
Mascagni  derived  little  benefit  from 
study  at  this  institution,  although 
taught  by  such  professors  as  Sala- 
dino  and  Ponchielli.  He  chafed  under 
the  restraint  of  the  strict  academic 
training  for  some  time,  then  left  to 
become  conductor  to  a  traveling  opera 
troupe.  For  several  years  he  traveled 
through  Italy  as  conductor  to  various 
opera  companies,  and  in  this  way 
gained  his  knowledge  of  orchestra- 
tion. Finally  he  married  and  settled 
at  Cerignola  as  piano  teacher,  director 
of  the  Municipal  School  of  Music  and 
conductor  of  the  Musical  Society.  He 
was  rescued  from  this  life  of  insig- 
nificance and  poverty  by  his  one-act 
opera,  Cavalleria  Rusticana,  the 
libretto  of  which  is  by  Targioni-Toz- 
zetti,  after  the  book  by  Verga.  This 
opera  was  offered  to  the  publisher, 
Sonzogno,  who  awarded  it  first  prize 
in  a  competition.  The  opera  was  pro- 
duced at  the  Costanza  Theatre  in 
Rome,  in  May,  1890,  and  from  the 
night  of  its  presentation  was  pro- 
claimed a  success.  The  composer 
was  awarded  the  order  of  the  Crown 
of  Italy  by  the  King,  and  in  1895 
he  was  made  director  of  the  Conserv- 
atory at  Pesaro,  a  position  which  he 
lost  in  1903,  owing  to  protracted 
absences  from  his  post  while  leading 
a  special  orchestra  with  which  he 
traveled  through  America  and  Europe. 
His  other  operas  have  not  proved 
lasting  successes,  and  it  appears  that 
all  of  his  inventiveness  and  orig- 
inality were  exhausted  in  the  produc- 
tion of  his  first  work.  The  names 
and  dates  of  his  other  operas  in 
chronological  order  are  L'Amico 
Fritz,  1891;  I  Rantzau,  1892;  Gug- 
lielmo  Ratcliflf,  rewritten  in  1895  from 
a  work  of  his  student  days;  Silvano, 
1895;  Zanetto,  1896;  Iris,  1898;  Le 
Maschere,  produced  simultaneously 
in  seven  Italian  cities  in  1901;  Arnica, 
1905;  to  which  may  be  added  inciden- 
tal music  to  the  play  built  from  Hall 
Caine's  Eternal  City;  a  cantata  for 
the  Leopardi  centenary  in  1898,  which 
was  performed  at  Recanati,  and  a 
hymn  in  honor  of  Admiral  Dewey  in 

Masini   (ma-se'-ne),  Angelo.     1845- 

Italian    tenor;    born    at    Forli.      In 
1875,  when  Verdi   directed  the  singing 




of  his  Requiem  Mass  at  Albert  Hall, 
he  sang  in  the  quartet  with  Madame 
Waldmann,  Madame  Stolz  and  Signor 
Medini.  In  1876  he  sang  the  part  of 
Rhadames  in  Aida  when  Verdi  con- 
ducted its  first  performance  in  Paris. 
In  1879  he  was  engaged  by  Mapleson 
to  sing  in  London,  but  he  failed  to 
keep  his  contract  and  an  injunction 
was  brought  against  him_  which 
caused  him  never  to  appear  in  Eng- 
land. He  sang  in  many  cities  includ- 
ing Paris,  Madrid  and  Buenos  Ayres 
and  went  to  St.  Petersburg  where  he 
san^  Italian  Opera  for  many  seasons, 
leaving  finally  on  account  of  the 
rigorous  climate.  His  voice  was  ex- 
ceedingly high  and  rather  light  in 
quality,  though  quite  adequate  to  the 
demands  he  made  upon  it.  His  dis- 
position was  exceedingly  capricious. 

Mason,  Lowell.     1792-1872. 

Called  the  father  of  American 
church-music;  born  at  Medfield,  Mas- 
sachusetts. He  was  mostly  self-edu- 
cated, and  owes  more  to  perseverance 
and  strict  application  than  to  instruc- 
tion his  knowledge  of  music  and  the 
place  he  attained  in  the  musical 
world.  When  sixteen  he  was  leader 
of  the  choir  in  the  Medfield  Church 
and  was  also  teaching  singing.  A 
bank  clerk  in  Savannah,  Georgia,  in 
1812,  he  continued  his  musical  work, 
leading  choirs  and  teaching,  and  re- 
ceiving his  first  adequate  musical  in- 
struction from  F.  L.  Abel.  He  made 
a  collection  of  church-music  which 
came  under  the  notice  of  Dr.  Jackson 
of  the  Handel  and  Haydn  Society  of 
Boston,  who  got  it  published  by  the 
Handel  and  Haydn  Society  under  the 
title  of  the  Handel  and  Haydn  Col- 
lection of  Church  Music  Harmonized 
for  Three  or  Four  Voices.  The  im- 
mediate success  of  this  work  encour- 
aged Mason  to  come  to  Boston  in 
1826,  when  he  began  his  work  in  that 
city  by  lecturing  on  church-music. 
Through  the  influence  of  friends  he 
was  soon  made  director  of  music  at 
the  Hanover  Street,  Green  Street 
and  Park  Street  Churches,  and  had 
a  permanent  contract  with  the  Bow- 
doin  Street  Church.  In  1827  he  was 
elected  president  of  the  Handel  and 
Haydn  Society.  Although  very  suc- 
cessful Mr.  Mason  was  not  doing  the 
work  in  which  he  was  most  deeply 
interested,  or  which  he  considered 
most  important  for  the  advancement 
of     music.     He     believed     that     the 


knowledge  of  music  could  best  be 
given  to  the  American  people  through 
the  medium  of  the  public  schools, 
and  he  worked  unceasingly  to  advance 
this  idea.  He  investigated  various 
systems  of  teaching,  and  through  Mr. 
George  Wells  became  an  enthusiastic 
advocate  of  the  Pestalozzian  System, 
which  he  obtained  the  privilege  ot 
teaching  in  the  public  schools  of  Bos- 
ton in  1828.  In  1832,  in  conjunction 
with  Mr.  Wells,  he  founded  the  Bos- 
ton Academy  of  Music.  In  1837  and 
again  in  1852  he  went  abroad  to 
study  music  and  methods  of  teaching; 
in  1853  publishing  his  interesting 
Musical  Letters  from  Abroad.  It  was 
on  the  trip  in  1852  that  he  purchased 
the  valuable  musical  library  of  the 
organist,  Rinck  of  Darmstadt,  which, 
with  his  OAvn  magnificent  collection, 
he  gave  to  Yale  University  after  his 
death.  By  1840  he  had  begun  to  hold 
his  famous  teachers'  conventions,  an 
idea  which  proved  so  helpful  that 
teachers  from  far-away  states  often 
came.  In  1851  he  moved  to  New 
York,  continuing  to  teach  and  in  1855 
receiving  the  degree  of  Doctor  of 
Music  from  the  University  of  New 
York.  Several  years  before  his  death 
he  retired  to  Orange,  New  Jersey, 
where  he  died  in  1872.  Although 
Lowell  Mason  does  not  come  in  the 
first  rank  of  musical  composers,  his 
zeal  and  ability  as  a  teacher  and  his 
energy  in  advancing  the  knowledge 
of  music  have  won  him  the  highest 
regard  from  his  countrymen.  His 
compositions,  in  the  main  correct  and 
true  to  musical  principles,  are  lacking 
in  originality  and  power.  Among 
them  are  The  Juvenile  Psalmist; 
Sabbath  School  Songs;  The  Psaltery; 
The  Boston  Anthem  Book;  The  Bos- 
ton Academy  Collection  of  Church 
Music;  The  Juvenile  Lyre;  and  The 
Song  Garden. 

Mason,    Luther    Whiting.      1828-1896. 

The  man  who  introduced  western 
music  into  the  public  schools  of 
Japan.  He  was  born  at  Turner, 
Maine,  and  was  mostly  self-educated. 
In  1853  he  became  superintendent  of 
music  in  the  public  schools  of 
Louisville,  Kentucky,  and  later  served 
in  the  same  capacity  in  Cincinnati, 
Ohio.  In  1865  he  reformed  the  musi- 
cal instruction  in  the  public  schools 
of  Boston,  and  in  1879  he  was  invited 
by  the  Japanese  Government  to  super- 
intend  the   music   in   the  schools   of 



Japan.  He  was  successful,  and  it  is 
said  that  within  ten  minutes  after  the 
beginning  of  his  first  lesson  his  Jap- 
anese pupils  were  singing  as  American 
children  sing.  Today  public  school 
music  in  Japan  is  known  as  "  Mason- 
Song."  He  was  shown  great  favor  at 
Court,  and  with  the  Imperial  Orches- 
tra he  worked  to  arrange  the  Japanese 
musical  repertory.  He  experienced 
some  difficulty  in  this  at  first  because 
the  Japanese  scale  is  composed  of  five 
notes  instead  of  seven,  but  when  he 
explained  our  system,  and  aided  by  a 
Japanese  professor  of  physics,  related 
it  to  the  colors  of  the  spectrum,  the 
Japanese  voted  to  change  their  system, 
and  a  royal  edict  to  that  effect  was 
given  out.  Mason  helped  the  Japan- 
ese musicians  restring  and  retune 
their  instruments,  organized  a  string 
and  wind-instrument  orchestra  and 
gave  successful  concerts.  Af^er  three 
years'  work  in  Japan  he  was  recalled 
to  America,  and  later  went  to  Ger- 
many, where  he  perfected  his  Na- 
tional Music  Course.  His  great 
success  as  a  teacher  in  Europe,  Asia 
and  America  lies  in  the  simplicity  and 
clearness  of  his  methods  and  in  his 
enthusiasm  and  power  of  inspiring  his 
students.    He  died  in  Buckfield,  Maine. 

Mason,  William.     1829- 

Son  of  Lowell  Mason;  teacher  and 
composer  of  church-music;  born  in 
Boston,  Mass.  He  began  the  study 
of  music  under  his  father's  careful 
direction,  went  to  Newport,  Rhode 
Island,  in  1843  to  study  under  the 
Rev.  T.  T.  Thayer,  and  about  1846 
began  to  take  piano  lessons  of 
Schmidt.  At  the  age  of  seventeen  he 
had  so  far  advanced  as  to  play  the 
piano  in  a  concert  of  the  Academy  of 
Music.  When  he  was  twenty  years 
old  he  went  to  Europe.  While  cross- 
ing the  ocean  Mason  met  a  musical 
publisher  named  Schuberth,  who  was 
personally  acquainted  with  Liszt,  and 
who  warmly  recommended  him  as  a 
teacher.  He  had  intended  going  to 
Moscheles  in  Leipsic,  but  owing  to 
the  insurrection  raging  at  that  time 
he  stayed  awhile  in  Paris,  then  went 
to  visit  Schuberth.  At  Schuberth's 
suggestion  he  dedicated  to  Liszt  one 
of  his  compositions  entitled  Les  Perles 
de  Rpsee,  at  the  same  time  asking  per- 
mission to  become  his  student.  Liszt 
accepted  the  dedication,  granted  the 
desired  permission  and  invited  Mason 
to  come   to   Weimar   to   the   Goethe 

Festival,  but  Mason  misread  his  letter, 
construing  it  into  a  refusal  to  take 
him  as  a  pupil,  and  later  on  visiting 
Weimar  took  a  casual  speech  of 
Liszt's  as  corroboration  of  this  re- 
fusal. His  mistake  was  not  cleared  up 
until  almost  four  years  later.  Conse- 
quently he  went  to  Leipsic  to  study 
harmony  with  Moritz  Hauptmann, 
then  cantor  of  the  Thomasschule,  and 
instrumentation  with  Hauptmann's 
pupil,  Ernst  Richter.  In  1850  he  went 
to  Dreyschock  in  Prague.  In  1852 
Albert  Wagner  gave  him  a  letter  of 
introduction  to  his  brother,  Richard 
Wagner,  at  Bayreuth.  Mason  pre- 
sented the  letter  and  was  most  cor- 
dially received  by  the  master.  On 
parting  from  Wagner  he  requested 
his  autograph  and  received  from  him 
the  dragon  theme  from  the  Ring  of 
the  Nibelung,  which  was  not  heard 
by  the  public  until  twenty-five  years 
later.  In  1853  Sir  Julius  Benedict 
invited  Mason  to  London  to  play  at 
a  concert  of  the  Harmonic  Union 
Society  given  in  Exeter  Hall.  In  his 
Memoirs  of  a  Musical  Life,  Mason 
records  that  his  choice  of  music  for 
this  occasion  was  Weber's  Concert- 
stuck.  On  his  return  from  England 
he  went  to  Weimar  to  see  Liszt,  and 
this  time  his  former  misunderstanding 
was  straightened  out  and  he  was  cor- 
dially welcomed  by  the  great  com- 

He  returned  to  America  in  1855  and 
shortly  afterward  was  married  to  the 
daughter  of  George  Webb,  with  whom 
his  father  had  founded  the  Boston 
Academy  of  Music.  He  made  a  suc- 
cessful concert  tour,  the  first  ex- 
clusivel}'  piano  tour  ever  undertaken 
in  the  United  States,  during  which 
he  introduced  Liszt's  Twelfth  Rhap- 
sody and  Chopin's  Fantasie  Im- 
promptu to  American  audiences.  Mr. 
Mason  found  concert  tour  work  too 
great  a  tax,  so  he  abandoned  it  and 
took  up  teaching  in  New  York.  In 
this  line  of  work  he  introduced  several 
innovations,  such  as  the  application 
of  rhythmic  forms  to  finger  exercises. 
He  introduced  Schumann  to  his 
students,  and  also  played  Chopin  and 
Brahms.  With  the  help  of  the  orches- 
tra conductor,  Carl  Bergmann,  he 
organized  a  quartet  to  give  matinee 
chamber  concerts,  which  became 
famous  as  the  Mason  and  Thomas 
Quartet.  The  members  were  Theo- 
dore Thomas,  first  violin;  Joseph 
Mosenthal,     second     violin;     George 




Matzka,  viola;  Bergmann,  violon- 
cellist, and  after  the  first  year  Bergner 
as  cellist  in  Bergmann's  place.  At  a 
musical  festival  in  New  York  in 
1873  Mason  played  a  triple  concerto 
with  Mills  and  Anton  Rubinstein.  In 
1872  he  was  given  the  degree  of  Doc- 
tor of  Music  by  Yale  University.  On 
.his  seventieth  birthday  an  assembly 
of  his  pupils  met  and  presented  him 
with  a  loving-cup.  For  many  years 
he  has  lived  in  Orange,  New  Jersey. 

William  Mason  is  regarded  as  the 
first  American  piano  virtuoso,  a  man 
of  brilliant  technical  skill  and  of  great 
taste  and  refinement  of  interpreta- 
tion. As  a  teacher  he  is  second  to 
none,  and  has  formed  some  of  our 
most  successful  American  pianists, 
among  them  William  Sherwood  and 
E.  M.  Bowman.  His  books  on  peda- 
gogy for  music  are  Touch  and 
Technic,  a  Method  for  Piano;  A 
System  for  Beginners;  and  Mason's 
Piano  Technics.  His  compositions 
show  the  influence  of  the  classics  in 
form  and  ideas  and  give  evidence  of 
sound  training.  Some  of  them  are 
Amitie  pour  moi;  Silver  Spring; 
Ballade  in  B;  Monody  in  B  flat; 
Spring  Dawn;  Mazurka  Caprice; 
Toujours,  a  waltz;  Reverie  Poetique; 
Berceuse,  a  cradle  song;  Danse 
Rustique,  a  la  Gigue;  Romance  Idyll; 
Romance  fitude,  an  Improvisation, 
besides  many  others. 

Massart   (mas-sar'),  Lambert  Joseph. 

Violinist  and  teacher;  born  in 
Liege,  well  known  on  account  of  his 
excellence  as  a  teacher,  and  because 
of  the  great  number  of  brilliant  vio- 
linists whom  he  has  developed.  His 
earliest  instruction  came  from  Dela- 
vau,  an  amateur  of  his  native  town, 
who  became  so  interested  in  him 
that  he  prevailed  upon  the  municipal 
authorities  of  Liege  to  grant  Massart 
a  scholarship  which  would  enable 
him  to  study  at  the  Paris  Conserv- 
atory. He  was  greatly  disappointed 
on  arriving  in  Paris  to  be  refused 
admission  to  the  Conservatory  by  its 
director,  Cherubini,  on  account  of  his 
being  a  foreigner.  He  began  to  study 
under  Rudolph  Kreutzer,  who  soon 
recognized  his  ability  and  became 
much  interested  in  him.  In  1843  he 
entered  the  Paris  Conservatory  to  fill 
a  position  as  professor  of  violin,  in 
which  capacity  he  gained  great  repu- 
tation on  account  of  his  carefulness 

and  thoroughness.  Some  of  his  bril- 
liant pupils  are  Henri  Wieniawski, 
Tcresina  Tua,  Martin  Marsick,  Pablo 
de  Sarasate,  Lotti,  Camilla  Urso  and 
Charles  M.  Loefifler.  Beside  teaching 
Massart  played  in  concert,  although 
his  diffidence  prevented  him  from 
being  very  well  known  in  this  line. 
Massart  had  some  success  as  quartet 
player,  often  performing  in  chamber- 
concerts  with  his  wife,  Louise  Aglae 
Marson,  who  became  professor  of 
piano  at  the  Paris  Conservatory  in 
place  of  Farrenc. 

Masse   (mas-sa),  Felix  Marie  Victor. 

French  opera  composer;  born  at 
Lorient.  At  the  age  of  twelve  he 
entered  the  Conservatory,  where  he 
won  the  first  prizes  for  fugue,  har- 
mony and  piano.  He  studied  with 
Halevy,  and  in  1844  won  the  Grand 
Prize  of  Rome  for  a  composition.  In 
1845  his  cantata,  Le  Renegat,  was 
well  received,  being  performed  three 
times  before  the  public,  and  in  1846, 
Messe  Solennelle,  which  he  composed 
in  Rome,  was  given  successfully  at  the 
Church  of  St.  Louis  des  Fran?ais. 
After  two  years  in  Rome,  and  travel 
through  Italy  and  Germany,  he  re- 
turned to  Paris  and  began  his  career 
as  a  writer  of  operas.  His  first 
dramatic  composition.  La  Chambre 
gothique,  was  a  decided  success,  as 
were  La  Chanteuse  violee,  Galathee, 
Les  Noces  de  Jeannette  and  La  Reine 
Topaze,  which  followed.  His  other 
operas.  La  Fiancee  du  Diable;  Miss 
Fauvette;  Les  Saisons;  Les  Chaises 
a  porteus;  La  Fee  Carabosse;  Mari- 
ette  la  Promise;  La  Mule  de  Pedro; 
Fior  d'Aliza  and  Les  Fils  du  Briga- 
dier, all  succeeded  for  a  time  but  did 
not  long  hold  the  interest  of  the  pub- 
lic. In  1860  Masse  was  made  chorus- 
master  at  the  Academy  of  Music.  In 
1860  he  became  professor  of  compo- 
sition at  the  Conservatory  in  Le- 
borne's  place,  and  in  1872  he  suc- 
ceeded Auber  at  the  Institut.  The 
work  of  these  institutions  occupied  so 
much  time  that  he  practically  aban- 
doned composition  until  1876,  when 
Paul  and  Virginia  appeared.  Ill 
health  caused  him  to  resign  from  the 
Academy  in  1876,  after  which  his  com- 
position. La  Mort  de  Cleopatre,  was 
written.  In  1877  he  became  a  member 
of  the  Legion  of  Honor.  Beside  the 
works  mentioned  he  has  written  the 
operas,  La  Favorita  e  la  Schiava;  Le 




Cousin  Maribaux;  two  operettas,  Une 
loi  Somptuaire,  and  Le  Prix  de 
Famille,  as  well  as  three  collections 
containing  twenty  songs  each.  Most 
of  his  work  was  produced  at  the 
Opera  Comique,  where  for  a  short 
time  it  was  successful,  but  was  soon 
forgotten.  His  operas  are  pleasing 
and  melodious,  often  containing 
charming  little  songs,  but  lacking  in 
force  and  originality. 

Massenet    (mas-na),    Jules    Frederic 

£mile.     1842- 

The  most  popular  of  modern  French 
composers  of  opera.  He  was  born  at 
Montaud,  near  St.  fitienne,  and  was 
given  his  first  music  lessons  by  his 
mother.  Later  he  went  to  the  Paris 
Conservatory,  where  he  won  the  first 
piano  prize  in  1859,  the  second  fugue 
prize  in  1862,  and  the  first  fugue  prize, 
and  the  great  Roman  Prize,  which  he 
obtained  through  his  cantata,  David 
Rizzio,  in  1863.  Up  to  this  time  he 
had  been  very  poor  and  had  earned  a 
scanty  living  by  playing  in  a  restau- 
rant orchestra,  but  he  married  a 
wealthy  woman  about  this  time,  and 
spent  two  years  at  the  Villa  Medici, 
which  awakened  in  him  his  greatest 
genius.  When  he  returned  to  Paris 
his  comic  opera,  La  Grand'  tante,  was 
performed  at  the  Opera  Comique  in 
1867,  but  was  not  much  of  a  success. 
It  was  followed  in  1872  by  Don  Cesar 
de  Bazan,  which  gave  him  his  first 
prominence.  His  other  works  were 
brought  out  in  quick  succession.  In 
1873  he  wrote  the  overture  and  inci- 
dental music  to  Les  Erinnyes;  in  the 
same  year  Mary  Magdalen,  a  sort  of 
sacred  drama,  modeled  on  the  ora- 
torio, appeared,  and  five,  another 
piece  like  it,  was  given  in  1875.  His 
first  great  opera,  Le  Roi  de  Lahore, 
was  performed  in  1877,  and  later  the 
same  year  his  cantata,  Narcisse;  in 
1880  he  presented  his  oratorio.  La 
Vierge,  in  1881  his  biblical  opera, 
Herodiade,  in  1884  Manon,  and  in  1885 
Le  Cid.  During  this  time  he  had 
written  incidental  music  to  Sardou's 
dramas,  Theodora,  and  Le  Crocodile. 
He  served  in  the  Franco-Prussian 
war,  taught  advanced  composition  in 
the  Paris  Conservatory  from  1878 
to  1896,  was  decorated  with  the 
cross  of  the  Legion  of  Honor 
in  1878,  and  became  an  officer 
in  1888;  and  also  in  1878  was 
made  a  member  of  the  Academy. 
He    replaced    Bazin.    and    was    the 

youngest  man  who  had  ever  been 
admitted  at  that  time.  His  later 
works  are  the  operas,  Esclarmonde; 
Le  Mage;  Werther  and  Le  Carillon; 
Thais;  Le  Portrait  de  Manon;  La 
Navarraise;  Sapho;  and  Cendrillon; 
the  oratorios.  La  Terre  Promise;  the 
opera,  Griselidis,  and  incidental  music 
to  the  drama,  Phedre;  and  the  operas, 
Le  Jongleur  de  Notre  Dame;  Cher- 
ubin;  and  Ariane.  He  has  also  writ- 
ten many  very  popular  orchestral 
suites,  among  them  Scenes  Pittor- 
esques;  Scenes  Dramatiques,  based  on 
Shakespeare;  Scenes  Hongroiseo;  and 
Scenes  Alsaciennes. 

Hervey  says  that  Massenet  is 
"  typical  of  his  epoch  and  nation." 
Elson  says  "  He  is  essentially  French 
in  his  music,  in  his  personal  tempera- 
ment, in  his  operatic  subjects."  These 
statements  are  as  true  as  applied  to 
his  biblical  works  as  to  Manon  or  La 
Navarraise,  which  are  as  characteris- 
tically French  as  anything  he  has  pro- 

Le  Roi  de  Lahore,  his  first  distinct 
success,  is  a  subject  of  much  glamor 
and  romance,  and  the  spectacular  part 
of  this  piece  probably  had  as  much 
to  do  with  its  success  as  the  music. 
Manon,  which  is  generally  considered 
the  composer's  masterpiece,  has  be  ■ 
come  a  classic.  It  is  based  on  Abbe 
Provost's  novel  of  that  name,  and  the 
music  and  text  are  admirably  suited 
to  each  other.  In  this  opera  Massenet 
brought  out  the  entirely  new  idea  at 
that  time  of  having  an  orchestral  ac- 
companiment to  the  dialogue.  Le  Cid 
was  a  failure,  but  Esclarmonde,  which 
appeared  next,  was  very  successful. 
It  belongs  to  the  romantic  school, 
and  shows  unmistakable  signs  of 
Bayreuth  influence.  Le  Mage,  another 
Oriental  subject,  was  not  successful, 
and  Werther,  based  on  Goethe's 
novel,  was  not  popular  with  the 
masses,  because  it  lacked  action  and 
was  monotonous  in  places,  though  it 
was  full  of  sentiment  and  had  some 
beautiful  passages.  It  resembles 
Esclarmonde  in  form,  but  the  idea  is 
like  that  of  Manon.  Thais,  the  story 
of  the  conversion  of  an  Egyptian 
courtesan  by  a  hermit,  who  afterwards 
fell  in  love  with  her,  gained  a  perma- 
nent place  at  the  Opera  Comique.  La 
Navarraise,  which  was  given  at 
Covent  Garden  and  at  Brussels  and 
Paris,  was  intensely  melodramtic. 
•  The  music  is  noisy  and  martial  and 
the    story   goes    well    with    it.      The 




libretto  is  really  better  than  the  music. 
Griselidis  was  fairly  successful,  as  was 
also  Le  Jongleur  de  Notre  Dame. 

Massenet  continued  the  work  of 
Gounod,  but  used  his  own  methods 
or  style  in  doing  it,  and  all  of  his 
works  bear  the  stamp  of  his  individu- 
ality. His  greatest  power  is  represent- 
ing the  tender  passions,  and  he  is  also 
especially  successful  in  portraying  the 
eternal  feminine.  However,  ^  his 
women  can  hardly  be  called  indi- 
viduals, for  they  are  all  alike  whether 
biblical  characters,  fairy  creations,  or 
modern  French  women,  all  resemble 
the  Parisienne  of  the  present,  and 
most  of  them  are  the  extremely  weak 
type  as  in  the  case  of  Manon.  He  has 
adopted  no  one  particular  form,  but 
takes  sentiment  in  general  and  the 
taste  of  the  Parisian  public  for  the 
basis  upon  which  he  works. 

Masson,  Elizabeth.    1806-1865. 

Prominent  English  concert-singer 
and  composer  of  songs;  was  the  pupil 
of  Mrs.  Henry  Smart,  and  of  Pasta  in 
Italy.  She  first  appeared  in  public  at 
Ella's  Second  Subscription  concert  in 
1831.  She  also  sang  at  the  Ancient 
concerts  in  1831,  and  at  the  Phil- 
harmonic concerts  in  1833,  usually 
giving  selections  from  the  old  masters 
as  Gluck,  Handel  and  Mozart.  In 
1834  she  sang  at  a  festival  in  West- 
minster Abbey,  and  several  times  at 
the  Sacred  Harmonic  Society  in  ora- 
torios. Later  she  devoted  her  time 
to  teaching  and  composing,  writing 
music  for  the  poems  of  Scott,  Procter 
and  Byron.  In  1839  she  established 
a  Royal  Society  of  Female  Musicians, 
which  was  finally  joined  to  the  Royal 
Society  of  Musicians  in  1856.  She  had 
good  technique  surpassing  her  natural 
ability  and  an  original  personality. 
Her  published  works  are  Original 
Jacobite  Songs;  and  Songs  for  the 
Classical  Vocalist. 

Materna  (ma-ter'-na),  Amelia.    1847- 

Soprano,  famous  for  her  interpre- 
tation of  Wagnerian  roles;  born  at 
St.  Georgen,  Styria.  When  she  was 
twelve  years  old  her  father  died,  leav- 
ing his  family  penniless.  Amelia  and 
an  older  brother  went  to  Vienna,  but 
on  arriving  there  were  disappointed 
to  find  that  no  one  would  teach  her 
^o  sing  on  account  of  her  lack  of 
funds.  From  Vienna  she  went  to  St. 
Petersburg,  and  three  years  later  to 
Gxatz,  where  she  was  discovered  by 

Suppe,  who  got  her  into  the  chorus 
at  the  Landes  Theatre  and  later 
helped  her  get  a  position  in  Vienna. 
Here  she  sang  in  operetta  at  the  Karl 
Theatre  for  several  years,  at  the  same 
time  preparing  for  heavier  work  under 
Proch  in  1868  she  sang  before 
Court  Conductor  Esser  so  successfully 
that  she  obtained  a  position  at  the 
Imperial  Opera  House,  where  she 
made  her  debut  in  1869  in  L'Africaine 
with  pronounced  success.  She  had 
meantime  been  married  to  a  popular 
German  actor,  Karl  Friedrich.  In 
1876  she  was  given  the  role  of  Brunn- 
hilde  at  the  performance  of  Der  Ring 
des  Nibelungen  given  at  Bayreuth 
during  that  year.  Her  interpretation 
was  received  with  the  greatest  en- 
thusiasm by  Wagner  himself,  and  her 
rendition  of  Wagnerian  roles  has  not 
been  equaled  in  some  respects.  She 
sang  in  the  Wagner  Festival  in  Lon- 
don in  1877,  and  in  1882  created  the 
role  of  Kundry  in  Parsifal,  visiting  the 
United  States  that  year  and  in  1884. 
She  retired  from  the  stage  in  1897, 
the  occasion  being  a  concert  given  at 
the  hall  of  the  Musical  Union  in 
Vienna.  Her  greatness  lies  not  only 
in  the  exceptional  quality  and  beauty 
of  her  voice  but  also  in  her  dramatic 

Mathews,  William   Smythe   Babcock. 


Critic  and  writer  on  musical  sub- 
jects, who  has  greatly  advanced  music 
in  Chicago;  born  in  London,  New 
Hampshire.  His  father  was  a  clergy- 
man, who  encouraged  the  early  mani- 
festations of  his  son's  talent  and, 
when  he  was  about  eleven  years  old, 
had  him  take  lessons  of  Mr.  Folsom 
of  Lowell.  He  afterward  went  to 
Boston  to  study  with  Mr.  L.  H. 
Southard,  and  there  he  enjoyed  the 
friendship  and  encouragement  of 
Lowell  Mason.  In  1852  he  took  a 
position  in  Appleton  Academy  at  Mt. 
Vernon,  New  Hampshire,  although 
not  yet  fifteen  years  of  age.  In  1860 
he  became  professor  of  music  in  the 
Wesleyan  Female  College  at  Macon, 
Georgia,  but  in  1861  he  was  forced  to 
resign  his  position  owing  to  the  Civil 
war.  He  supported  himself  till  after 
the  close  of  the  war  by  teaching  at 
Macon,  Georgia;  Danville,  West  Vir- 
ginia and  Marion,  Alabama.  In  1867  Mr. 
Mathews  came  to  Chicago  as  organist 
of  the  Centenary  Methodist  Episcopal 
Church,     where    he     remained    until 



1893,  and  the  following  year  he 
became  editor  of  the  Musical  Inde- 
pendent, which  went  out  of  existence 
at  the  time  of  the  Chicago  fire,  1871. 
From  1877  to  1887  he  was  musical 
critic  on  the  staffs  of  the  Chicago 
Herald,  Record,  and  Tribune,  and  v/as 
one  of  the  best  of  western  critics.  In 
1891  he  founded  the  magazine.  Music, 
of  which  he  was  editor  and  one  of  the 
chief  contributors  until  this  magazine 
was  incorporated  in  the  Philharmonic 
in  1903.  Mathews  has  written  some 
excellent  books  on  musical  subjects, 
among  them  being  The  Great  in 
Music;  Popular  History  of  Music; 
Music  and  Its  Ideals;  How  to  Under- 
stand Music;  Complete  School  of 
Pedals;  many  collections  of  music  for 
teaching;  special  editions  of  works  of 
Chopin  and  Schumann;  a  revised  edi- 
tion of  Mason's  Technics;  The  Mas- 
ters and  Their  Music;  a  Dictionary 
of  Musical  Terms;  Primer  of  Musical 
Forms;  and  How  to  Understand 
Music.  Beside  his  writings  Mr. 
Mathews  is  a  successful  piano-teacher. 

Mathias  (ma-te'-as),  Georges  Amedee 

Saint  Clair.    1826- 

French  teacher  and  composer;  born 
in  Paris,  where  he  studied  under 
Bazin,  Barbereau,  Halevy,  Savard,  at 
the  Paris  Conser\-atory,  and  took 
composition  of  Kalkbrenner,  and 
piano  of  Chopin.  He  was  given 
the  cross  of  the  Legion  of  Honor 
in  1872.  He  wrote  overtures  to 
Hamlet  and  Mazeppa;  five  morceaux 
s>Tnphoniques  for  piano  and  strings; 
two  piano  concertos;  six  piano  trios; 
a  symphony;  CEuvres  choisis  pour  le 
piano;  fitudes  de  Genre;  £tudes  de 
style  et  de  mecanisme;  a  collection  of 
two  and  four-hand  piano-pieces,  and 
the  preface  to  Daily  Exercises  from 
Chopin's  works. 

*  Mathieu  (mat-yu),  fimile.     1844- 

Teacher  and  composer;  born  of 
Belgian  parentage  at  Lille,  France. 
Both  his  father  and  his  mother  were 
professors  of  music  at  the  music 
school  at  Louvain,  and  it  was  there 
that  he  received  his  first  instruction. 
Later,  at  the  Royal  Conservatory  at 
Brussels,  he  studied  piano  under 
Dupont,  harmony  under  Bosselet,  and 
counterpoint  and  fugue  with  Fetis.  In 
1869  he  won  the  second  Prize  of 
Rome  for  his  cantata,  La  Mort  du 
Tasse,  and  from  1867  to  1873  he 
taught    at    the    school    of    music    at 


Louvain,  where  he  acted  as  director 
from  1891  to  1898.  In  1898  he  became 
director  of  the  Royal  Conservatory  at 
Ghent,  where  he  is  still  to  be  found. 
He  was  made  Chevalier  of  the  Order 
of  Leopold  in  1898,  corresponding 
member  of  the  Belgian  Royal  Acad- 
emy in  1897,  and  member  in  1901.  He 
has  written  the  operas,  Georges 
Daudin,  Bathyle,  I'fichange,  La  Ber- 
noise,  I'Enfance  de  Roland,  Richilde; 
the  cantatas,  Le  Songe  de  Colomb, 
Debout  Peuple,  Torquato  Tasso's 
dood,  La  Derniere  Nuit  de  Faust; 
the  ballet,  Funeurs  de  Kiff;  children's 
cantatas,  I'ficole  Fraternelle,  and  Les 
Bois;  Le  Hoyoux;  Le  Serbier;  Frey- 
hir;  French  and  Flemish  songs;  Tc 
Deums;  three  symphonic  poems  for 
orchestra;  a  violin  concerto,  and  some 
male  choruses. 

Mattei   (mat-ta'-e),  Abbate  Stanislao. 


Favorite  pupil  and  intimate  of 
Giambattista  Martini,  the  great  theor- 
ist and  musical  savant;  was  born  at 
Bologna.  He  attended  the  Latin 
school,  and  later,  at  the  advice  of 
Martini,  entered  into  his  novitiate  at 
the  Minorite  Convent,  becomitig  the 
confessor  and  constant  companion  of 
Padre  Martini  immediately  after  his 
ordination.  From  1770  he  acted  as 
Martini's  deputy,  and  after  his  death, 
in  1784,  succeeded  him  as  maestro  di 
cappella  at  the  Convent  of  the  Fran- 
ciscans. In  1798,  on  the  suppression 
of  the  monasteries,  Mattei  lived  with 
his  mother  and  began  to  teach,  later 
becoming  maestro  di  cappella  of  San 
Petronio  and  teacher  of  counterpoint 
at  the  Liceo  Filarmonico  in  1804. 
Among  his  many  distinguished  pupils 
were  Rossini,  Donizetti,  Perotti, 
Bertolotti  and  Robuschi.  In  1790  and 
1794  he  was  president  of  the  Filar- 
monico, also  member  of  the  Subalpine 
Academic,  and  after  1824  of  the  In- 
stitut  de  France.  Most  of  his  works 
are  preserved  in  the  Libraries  of  San 
Giorgrio  and  the  ^linorite  Convent 
at  Bologna,  and  include  his  Prattica 
d'acompagnamento  sopra  bassi  nu- 
merati,  in  three  volumes;  eight 
masses;  an  intermezzo;  La  Bottega 
de  Libraio;  and  many  oflFertories; 
psalms;  hymns;  motets  and  other 

Mattei,  Tito.    1841- 

Noted  Italian  pianist,  composer  and 
conductor;  was  born  at  Campobasso. 




He  was  educated  in  Naples,  where  he 
studied  with  Thalberg,  Conti,  Mag- 
goni,  Parisi  and  Ruta.  When  only 
eleven  years  old  he  was  made  Pro- 
fessore  of  the  Accademia  di  Santa 
Cecilia,  Rome.  He  played  before 
Pope  Pius  IX.,  was  given  a  special 
gold  medal  and  appointed  pianist  to 
the  King  of  Italy.  In  1846  he  gave 
his  first  concert,  and  afterward  toured 
Italy,  France  and  Germany.  In  1863 
he  settled  in  London,  where  he  be- 
came conductor  at  Her  Majesty's 
Theatre.  In  1870  he  organized  a  sea- 
son of  Italian  Opera,  conducting  it 
also.  He  has  written  a  great  number 
of  piano-pieces  and  songs,  among 
them  The  Spider  and  the  Fly;  For 
the  Sake  of  the  Past;  Dear  Heart; 
Non  torno;  Non  e  ver;  and  Oh!  Ohf 
Hear  the  Wild  Wind  Blow.  His 
operas  are  Maria  di  Grand,  and  the 
comic  opera,  La  Prima  Donna. 

Matteis  (mat-ta'-es),  Nicola. 

Seventeenth  Century  Italian  violin- 
ist, composer  for  the  violin  and  writer 
on  musical  topics;  is  said  to  have 
invented  the  half-shift  for  the  violin. 
He  has  been  praised  by  Evelyn  and 
Roger  North;  but  little  is  known 
about  his  life  except  that  he  was 
eccentric  and  inclined  to  luxurious 
living,  which  resulted  in  an  early 
death.  His  works  are  collections  of 
ayres  for  the  violin,  including  fugues, 
preludes,  alemands,  sarabands,  cour- 
ants,  fancies,  etc.;  and  Ode  in  honor 
of  St.  Cecilia's  day,  in  1696;  The 
False  Consonances  of  Music,  or  In- 
struction for  Playing  a  True  Base 
upon  the  Guitarre.  His  son  Nicholas 
was  also  a  fine  violinist,  and  was  the 
instructor  of  Berney. 

Mattheson    (mat'-te-z6n),   Johann. 

Exceedingly  versatile  and  diligent 
student,  diplomat  and  musical  com- 
poser; born  at  Hamburg.  His  versa- 
tility showed  itself  early,  for  besides 
music  he  studied  modern  languages, 
law,  and  political  science,  and  pos- 
sessed all  the  accomplishments  of  a 
cultivated  gentleman  of  that  time. 
When  nine  years  old  he  played  a 
composition  of  his  own  on  the  organ 
in  Hamburg.  In  1696  he  made  his 
debut  in  opera  in  a  female  part,  and 
in  1699  produced  his  first  opera,  Die 
Pleyaden,  appearing  in  Cleopatra  as 
Antony  in  1704.  In  1703  Handel  came 
to  Hamburg  and  immediately  became 


the  friend  of  Mattheson  and  his  rival 
for  popular  favor.  In  1704  Mattheson 
became  tutor  to  a  son  of  Sir  Cyril 
Wych,  English  envoy  at  Hamburg, 
and  in  1706  was  made  Wych's  secre- 
tary. In  this  capacity  he  was  several 
times  employed  on  various  diplomatic 
affairs,  but  in  spite  of  the  great 
amount  of  labor  he  performed  he  still 
continued  to  compose,  teach  and  write 
on  musical  subjects.  In  1715  he  was 
appointed  cantor  and  canon  of  Ham- 
burg Cathedral,  and  was  instrumental 
in  introducing  variations  such  as 
duets,  choruses  and  airs  into  church 
service,  finally  introducing  women  as 
church  singers.  In  1719  he  was  given 
the  title  of  Court-Kapellmeister  by 
the  Duke  of  Holstein.  In  1728,  owing 
to  deafness,  he  retired  from  his  work 
at  the  Cathedral  and  devoted  himself 
chiefly  to  writing.  Among  his  works 
are  Das  neu  eroffnete  Orchester;  Das 
deschiitze  and  Das  Forschende  Or- 
chester; Critica  musica;  Der  Musika- 
lische  Patriot;  Grundlage  einer 
Ehrenpforte;  and  a  collection  of 
biographies  of  contemporary  musi- 
cians. His  theoretical  works  are 
Grosse  Generalbassschule;  Exemplar- 
ische  Organisten  Probe;  Kleine  Gen- 
eralsschule,  the  Kern  melodischer 
Wissenschaft  and  Vollkommene  Ca- 

Matthison-Hansen    (mat'-ti-z6n   han'- 

zen),  Gotfred.     1832- 

Organist  and  composer;  son  of 
Hans  Matthison-Hansen;  born  at 
Roeskilde,  Denmark.  He  began  to 
study  law,  but  soon  abandoned  it  in 
favor  of  music,  in  which  art  he  was 
largely  self-taught.  In  1859  he  be- 
came organist  at  the  German  Fried- 
richs-Kirche  in  Copenhagen,  and  on 
winning  the  Aucker  Scholarship  in 
1862  went  to  Leipsic  for  a  year's 
study.  In  1867  he  obtained  the  posi- 
tion of  organ-teacher  at  the  Copen- 
hagen Conservatory;  in  1871  he 
became  organist  of  St.  John's  Church, 
and  six  years  later  became  his  father's 
assistant;  in  1900  he  was  organist  at 
Trinity  Church,  Copenhagen.  From 
1874  to  1877  he  gave  many  concerts 
in  Denmark,  and  he  has  been  heard  a 
number  of  times  in  Germany.  With 
Grieg,  Horneman  and  Nordraak  he 
was  instrumental  in  organizing  the 
Euterpe  Society.  His  compositions 
include,  for  piano,  three  mazurkas; 
trio  for  piano  and  strings;  a  ballade 
entitled     Vom     nordischen     Mythen- 



konig  Frode  Fredegod;  three  charac- 
ter pieces  for  piano;  sonata  for  piano 
and  violin;  sonata  for  piano  and  vio- 
loncello; a  fantasie  and  Conzert-Ton- 
stiicke  for  organ. 

Matthison-Hansen,   Hans.     1807-1890. 

Danish  organist  and  church  com- 
poser; was  born  at  Flensburg.  He 
first  studied  art,  and  was  to  a  certain 
extent  self-taught  in  music,  when  he 
began  to  study  organ  under  C.  F.  E. 
Weyse  of  Copenhagen.  In  1832  he 
received  the  important  appointment 
of  organist  at  Roeskilde  Cathedral. 
He  was  an  excellent  organist  and 
gave  concerts  in  Norway  in  1861  and 
the  following  year  in  Sweden,  and  in 
1864  he  appeared  in  England.  He  had 
received  the  Order  of  Danebrog  in 
1857,  and  in  1869  he  was  given  the 
title  of  professor.  He  composed  a 
cycle  of  church-music  for  Christmas, 
Easter  and  Pentecost;  preludes  and 
postludes  for  organ;  130th  Psalm;  two 
Kyrie  eleison;  The  Lord's  Prayer; 
Johannis,  an  oratorio;  music  to  the 
lOOth,  121st  and  150th  Psalms,  with 
orchestral  accompaniments,  variations, 
symphonies,  fantasies,  and  other 
music  for  organ. 

Maurel  (mo-rcl),  Victor.    1848- 

One  of  the  greatest  living  bary- 
tones; born  at  Marseilles,  and  began 
his  stage  career  in  the  comedy  and 
light  opera  there.  He  finally  went 
to  Paris,  however,  and  studied  at  the 
Conservatory  under  both  Vauthrot 
and  Duvernoy,  winning  honors  for  his 
work  with  both  teachers.  He  made 
his  debut  as  De  Xevers  in  Les  Hugue- 
nots at  Paris  in  1869.  He  then 
toured  America,  Spain  and  Italy.  He 
first  appeared  in  London  in  1873, 
taking  the  role  of  Renato  at  the 
Royal  Italian  Opera,  and  his  first 
appearance  in  America  took  place  the 
following  year.  In  1879  he  returned 
to  Paris,  where  he  made  a  successful 
Hamlet  and  Amonasro.  He  then 
took  charge  of  the  Italian  Opera  at 
the  Theatre  of  Nations,  now  Sara 
Bernhardt's  theatre,  and  though  he 
surrounded  himself  with  artists  of  the 
highest  grade  and  produced  Masse- 
net's Herodiade  with  wonderful  suc- 
cess, the  venture  resulted  in  financial 
disaster.  He  went  back  to  comic 
opera,  playing  Zampa,  FalstaflF  and 
Peter,  and  appeared  again  at  Drury 
Lane  and  Covent  Garden.  His  cre- 
ation of  the  part  of  lago  in  Verdi's 


Otello  in  1887  is  his  great  artistic 
success.  In  1893  he  brought  out  Fal- 
staff,  and  in  1896  he  was  the  first  to 
give  the  role  of  Mathias  in  Erlanger's 
Juif  Polonais.  Among  his  best  known 
parts  are  Don  Giovanni,  William 
Tell,  Almaviva,  Cacique,  Wolfram  in 
the  Flying  Dutchman,  and  Domingo 
in  Masse's  Paul  and  Virginizu 

Maurer  (mow'-rer),  Ludwig  Wilhelm. 


Violinist;  born  in  Potsdam.  He 
studied  the  violin  under  Haak,  and  at 
the  age  of  thirteen  he  played  at  a 
concert  g^ven  by  Mara  in  Berlin,  and 
was  permitted  to  join  the  Royal 
Orchestra.  In  1806  Maurer  traveled 
to  Konigsberg  and  Riga,  where  he 
met  Rode  and  Baillot,  then  to  St- 
Petersburg,  where  he  played  in  con- 
certs. Through  Baillot  he  became 
conductor  to  the  Chancellor  Wsowo- 
logsky  in  Moscow,  a  position  which 
he  held  until  1817,  when  he  made 
another  concert  tour  to  Paris  and 
Berlin.  In  1818  he  was  made  concert- 
master  at  Hanover,  but  he  returned 
to  Chancellor  Wsowologsky  in  1832, 
remaining  with  him  until  1845,  when 
he  settled  in  Dresden.  Among  his 
writings,  the  best  known  is  his  Sym- 
phony Concertante  for  four  violins 
with  the  orchestra,  which  he  first 
played  in  Paris  in  1838  with  Wich, 
Spohr  and  Miiller.  Other  composi- 
tions are  The  Three  Russian  Airs 
with  variations;  his  operas,  Alonzo, 
Aloise,  Der  entdeckte  Diebstahl,  and 
Der  Neue  Paris,  of  which  only  the 
overtures  are  printed. 

May,  Edward  Collett.     1806-1887. 

Organist  and  widely  known  musical 
educator;  born  at  Greenwich,  Eng- 
land. His  first  musical  training 
began  with  his  brother,  a  musical 
amateur  and  composer,  and  was  con- 
tinued under  Thomas  Adams,  organ- 
ist at  St.  Paul's,  Deptford,  and  a 
family  friend.  Some  time  later  May 
was  a  student  of  piano  under  Cipri- 
ani Potter,  and  of  singing  under  Cri- 
velli.  In  1837  he  became  organist  of 
Greenwich  Hospital,  remaining  with 
that  institution  until  it  was  abolished 
in  1869.  In  1841  he  organized  classes 
in  which  thousands  of  grown  people 
and  children  received  musical  in- 
struction. These  classes  were  enor- 
mous, that  in  the  National  Societies' 
Central  School  numbering  over  a 
thousand  teachers  and  many  children 
besides,  while  at   his   classes   in   the 




Exeter  Hall,  the  Apollonicon  Rooms 
and  St.  Martin's  Hall  he  taught  sev- 
eral thousand.  He  was  made  pro- 
fessor of  vocal  music  at  Queen's 
College,  London,  in  1880,  and  he  had 
also  taught  in  Battersea,  St.  Mark's, 
the  Training  Schools,  Hockerill, 
Whitelands  Home,  and  Colonial.  He 
has  published  some  songs  and  a  text- 
book entitled  Progressive  Vocal  Ex- 
ercises for  Daily  Use.  His  daughter, 
Florence  May,  is  well  known  as  an 
interpreter  of  Brahms,  under  whom 
she  studied,  and  also  as  his  biogra- 
pher.    She  is  a  successful  teacher. 

Maybrick,  Michael.     1844- 

Excellent  barytone  concert-singer 
and  a  writer  of  popular  songs;  was 
born  at  Liverpool,  England.  His 
father  was  musical  and  gave  him 
great  encouragement,  so  that  when  he 
was  eight  years  old  he  had  partially 
mastered  the  art  of  piano-playing. 
Soon  after  he  began  taking  organ 
lessons  of  W.  T.  Best,  and  at  the  age 
of  fifteen  was  organist  of  St.  Peter's 
Parish  Church,  Liverpool.  From  1866 
to  1868  he  studied  at  the  Leipsic  Con- 
servatory under  Carl  Richter,  Plaidy 
and  Moscheles.  While  he  was  in 
Leipsic  it  was  discovered  that  he  had 
a  fine  barytone  voice,  and  at  the 
advice  of  his  instructors  he  went  to 
Milan,  where  after  about  two  years' 
study  with  Nava  he  made  his  debut 
in  a  theatre  of  that  city.  He  returned 
to  England  in  1869  and  was  one  of 
those  who  sang  on  the  farewell  tour 
of  Mme.  Sainton-Dolby.  He  sang  in 
English  Opera  at  St.  James  Theatre 
in  1871,  but  afterward  devoted  him- 
self to  oratorio  work,  in  which  he  has 
been  heard  at  Bristol,  Gloucester  and 
Hereford.  He  has  had  distinguished 
success  as  a  concert-singer,  and  was 
the  first  to  sing  the  Telramund  music 
from  Lohengrin  in  England.  In  1884 
he  toured  the  United  States  and 
Canada.  Under  the  nom  de  plume  of 
Stephen  Adams  he  has  written  many 
popular  songs,  of  which  probably  the 
best  known  is  Nancy  Lee.  Others  are 
The  Blue  Alsatian  Mountains;  The 
Star  of  Bethlehem;  The  Holy  City; 
The  Tar's  Farewell;  By  the  Fountain; 
They  All  Love  Jack;  Valley  by  the 
Sea;  A  Warrior  Bold;  and  in  1897  the 
Jubilee  song.  Her  Majesty. 

Mayer  (mi'-er),  Charles.    1799-1862. 

Piano    virtuoso,    teacher    and    com- 
poser;  born   in   Konigsberg.     He   re- 


ceived  his  first  lessons  from  his 
mother,  a  piano-teacher,  and  later 
from  Field.  In  1814,  with  his  father, 
he  went  to  Warsaw,  Germany  and 
Holland,  finally  to  Paris,  playing  his 
variations  on  God  Save  the  King,  in 
Amsterdam  during  this  tour.  He  re- 
turned to  St.  Petersburg  and  began  to 
teach  in  1819,  leaving  in  1845  to  tour 
through  Stockholm,  C9penhagen, 
Hamburg,  Leipsic  and  Vienna,  and 
settling  in  Dresden  in  1850.  He 
taught,  composed,  and  gave  concerts 
in  Dresden  until  his  death  in  1862. 
His  compositions  number  nearly  nine 
hundred,  among  them  being  his  con- 
certo with  orchestra  in  D;  variations 
and  fantasias  on  opera  airs;  Polka 
Bohemienne  in  A;  concerto  sym- 
phonique;  a  mazurka  in  F  sharp 
major,  supposed  for  a  time  to  have 
been  written  by  Chopin;  Concert 
Polonaise;  Valse  fitudes,  and  Toccata 
in  E.  His  compositions  are  consid- 
ered exceeding  well  fitted  to  the  in- 
struments for  which  they  are  written, 
and  are  correctly  and  effectively  com- 

Mayer,  Emilie.    1821-1883. 

Born  at  Friedland,  Mecklenburg; 
was  a  composer  of  instrumental  and 
vocal  music.  She  received  her  educa- 
tion from  Carl  Lowe,  from  B.  A.  Marx 
in  theory  and  from  Wieprecht  in 
orchestration.  She  gave  a  concert 
composed  entirely  of  her  own  writ- 
ings, consisting  of  a  concert  overture 
for  large  orchestra;  a  string  quartet; 
the  118th  Psalm  for  chorus  and 
orchestra;  a  symphonic  in  B  minor; 
and  the  Symphonic  Militaire;  and . 
two  piano  solos  which  she  her- 
self played.  In  recognition  of  her 
talents  she  was  presented  with  the 
Gold  Medal  of  Art  by  Queen  Eliza- 
beth of  Prussia.  She  wrote  two 
string  quartets;  two  quintets;  several 
symphonies,  one  in  B  minor  arranged 
for  four  hands;  several  overtures;  two 
quartets;  seven  sonatas  for  cello  and 
piano;  eight  violin  and  piano  sonatas; 
ten  trios  for  piano,  violin  and  cello; 
about  forty  part-songs,  and  a  number 
of  songs  and  piano-pieces.  Her 
Faust  overture  for  Grand  orchestra, 
Nocturne  for  violin  and  piano,  and 
Allemande  fantastique  are  considered 
among  her  best. 

Mayer,  Wilhelm  (Pseudonym,  W.  A. 

Remy).     1831-1898. 

Distinguished  teacher  of  piano,  com- 
position   and    counterpoint;    born    at 



Prague.  Studied  law  until  1861.  He 
studied  music  with  C.  F.  Pietsh.  In 
1862  he  abandoned  legal  work  and 
became  conductor  of  the  Musical 
Society  of  Graz,  a  position  which  he 
held  until  1870,  when  he  resigned  to 
devote  himself  to  teaching.  He  num- 
bered among  his  pupils  \V.  Kienzl, 
Reznicek,  F.  Weingartner,  F.  Busoni 
and  Sahla.  Among  his  compositions 
are  three  symphonies,  songs  and  part- 
songs,  his  overture  Sardanapel,  the 
symphonic  poem  Helene,  the  Ostliche 
Rosen,  and  the  Slavisches  Liederspiel. 
He  died  in  Graz. 

Mayr    (mir),    Johann    Simon.    1763- 

Operatic  composer;  born  at  Men- 
dorf,  Bavaria,  but  identified  with  the 
music  of  Italy.  His  musical  talent 
was  early  cultivated  by  his  father, 
the  village  schoolmaster  and  organist, 
and  at  the  age  of  ten  he  entered  the 
Jesuit  Seminary  at  Ingolstadt.  He 
became  musical  tutor  for  a  nobleman 
named  de  Bessus,  who  sent  him  to 
study  with  Lenzi  at  Bergamo,  in 
which  city  he  spent  the  most  of  his 
life.  Mayr  found  Lenzi  a  most  iji- 
efficient  teacher,  and  was  just  about 
to  return  to  Germany  when  a  canon 
of  Bergamo,  Count  Presenti,  sent 
him  to  Venice  to  study  with  Bertoni. 
Thrown  on  his  own  resources  by  the 
death  of  his  patron,  he  took  the 
advice  of  Piccini  and  began  to  write 
operas.  In  this  he  was  very  success- 
ful, producing  more  than  seventy 
operas  from  1794  to  1814.  In  1802  he 
was  made  maestro  di  cappella  of 
Santa  Maria  Maggiore  at  Bergamo,  a 
position  which  he  liked  so  well  that 
he  could  not  be  induced  to  visit 
Paris,  Dresden,  Lisbon  or  London, 
and  even  declined  the  position  of 
censor  to  the  Milan  Conservatory  in 
1807.  He  was  professor  of  composi- 
tion at  the  Musical  ^Institute  of  Ber- 
gamo, founded  in  1805  and  reorganized 
in  1811,  in  which  capacity  he  did 
much  for  the  cause  of  music,  and 
taught  many  great  musicians,  among 
them  Donizetti.  He  was  very  benev- 
olent, founding  the  Scuola  caritate- 
vole  di  Musica  and  the  Pio  Instituto 
di  Bergamo  for  needy  musicians  and 
their  widows.  Seven  years  after  his 
death,  in  1845,  the  city  of  Bergamo 
erected  a  monument  in  his  honor,  and 
in  1875  removed  his  remains  with 
those  of  Donizetti  to  Santa  Maria 
Maggiore.      His    works    were    Italian 

in  character  and  were  performed 
chiefly  in  Italy.  Among  them  are 
some"  early  songs  published  in  Ratis- 
bon;  some  masses  and  vespers;  his 
oratorios,  Jacob  a  Labano  fug^ens, 
David,  Tabiae  matrimonium,  and 
Sisarae;  his  opera,  SaflFo,  ossia  i  rita 
d'Apollo  Leucadio;  Lauso  e  Lidia; 
Medea;  Rosa  bianca  e  Rosa  rossa; 
Lodoiska  and  Ginevra  di  Scozia.  He 
also  wrote  a  life  of  Capuzzi  and  a 
book  on  Haydn. 

Mayseder  (mi'-za-der),  Joseph.    1789- 


Violin  virtuoso,  whose  brilliance 
and  elegance  of  execution  won  for 
him  the  foremost  position  on  the  con- 
certtstage  at  Vienna,  his  native  town. 
At  the  age  of  eight  he  became  the 
pupil  of  Suche  and  Wranitzky,  making 
his  first  public  appearance  in  Augarten 
in  1800.  Eleven  years  later  he  re- 
ceived the  Gold  Salvator  Medal,  and 
in  1816  he  entered  the  Court  Chapel, 
becoming  solo-violin  in  the  Court 
Theatre  in  1820,  and  chamber-violinist 
to  the  Emperor  in  1835.  While  still 
very  j-oung,  Schuppanzigh,  who  took 
great  interest  in  him,  gave  him  the 
position  of  second  violin  in  his  famous 
quartet.  As  early  as  1812  he  was 
considered  by  Spohr  himself  to  be 
the  greatest  violinist  in  Vienna.  He 
received  the  order  of  .''■anz-Joseph 
from  the  Emperor  of  Ausi.'a  in  1862. 
In  concert  work  he  gave  concerts 
with  Merk,  the  violoncellist,  and  with 
Hummel,  Moscheles  and  Guiliani,  but 
after  1837  he  never  appeared  in  pub- 
lic. He  could  scarcely  be  prevailed 
upon  to  play  in  strange  cities,  and  his 
only  performance  when  he  visited 
Paris  in  1820  was  at  a  small  gather- 
ing of  distinguished  musicians,  among 
them  Kreutzer,  Lafont,  Cherubini, 
Baudiot,  Habeneck  and  Viotti.  He 
was  greatl}'  admired  for  beauty  and 
purity  of  tone  and  surety  of  touch. 
He  published  sixty-three  works,  with 
the  exception  of  one  mass,  all  being 
chamber-music,  concertos,  polonaises, 
quartets,  etudes  and  duets  for  violin, 
and  trios  and  sonatas  for  piano. 

Mazas      (ma-zas),     Jacques     Fereol. 


Violin  virtuoso  and  composer;  born 
at  Beziers.  In  1802  he  began  three 
years  of  study  at  the  Paris  Conserv- 
atory under  Baillot  and  won  the  first 
violin  prize.  His  performance  of  a 
violin    concerto    written    for    him   by 




Auber  was  very  successful.  He  then 
became  a  member  of  the  orchestra 
of  an  Italian  Opera  Company,  and 
from  1811  to  1829  traveled  through 
Spain,  Russia,  Belgium,  Germany  and 
Italy.  After  his  return  to  Paris  he 
was,  for  a  while,  first  violin  at  the 
Palais  Royal.  Prom  1837  to  1841  he 
was  director  of  a  music  school  at 
Cambrai.  As  a  violinist  his  tone  was 
very  brilliant  and  melodious.  He 
wrote  a  method  for  the  violin  and  a 
method  for  viola,  beside  many  con- 
certos, trios,  string  quartets,  fan- 
tasias, variations,  romances  and  violin 

Mazzinghi    (mad-zen'-gx),    Joseph. 


Piano  teacher,  organist  and  com- 
poser; of  ancient  Corsican  blood; 
born  in  London.  He  studied  music 
with  Bertolini,  Sacchini,  Anfossi  and 
John  Sebastian  Bach,  progressing  so 
amazingly  that  in  17/5,  when  he  was 
only  ten  years  old,  he  was  made 
organist  of  the  Portuguese  Chapel. 
In  1784  he  became  director  at  the 
King's  Theatre.  He  became  piano 
teacher  of  the  Princess  of  Wales, 
afterward  Queen  Caroline,  and  in  1830 
was  made  a  Count.  He  had  a  great 
many  pupils  on  the  piano,  and  be- 
sides this  composed  a  large  number 
of  pieces  and  wrote  some  operas. 
Some  of  his  operas  are  II  Tesero;  A 
Day  in  Turkey;  The  Magician  no 
Conjuror;  La  belle  Arsene;  Paul  and 
Virginia;  The  Blind  Girl;  Ramah 
Droog;  Chains  of  the  Heart;  The 
Wife  of  Two  Husbands;  The  Exile; 
and  The  Free  Knights.  He  composed 
almost  seventy  sonatas,  besides  a 
great  number  of  songs  and  glees,  also 
a  mass  and  some  hymns. 

Mazzochi  (mad-z6k'-ki),  Domenico. 

A  Sixteenth  Century  composer, 
chiefly  known  as  the  originator  of  the 
marks  used  at  present  to  indicate 
crescendo  and  diminuendo;  also  the 
pf  for  pianoforte  and  the  tr  for  trilo. 
Little  is  known  of  his  life,  except 
that  he  studied  with  Nanini,  became 
a  prominent  lawyer  in  Rome,  and  was 
employed  possibly  in  some  musical 
capacity  by  Aldobrandini  Borghese 
for  a  number  of  years.  Among  his 
works  are  La  Catena  d'  Adone,  an 
opera;  a  book  of  sacred  music;  a 
book  of  madrigals;  several  oratorios; 
and  a  collection  of  Dialoghi  e  Sonatti. 
His  works  date  from  1626  to  1640. 

Mazzucato  (mad-zoo-kat'-to),  Albertd. 


Dramatic  composer,  teacher  and 
musical  writer;  born  at  Udine, 
Fruili.  He  became  the  pupil  of  Bres- 
ciano  at  Padua,  where  in  1834  he  pro- 
duced his  first  opera.  La  Fidanzeta  di 
Lammermoor.  This  was  temporarily 
successful,  as  were  several  other 
operas  which  followed.  In  1839  he 
was  appointed  instructor  in  singing 
at  Milan  Conservatory,  and  in  1851  he 
taught  composition  there.  In  1852  he 
became  lecturer  on  history  of  music 
and  aesthetics,  and  in  1872  director, 
succeeding  Lauro  Rossi.  He  was 
editor  of  the  Gazzetta  Musicale  for 
some  years,  besides  writing  principi 
elementari  di  musica  di  Asioli,  re- 
formati  ed  ampliati;  an  Atlas  of 
Ancient  Music;  a  Trottato  d'estetica 
musicale;  and  Italian  translations  of 
musical  works.  His  operas  are  La 
Fidanzeta  di  Lammermoor;  Esmer- 
alda; I  due  sergenti,  and  I  corsari. 

Meerts     (marts),     Lambert     Joseph. 

Violinist  and  composer  of  valuable 
instructive  music  for  the  violin;  born 
at  Brussels.  When  sixteen  he  became 
a  member  of  the  theatre  orchestra 
in  Antwerp.  He  studied  in  Paris  with 
Habeneck,  Lafont  and  Baillot,  then 
returned  to  Brussels  and  began  to 
teach.  In  1828  he  commenced  to  play 
in  the  city  orchestra;  in  1832  he  was 
made  solo  violinist,  and  in  1835  was 
appointed  to  teach  violin  at  the  local 
Conservatory.  Among  his  instructive 
compositions  for  the  violin  is  a  series 
of  duets  for  two  violins,  founded  on 
rhythms  from  the  symphonies  of  Bee- 
thoven. Some  of  his  other  writings 
are  three  books  of  etudes  of  the 
second,  fourth  and  sixth  position; 
three  etudes  in  fugue  and  staccato; 
and  Mecanisme  du  Violon. 

Mees  (maz),  Arthur.    1850- 

Musical  conductor  and  writer  on 
musical  subjects;  born  at  Columbus, 
Ohio.  His  early  musical  education 
was  obtained  at  Concordia  College, 
Fort  Wayne,  Ind.,  after  which  he 
went  to  Berlin,  where  he  studied  piano 
with  Theodore  Kullak,  theory  with 
C.  F.  Weitzmann  and  score-reading 
and  conducting  with  Heinrich  Dorn. 
He  afterward  studied  at  Leipsic.  For 
six  years  he  conducted  the  Cincinnati 
May  Festival  chorus.  He  was  assist- 
ant conductor  of  an  American  opera 




company  and,  after  1896,  assistant 
conductor  of  the  Chicago  Orchestra 
under  Theodore  Thomas  and  of  the 
Chicago  Orchestra  chorus.  He  also 
conducted  the  New  York  Mendels- 
sohn Glee  Club,  the  Albany  Musical 
Association,  the  Orange  Mendelssohn 
Society  and  the  Newark  Orpheus 
Society.  From  1887  to  1896  he  wrote 
analytical  programs  of  the  New  York 
Philharmonic  Society,  and  since  1896 
has  written  those  of  the  Chicago 
Orchestra.  He  is  the  author  of  Choir 
and  Choral  Music,  and  of  a  set  of 
Piano  Studies  on  passages  from 
important  piano  works.  He  succeeded 
Wallace  Goodrich  as  conductor  of  the- 
celebrated  Worcester  Festivals. 

Mehlig  (ma-likh),  Anna.    1846- 

Gifted  pianist;  born  at  Stuttgart; 
received  her  early  musical  education 
in  the  Conservatory  of  her  native 
town,  later  studying  under  Liszt  at 
Weimar.  Played  in  concert  tours  on 
the  Continent,  in  England  and  Amer- 
ica. Made  her  London  debut  in  1866 
at  a  Philharmonic  concert,  and  played 
there  and  at  the  Crystal  Palace  every 
season  until  1869.  She  then  came 
to  America,  but  reappeared  in  Lon- 
don in  1875.  Since  her  marriage  to 
Herr  Falk  she  has  lived  in  Antwerp. 

Mehul      (ma-iil),     fitienne      Nicolas. 


French  writer  of  operas  and  songs; 
one  of  the  last  members  of  the  old 
classical  school  of  musicians  in 
France,  and  a  favorite  composer  of 
the  great  Napoleon.  He  was  born 
at  Givet,  in  Ardennes,  where  his 
father  was  a  cook,  and  was  able  to 
grive  him  only  a  very  limited  edu- 
cation. The  boy  began  organ  lessons 
with  an  old  blind  musician,  and  made 
such  good  progress  that  he  became 
the  organist  of  the  Recollets  Con- 
vent at  the  age  of  ten.  Later  he 
studied  with  Hauser,  who  was  organ- 
ist at  the  Convent  of  Lavaldieu,  and, 
when  he  was  fourteen,  was  made  a 
deputy  organist  there.  Went  to  Paris 
in  1778  and  became  a  pupil  of  Ebel- 
mann,  teaching  and  writing  sonatas. 
In  1779  he  saw  the  first  performance 
of  Gluck's  Iphigenie  en  Tauride  and 
was  profoundly  impressed  by  it. 
Gluck  offered  to  give  him  some  les- 
sons, and  soon  discovered  that  Mehul 
was  not  fitted  for  church  composi- 
tion, which  until  that  time  had  been 
his  aim,  and  advised  him  to  take  up 

opera.  His  Cora  et  Alonzo  was 
accepted  by  the  Academy,  but  its 
appearance  was  postponed.  Euphro- 
sine  et  Coradin  was  produced  with 
excellent  results  at  the  Opera  Comique 
in  1790.  Then  followed  Stratonice,  the 
romantic  story  of  a  prince  who  loved 
his  father's  betrothed;  Phrosine  et 
Melidor;  Le  Jeune  Henri;  and  Ario- 
dant.  By  this  time  Mehul's  musical 
reputation  was  firmly  established,  and 
in  1795  he  was  made  a  member  of 
the  Academy.  During  these  years 
he  had  produced  many  works  of  lesser 
importance,  among  them  compositions 
celebrating  events  of  the  Revolution 
and  patriotic  songs,  as  the  famous 
Chant  du  Depart.  This  had  caused 
him  to  be  looked  upon  as  a  sort  of 
musician  of  the  people.  In  1802  he 
was  decorated  with  the  cross  of  the 
Legion  of  Honor.  His  later  works 
are  LTrato,  a  satire  on  the  Ital- 
ian opera  buffa;  Utal,  a  subject 
taken  from  Ossian,  notable  for  the 
entire  absence  of  violinns  in  the 
orchestral  score;  Les  Aveugles  de 
Tolede;  and  Joseph,  considered  his 
masterpiece.  This  last  opera  follows 
the  simple  story  of  the  Bible  and  is 
entirely  without  women  characters. 
It  shows  the  influence  of  Gluck,  but 
is  original,  having  many  beautiful  pas- 
sages, the  words  being  very  appro- 
priate. Though  generally  using  seri- 
ous subjects,  the  composer  brought 
out  a  few  comic  operas.  Among 
the  best  of  them  are  Une  Folie 
and  Le  Tresor  Suppose.  Mehul 
worked  with  unfailing  industry,  com- 
posing twenty-four  operas  in  seven- 
teen years  besides  his  other  works, 
but  he  became  a  victim  of  consump- 
tion, and  was  obliged  to  retire  to 
Provence.  He  died  at  Paris.  The 
music  of  Mehul  was  representative 
of  the  revolutionary  spirit  of  France 
in  much  the  same  way  that  the  songs 
of  Halfdan  Kjerulf  were  characteris- 
tic of  Norway's  struggles  for  liberty. 
His  directness  and  strong  emotion 
are  qualities  in  which  this  fact  is 
exemplified.  He  is  distinctly  a  fol- 
lower of  Gluck,  and  still  uses  a  form 
of  his  own.  From  a  scientific  stand- 
point he  surpassed  Gluck,  but  his  dra- 
matic insight  or  instinct  was  inferior 
to  that  of  Gluck. 

Meifred  (me-fra),  Joseph  fimile.  1791- 


Horn   virtuoso,    who   perfected   the 
valve-horn;  was  born  at  Colmars,  in 




the  Lower  Alps.  At  the  Paris  Con- 
servatory he  studied  under  Dauprat, 
and  was  a  professor  from  1833  to  1865. 
He  died  in  Paris,  1867.  He  perfected 
the  valve-horn,  on  its  introduction 
into  France,  and  has  written  Methode 
de  chor  chromatique,  avec  trois  pis- 
tons; Methode  pour  le  cor  a  deux 
pistons;  several  horn  duets;  notice  sur 
la  fabrication  des  instruments  de  cui- 
ore  en  general  et  sur  celle  du  cor 
chromatique  en  particulier;  and  de 
I'entendue  de  I'emploi  et  des  res- 
sourses  du  cor  en  general  et  de  ses 
corps  de  recharge  en  particulier. 

Meinardus      (mi-nar'-doos),     Ludwig 

Siegfried.     1827-1896. 

Composer  and  writer;  born  at 
Hooksiel,  educated  in  the  Gymnasium 
at  Jever.  His  parents  wished  him  to 
study  theology,  but  his  musical  abil- 
ity was  so  pronounced  that  they 
finally  consented  to  let  him  study 
music,  and  he  began  on  the  violoncello 
under  the  local  teacher.  In  1846  he 
entered  the  Leipsic  Conservatory, 
leaving  it  after  a  year  for  private 
instruction  from  Riccius.  In  1850  he 
went  to  Berlin  to  study  with  Marx, 
but  for  some  reason  the  police  would 
not  allow  him  to  remain,  and  he  went 
to  Liszt  at  Weimar.  He  conducted 
small  theatrical  orchestras  at  Erfurt 
and  Nordhausen,  and  finally  was 
established  at  Berlin  in  1853.  On 
completing  his  education  he  was  made 
conductor  of  the  Singakademie  at 
Glogau,  where  he  stayed  until  1865, 
leaving  to  fill  a  position  in  the 
Dresden  Conservatory.  In  1874  he 
removed  to  Hamburg,  where  he 
worked  as  composer  and  critic  on  the 
Hamburger  Korrespondent.  In  1887 
he  became  organist  at  Bielefeld, 
where  he  died  in  1896.  Among  his 
compositions  are  Gideon,  Konig 
Salomo,  Simon  Petrus,  Luther  in 
Worms;  two  operas,  Doktor  Sassa- 
fras, and  Bahnesa;  the  ballads,  Frau 
Hitt,  Die  Nonne,  Jung  Baldurs  Sieg, 
and  Rolands  Schwanenlied;  besides 
some  chamber-music.  He  has  written 
a  memoir  of  Mattheson  and  some  col- 
lected criticisms. 

Melba  (mel'-ba),  Nellie.     1859- 

Probably  the  foremost  prima  donna 
of  her  time.  Her  maiden  name  was 
Nellie  Mitchell,  and  she  was  born  in 
Richmond,  a  suburb  of  Melbourne, 
Australia.  Authorities  differ  as  to 
the    date    of   her    birth.      Her    father 


was  a  Scotch  conductor,  who  had  been 
brought  up  strictly  according  to  the 
principles  of  the  Scotch  Presbyterian 
Church;  but  he  was  fond  of  music, 
and  is  said  to  have  played  the  violin 
and  sung  bass  in  the  choir  of  his 
church.  Her  mother,  who  was  of 
Spanish  descent,  was  a  good  amateur 
pianist.  Thei^  daughter  early  showed 
her  love  of  music,  and  when  she  was 
six  sang  at  a  charity  concert  in  the 
Melbourne  Town  Hall.  She  was  sent 
to  the  Presbyterian  Ladies'  College 
at  Melbourne,  where  she  studied  com- 
position and  liarmony  and  took  les- 
sons on  piano,  violin  and  organ,  but 
gave  no  attention  to  her  voice  and 
held  no  hope  of  a  public  musical 
career  because  of  her  father's  intense 
disapproval.  In  1882  she  married  Cap- 
tain Charles  Armstrong,  son  of  Sir 
Archibald  Armstrong,  of  Kings 
County,  Ireland.  It  was  not  until 
after  her  marriage  that  she  abandoned 
the  idea  of  a  career  as  a  pianist  and 
turned  to  singing.  She  sang  three 
months  in  the  Catholic  Church  of  St. 
Francis  at  Melbourne,  and,  when  her 
father  became  Australian  Commis- 
sioner at  the  Colonial  Exhibition  in 
London  in  1886,  she  accompanied  him, 
determined  to  study  singing.  Going 
to  Paris,  she  sought  an  interview 
with  Madame  Marchesi,  who,  on  hear- 
ing her  marvelous  voice,  its  silvery 
purity  and  its  wonderful  natural  trill, 
called  to  her  husband  that  at  last 
she  had  found  a  star.  For  twelve 
months  pupil  and  teacher  worked 
earnestly  and  carefully,  becoming  life 
friends  during  that  time,  and  at  the 
end  of  this  short  period  the  famous 
teacher  pronounced  her  pupil  ready 
for  an  operatic  debut.  In  honor  of 
her  native  city,  her  stage  name,  Melba, 
was  chosen,  and  on  October  12,  1887, 
she  made  her  debut  at  the  Theatre 
de  la  Monnaie  at  Brussels  as  Gilda 
in  Rigoletto.  Her  supremely  beautiful 
voice  brought  immediate  success, 
although  she  was  quite  without  expe- 
rience,  especially   as   an   actress.     In 

1888  she  appeared  in  Lucia  di  Lam- 
mermoor  in  Covent  Garden,  with  only 
moderate  success,  owing  to  her  lack 
of  stage  experience.     In  the  spring  of 

1889  she  first  sang  at  the  Paris  Opera, 
making  her  debut  as  Ophelie  in  Am- 
broise  Thomas'  opera,  Hamlet.  She 
studied  the  roles  of  Marguerite  and 
Juliette  under  Gounod  himself,  who 
took  the  greatest  delight  in  her,  and 
listened  rapturously  to  her  rendering 



of  his  lovely  music.  June  15  she  sang 
Romeo  and  Juliet  at  Covent  Garden, 
completely  captivating  the  London 
public,  with  whom  she  has  increased 
in  popularity  ever  since.  In  1891  she 
went  to  St.  Petersburg,  where  she 
received  an  ovation.  The  following 
year  she  made  her  debut  in  Milan  under 
extraordinary  circumstances.  Jealous 
of  the  renown  she  had  won  in  other 
cities  before  the  verdict  of  La  Scala 
had  been  given,  the  Milanese  enter- 
tained a  hostile  feeling  for  her,  which 
expressed  itself  even  in  threats  against 
her  life.  Although  unnerved  by  such 
preliminaries  the  diva  made  her 
appearance  as  Lucia,  and  with  her 
first  notes  conquered  her  foes.  She 
was  given  forty  recalls,  the  final  one 
lasting  almost  a  half-hour,  and  the 
press  extolled  her  singing  in  propor- 
tion to  its  former  hostile  criticism. 
In  1893  she  appeared  for' the  first 
time  in  America,  making  her  debut 
at  Chicago.  In  1902  she  returned  to 
Australia,  after  sixteen  years'  absence, 
and  was  giv«n  an  almost  royal  wel- 
come. Madame  Melba  is  not  a  gifted 
actress,  but  the  wonderful  beauty  of 
her  voice  has  placed  her  at  the  very 
head  of  opera-singers.  It  has  a  com- 
pass of  two  and  a  half  octaves,  is 
remarkably  even  and  brilliant,  and 
in  flexibility  and  ease  of  tone  pro- 
duction is  comparable  to  Madame 
Patti's.  The  roles  in  which  she  has 
most  frequently  appeared  are  Gilda; 
Ophelie;  Juliette;  Marguerite;  Esme- 
ralda; Elsa;  Violetta;  Rosina,  the 
Queen,  in  Les  Huguenots;  Michaela  in 
Carmen;  Xedda  in  Pagliacci;  Helene 
in  the  opera  of  that  name  written  for 
her  by  Saint-Saens;  and  Mimi  in  Puc- 
cini's La  Boheme.  As  a  woman 
Madame  Melba  is  charming.  Warm- 
hearted and  generous,  she  has  num- 
berless times  given  aid  to  young  and 
unknown  musicians  and  artists,  not- 
able among  whom  is  Puccini,  whom 
she  helped  to  a  deserved  recognition 
by  insisting  upon  singing  La  Boheme 
against  the  wishes  of  her  manager, 
bringing  to  the  part  so  much  appre- 
ciation and  interpretative  beauty  that 
the  role  was  soon  recognized  as  one 
of  her  best.  Among  her  fellow-musi- 
cians she  is  loved  and  honored  for 
her  beauty  and  dignity  of  character. 

Melgounov      (Mel'-goo-nof),      Julius 

Nicholaevich.    1846-1893. 

Russian      composer      and     musical 
writer;    born    at    Vetlouga,    in    Kos- 

troma;  began  the  study  of  music  as 
a  pupil  of  Dreyschock.  Made  his 
debut  as  a  pianist  in  St.  Petersburg 
at  the  age  of  eighteen.  Laroche  taught 
him  theory,  then  he  entered  the  Con- 
servatory at  Moscow,  where  he  met 
Rudolph  Westphal,  at  that  time  pro- 
fessor in  the  Katkov  Lycee.  He 
became  greatly  interested  in  West- 
phal's  theories  on  rhythm,  and  accom- 
panied that  artist  as  pianist  on  a 
concert  tour  undertaken  to  introduce 
these  theories  into  Germany.  With 
Westphal  he  has  written  a  book 
applying  the  principles  of  rhythm  to 
ten  of  Bach's  fugues.  He  has  also 
written  several  books  on  Russian 
folk-songs,  and  a  treatise  on  Russian 
National   Music. 

MeUon,  Alfred,    1821-1867. 

Prominent  English  conductor  and 
composer;  was  born  at  London.  He 
first  played  the  violin  in  the  Birming- 
ham and  other  orchestras  and  then 
led  the  ballet  at  the  Royal  Italian 
Opera  at  Covent  Garden,  directed  the 
music  at  the  Haj'market  and  Adelphi 
Theatres,  and  managed  the  Pyne  and 
Harrison  English  Opera  Companies. 
He  married  the  well-known  actress, 
Miss  Woolgar.  In  1859  his  opera, 
Victorine,  was  produced  at  Covent 
Garden.  He  afterwards  conducted  the 
Musical  Society  and  the  Promenade 
concerts  at  Covent  Garden,  and  in 
1865  was  made  director  of  the  Liver- 
pool Philharmonic  Society.  His  works 
are  Victorine,  an  opera;  piano  and 
instrumental  music;  songs  and  ballads. 

Membree  (man-bra),  Edmond.     1820- 


Dramatic  composer  and  teacher; 
was  born  at  Valenciennes,  France. 
At  the  Paris  Conservatory  he  studied 
piano  under  Alkan  and  Zimmermann, 
composition  under  Carafa  and  har- 
mony under  Dourlen.  He  became  a 
teacher  of  music,  was  made  president 
of  the  Society  of  Musical  Amateurs, 
and  in  1876  was  decorated  with  the 
cross  of  the  Legion  of  Honor.  Among 
his  writings  are  his  operas,  L'esclave, 
Frangois  Villon,  La  fille  de  I'orfevre, 
Les  Parias,  La  Court  echelle,  Le 
moine  rouge,  Freyghor,  and  Colomba, 
which  last  two  he  did  not  finish.  He 
has  written  also  the  two  cantatas, 
Polytheme  et  Galatee,  and  Fingal,  as 
well  as  the  music  of  the  choruses  of 
.(Edipe  roi;  some  ballads  and  chan- 



Mendel   (men'-dcl),   Hermann.     1834- 

Interesting  as  a  writer  of  the  most 
comprehensive  musical  lexicon  which 
has  yet  been  published;  was  born  at 
Halle.  At  Leipsic  he  studied  under 
Moscheles  and  Mendelssohn,  and  at 
Berlin  under  Wieprecht.  He  had  a 
musical  business  in  Berlin  from  1862 
to  1868,  besides  contributing  to  such 
periodicals  as  The  Echo,  Der  Ton- 
halle,  the  Berliner  Montageszeitung 
and  Theaterdiener.  He  was  editor 
of  Deutsche  Musiker  Zeitung,  which 
published  his  short  biography  of  Nico- 
lai.  He  wrote  a  biography  of  Meyer- 
beer, entitled  G.  Meyerbeer,  his  Life 
and  Works,  and  a  Volkliederbuch,  and 
edited  Mode's  Opernbibiothek.  He 
died  in  Berlin,  before  completing  his 
dictionary,  which  in  eleven  volumes 
was  edited  by  Dr.  August  Reimann. 

Mendelssohn      (men'-d'l-z5n),      Felix 
Bartholdy.     1809-1847. 

To  this  musician  the  world  owes 
a  double  debt  of  gratitude,  for, 
besides  composing  some  of  the  finest 
music  ever  written  and  founding  a 
great  Conservatory,  he  revived  the 
works  of  John  Sebastian  Bach  and 
taught  us  to  appreciate  them.  A 
grandson  of  Moses  Mendelssohn,  the 
Jewish  philosopher,  son  of  a  wealthy 
father  and  a  refined  and  cultured 
mother,  he  had  every  advantage  that 
could  foster  his  genius.  He  was  born 
in  Hamburg,  but  went  to  live  in  Ber- 
lin when  about  three  years  old.  His 
mother  taught  Felix  and  his  sister, 
Fanny,  who  was  also  very  talented, 
and  throughout  her  life  his  greatest 
friend.  During  a  visit  to  Paris,  in 
1816,  the  children  were  taught  piano 
by  Madam  Bigot,  and  on  their  return 
to  Berlin  began  their  general  educa- 
tion, including  a  thorough  course  of 
counterpoint  and  composition,  with 
Zelter,  through  whom  Mendelssohn 
formed  his  friendship  with  Goethe, 
which  lasted  until  the  latter's  death. 
In  1822,  on  returning  from  a  trip 
through  Switzerland  with  his  family, 
he  again  stopped  at  Weimar.  At 
that  time,  only  thirteen  years  old, 
Mendelssohn  had  already  composed 
a  Kyrie  for  two  choirs,  a  Psalm  with 
a  grand  double  fugue  for  the  Sing- 
akademie,  a  quartet  for  piano  and 
strings,  a  number  of  symphonies  and 
concertos,  and  had  begun  to  write 
his  piano  quartet  in  C  minor  and  com- 
pleted his  fourth  operetta,  Die  beiden 


Neffen,  which  was  performed  in  his 
father's  house  on  his  fifteenth  birth- 
day. He  had  unusual  opportunities 
for  perfecting  himself  in  the  art  of 
conducting,  because  it  was  the  cus- 
tom of  his  family  and  musical  friends 
to  give  Sunday  morning  concerts  in 
his  father's  house,  which  he  always 
conducted  and  at  which  he  often  per- 
formed his  own  compositions.  In 
December,  1824,  Moscheles  came  to 
Berlin,  and  was  persuaded  to  give 
him  some  lessons,  although  he  recog- 
nized Mendelssohn  as  already  his 
superior.  This  was  the  beginning  of 
their  lifelong  friendship.  In  1825 
he  accompanied  his  father  to  Paris, 
where  an  interview  with  Cherubini 
convinced  the  elder  Mendelssohn  that 
Felix  was  justified  in  following  a 
musical  career.  He  met  Moscheles 
again  in  Paris,  and  became  acquainted 
with  all  the  great  musicians  of  that 
city.  On  his  way  home  he  visited 
Goethe  and  played  the  piano  quartet 
in  B  minor,  which  he  had  dedicated 
to  him.  About  this  t^me  the  Men- 
delssohn family  moved  to  a  house  on 
the  outskirts  of  Berlin,  which  boasted 
large  grounds  and  a  summer-house  in 
the  garden  capable  of  holding  several 
hundred  people.  This  was  an  ideal 
place  for  the  Sunday  morning  con- 
certs. During  this  year  Mendelssohn 
completed  the  opera,  Camacho's  Wed- 
ding, and  wrote  his  Octet  for  strings, 
usually  regarded  as  his  first  mature 
composition.  During  the  summer  of 
1826  he  read  Schlegel  and  Teick's 
translation  of  Shakespeare  with  his 
sisters,  and  thus  inspired,  he  wrote 
the  wonderful  Midsummer  Night's 
Dream  Overture.  After  being  several 
times  played  on  the  piano  it  was  per- 
formed by  an  orchestra  in  the  house 
in  the  garden.  Its  first  public  pro- 
duction occurred  at  Stettin  in  Febru- 
ary, 1827.  Early  this  same  year 
Camacho's  Wedding  was  produced  at 
Berlin,  and  favorably  received,  but, 
owing  to  the  illness  of  the  tenor  and 
disputes  and  delays  by  the  manager, 
it  was  postponed  and  never  repeated. 
It  was  the  only  opera  of  Mendels- 
sohn's that  was  publicly  produced. 
Mendelssohn  was  an  earnest  student 
of  John  Sebastian  Bach,  and  during 
the  winter  of  1827-1828  formed  a  choir 
of  sixteen  voices  to  practise  the 
Matthew  Passion  music.  The  results 
were  so  good  that  in  1829  a  public 
performance  of  the  music  was  given, 
which  was  repeated  on  Bach's  birth- 




day,  March  21.  Thus  Mendels,sohn, 
just  one  century  after  the  composer's 
death,  performed  the  greatest  of  ora- 
torios and  revived  interest  in  the  fore- 
most musicians  of  the  world.  In  1829 
Mendelssohn  made  his  first  trip  to 
England,  the  country  where  he  was 
first  appreciated,  and  to  which  he 
always  referred  with  loving  gratitude. 
On  Midsummer  Night  he  conducted 
the  Midsummer  Night's  Dream  Over- 
ture. He  became  the  idol  of  the 
British  public  and  was  received  with 
enthusiasm  wherever  he  went.  At  the 
close  of  the  London  season  he  made 
an  extended  tour  through  Scotland  and 
Ireland,  which  proved  rich  in  inspira- 
tion and  gave  him  material  for  The 
Hebrides  Overture,  The  Scotch  Sym- 
phony, and  a  Scotch  Sonata.  During 
that  year  he  wrote  a  violin  quartet  in 
E  fiat,  an  organ  composition-  in  honor 
of  his  sister's  wedding;  the  Scotch 
Sonata,  and  the  Reformation  Sym- 
phony to  be  played  at  the  tercentennial 
celebration  of  the  AugsburgConfession 
of  Faith  in  1830.  In  March,  after 
a  fortnight  with  Goethe  and  a  month 
spent  at  Munich,  he  went  to  Italy.  He 
visited  all  the  principal  cities,  stayed 
some  time  in  Rome  and  did  not  return 
home  until  the  following  September, 
when  he  made  a  walking  trip  from 
Interlaken  to  Munich.  During  this 
time  in  Italy  he  worked  on  Goethe's 
Walpurgisnacht,  finished  Fingal's 
Cave,  and  wrote  his  Scotch  and  Italian 
symphonies.  While  he  was  in  Munich 
he  composed  and  played  his  G  minor 
concerto  and  received  a  commission 
to  write  an  opera,  which  caused  him 
to  go  to  Diisseldorf  to  consult  Immer- 
mann  in  regard  to  a  libretto  from  The 
Tempest.  During  this  time  he  laid 
the  foundation  for  his  future  work 
there.  His  last  visit  to  Paris,  made 
during  the  latter  part  of  this  year, 
was  embittered  by  the  rejection  of  his 
Reformation  Symphony  as  too  pedan- 
tic by  the  orchestra,  and  saddened  by 
the  news  of  the  death  of  Goethe. 
Although  he  had  been  warmly 
received  by  all  the  great  musicians 
of  the  city,  and  his  Midsummer 
Night's  Dream  music  had  been  enthusi- 
astically applauded  at  a  Conservatory 
concert,  he  was  glad  to  return  to 
England  in  April,  1832.  The  season 
that  followed  was  a  brilliant  one.  The 
Philharmonic  Society  performed  the 
Hebrides  Overture,  he  played  his  G 
minor  concerto  and  he  wrote  the  Ca- 
priccio  bfillante  in  B,  and  published 

a  four-hand  arrangement  of  the  Mid- 
summer Night's  Dream  Overture  and 
the  First  Book  of  Songs  Without 
Words.  The  spring  of  1834  he  went 
to  London  to  conduct  the  Italian 
Symphony,  finished  that  year  for  the 
Philharmonic  Society,and  on  his  return 
went  to  Diisseldorf  to  conduct  the 
Lower  Rhine  Festival.  This  was  so  suc- 
cessful that  the  authorities  asked 
Mendelssohn  to  take  charge  of  their 
town  music,  an  offer  which  he  gladly 
accepted.  He  began  by  reforming 
the  church-music;  he  introduced  many 
improvements  into  the  theatre,  but 
found  the  work  so  uncongenial  that 
after  a  short  time  he  gave  it  up. 
During  1834  he  wrote  Infelice  for  the 
Philharmonic  Society,  completed  Me- 
lusina,  composed  the  Rondo  Brillante 
in  E  flat  and  the  Capriccio  in  A 
minor,  and  began  work  on  St.  Paul, 
a  commission  from  the  Ciicilien-Ver- 
ein  of  Frankfort.  After  conducting 
the  Lower  Rhine  Festival  for  1835  he 
went  to  Leipsic,  where  he  had  accepted 
the  position  of  leader  of  the  Gewand- 
haus  concerts.  Considered  by  many 
the  foremost  of  all  conductors,  he 
was  especially  fitted  to  this  work,  and 
brought  the  concerts  to  a  degree  of 
excellence  never  before  reached.  The 
death  of  his  father  saddened  this  win- 
ter, but  in  spite  of  that  he  continued 
to  work  very  hard,  completing  St. 
Paul  and  revising  the  Melusina  Over- 
ture. The  following  May  he  again 
conducted  the  Lower  Rhine  Festival 
at  Diisseldorf,  then  went  to  Frank- 
fort to  take  charge  of  the  Cacilien- 
Verein.  During  this  summer  he  met 
Mile.  Cecile  Jeanrenaud,  who  became 
his  wife  in  March,  1837.  This  mar- 
riage proved  a  very  happy  one  and 
did  not  at  all  detract  from  his  work, 
as  may  be  seen  by  the  fact  that  even 
on  the  honeymoon  he  wrote  a  num- 
ber of  compositions.  During  August 
of  that  year  he  conducted  the  ora- 
torio, St.  Paul,  at  the  Birmingham 
Festival.  During  the  next  three 
years  most  of  his  work  was  done  in 
connection  with  the  Gewandhaus  con- 
certs. He  conducted  the  Lower  Rhine 
Festival  at  Cologne  in  1838  and  spent 
his  vacation  at  Berlin  writing  a  string 
quartet  in  D  and  a  sonata  in  F  for 
piano  and  violin.  During  the  follow- 
ing winter  he  finished  the  overture, 
Ruy  Bias,  composed  the  114th  Psalm, 
and  worked  on  the  oratorio,  Elijah. 
He  conducted  the  Festival  at  Diis- 
seldorf, and  spent  the  following  sum- 



mer  at  Frankfort  writing  some  of 
his  finest  songs  during  this  time.  At 
the  Birmingham  Festival  of  1840  he 
gave  Lobgesang,  composed  for  a  fes- 
tival in  honor  of  the  discovery  of 
printing,  held  at  Leipsic  during  that 
year,  and  during  the  following  winter 
he  produced  it  at  a  Gewandhaus  con- 
cert and  at  a  special  concert  to  the 
King  of  Saxony. 

In  1840  the  King  of  Prussia  founded 
an  Academy  of  Fine  Arts  at  Berlin 
and  appointed  Mendelssohn  director 
of  the  musical  department.  This  was 
not  a  welcome  appointment  to  the 
composer  because  he  dreaded  court 
restriction  and  disliked  returning  to 
Berlin  to  live.  He  did  not  remove 
his  family  from  Leipsic  and  returned 
there  often,  on  one  occasion  to  con- 
duct his  Scotch  Symphony  at  a  Ge- 
wandhaus concert.  He  directed  the 
Rhine  Festival  at  Diisseldorf  that 
year,  and  in  the  spring  went  to  Eng- 
land to  conduct  his  Scotch  Symphony 
at  a  Philharmonic  concert.  The  po- 
sition at  Berlin  was  more  intoler- 
able than  before;  plans  for  the  Acad- 
emy had  fallen  through,  and  as  a 
substitute  the  King  proposed  giving 
him  charge  of  a  select  choir  and 
orchestra  which  he  should  organize 
and  permission  to  live  wherever  he 
wished.  He  was  given  the  title  of 
General  Music  Director  to  the  King 
of  Prussia,  and  in  consequence  had 
to  resign  the  position  he  held  as 
chapelmaster  to  the  King  of  Saxony. 
During  an  interview  with  the  King  of 
Saxony  regarding  this  resignation  he 
persuaded  that  monarch  to  devote  a 
legacy  left  to  the  state  to  the  found- 
ing of  a  musical  conservatory  at  Leip- 
sic. Such  a  project  had  always  been 
the  work  nearest  his  heart,  and  he 
started  at  once  to  organize  this  insti- 
tution. While  at  Leipsic  on  this  work 
he  set  to  music  Racine's  Athalie, 
CEdipus  Coloneus,  and  The  Tempest 
for  the  King  of  Prussia.  In  Decem- 
ber, 1842,  he  lost  his  mother,  but,  as 
in  his  former  bereavement,  hard  work 
proved  his  solace.  In  January,  1843, 
the  prospectus  of  a  conservatory 
appeared,  bearing  the  names  of  Men- 
delssohn, Becker,  David  Hauptmann 
and  Schumann,  In  April  the  great 
Bach  monument  opposite  the  Thomas 
School  was  unveiled,  and  he  conducted 
a  concert  composed  wholly  of  Bach's 
compositions.  Thus  in  the  same  year 
two  of  his  dearest  wishes  were  accom- 
plished.     After    a    quiet    summer    at 


Leipsic  he  resumed  his  duties  at  Ber- 
lin in  August,  conducting  Antigone 
and  the  Midsummer  Night's  Dream 
music  at  Potsdam.  Seeing  that  he 
would  have  to  stay  in  Berlin  during 
the  winter,  he  arranged  to  have  Fer- 
dinand Hiller  conduct  the  Gewand- 
haus concerts.  In  February  he 
received  an  invitation  to  conduct  the 
last  six  concerts  of  the  London  Phil- 
harmonic Society  and  gladly  accepted. 
After  the  coldness  of  Berlin  the 
enthusiastic  reception  he  was  given 
in  London  was  very  grateful.  He 
played  at  concerts  of  the  Sacred  Har- 
mony Society  and  at  the  Society  of 
British  Musicians,  and  everywhere 
was  greeted  with  an  ovation.  After 
this  and  a  summer  spent  near  Frank- 
fort with  his  wife  and  children  return 
to  Berlin  was  out  of  the  question. 
He  obtained  a  release  from  the  King, 
then  returned  to  Frankfort  to  rest 
until  September.  During  this  time  he 
completed  six  organ  sonatas;  a  trio 
in  C  minor;  a  string  quartet  in  B 
flat;  and  the  sixth  book  of  Songs 
Without  Words. 

In  September,  1845,  Mendelssohn 
returned  to  Leipsic.  His  first  appear- 
ance at  the  Gewandhaus  received  an 
ovation.  His  work  at  the  Conserva- 
tory was  a  source  of  unfailing  inspira- 
tion to  his  students.  He  taught  no 
regular  classes,  but  his  lectures, 
enlivened  by  the  fire  of  his  genius, 
inspired  every  one  present.  He  talked 
sometimes  on_  composition,  some- 
times on  technical  matter,  often  illus- 
trating by  brilliant  playing  on  piano 
and  organ,  of  which  he  was  the  first 
master  of  his  time,  and  often  drawing 
on  his  beloved  Bach  for  suggestion  or 
example.  His  marvelous  memory  was 
stored  with  the  works  of  the  masters 
and  his  resources  were  unfailing. 
Among  other  things,  he  organized  an 
orchestra  among  the  students  of  the 
Conservatory,  which  played  at  the 
Gewandhaus,  and  which  has  since 
become  famous  as  one  of  the  finest 
orchestras  in  Germany.  Beside  all 
his  work  at  the  Gewandhaus  and  the 
Conservatory,  he  worked  on  Elijah, 
and  during  1846  conducted  the  Lower 
Rhine  Festival,  composing  Lauda  Sion 
for  this  occasion  and,  for  the  first 
festival  of  the  German-Flemish  Asso- 
ciation which  he  conducted  at  Cologne, 
arranged  a  Festsang  on  Schiller's  An 
die  Kunstler.  He  went  to  Birming- 
ham to  conduct  Elijah,  which  he  had 
sadly   overworked   himself   to    finish, 




and  instead  of  resting  on  his  return 
set  to  work  on  some  compositions 
for  the  King  of  Prussia.  His  last 
visit  to  England  was  in  April,  1847, 
when  he  went  to  London  and  con- 
ducted four  performances  of  Elijah 
with  the  Sacred  Harmony  Society. 
Soon  after  his  return  he  received  news 
of  the  death  of  his  beloved  sister, 
Fanny.  Added  to  overwork  this  pros- 
trated him,  and  was  a  direct  cause  of 
his  death.  He  retired  to  Switzerland 
until  September,  then,  after  conduct- 
ing Elijah  at  Berlin  and  Vienna, 
returned  home.  But  a  sight  of  his 
sister's  home  in  Berlin  had  brought 
his  grief  freshly  before  him,  and  he 
never  recovered  his  spirits.  He  wrote 
the  string  quartet  in  F  minor,  an 
andante  and  a  scherzo  in  E  major 
and  A  minor,  and  some  parts  of  an 
opera,  Lorely,  and  an  oratorio, 
Christus.  When  apparently  busy  with 
plans  and  work  for  the  future  he 
was  taken  ill  late  in  October,  1847, 
and  died  on  November  4.  For  the 
great  funeral  given  him  by  the  Con- 
servatory, Moscheles  arranged  one  of 
the  Songs  Without  Words  as  a  fu- 
neral march,  and  it  was  played  by  the 
orchestra  of  the  Gewandhaus  when 
his  body  was  being  taken  into  the 


Bartholdy,  P.  M.,  ed. — Letters  of  Felix 
Mendelssohn  Bartholdy. 

Benedict,  Jules. — Sketch  of  the  life 
and  works  of  the  late  Felix  Men- 
delssohn Bartholdy. 

Blackburn,  Vernon. — Mendelssohn. 

Devrient,  Eduard. — Meine  Ermner- 
unger  an   Felix   Mendelssohn. 

Hensel,  Sebastian. — Die  Familie  Men- 
delssohn.    3  volumes. 

Hiller,   Ferdinand. — Mendelssohn. 

Lampadius,  W.  A. — Felix  Mendels- 
sohn Bartholdy. 

Rockstro,  W.  S. — Mendelssohn. 

Stratton,    S.    S. — Mendelssohn. 

Wolflf,  Ernst. — Felix  Mendelssohn 

Mengal     (man-gal),    Martin    Joseph. 


Composer,  conductor  and  player  of 
the  horn;  born  in  Ghent.  He  began 
his  musical  education  with  his  father, 
and  at  the  age  of  twelve  is  said  to 
have  written  compositions  for  the 
horn.  Entering  the  Conservatory  of 
Paris  in  1804,  he  studied  the  horn 
with  Duvernoy,  harmony  with  Catel 
and  composition  under   Reicha.     He 

joined  the  band  of  the  Imperial  Guard 
and  went  through  the  Austrian  cam- 
paign, 1805,  and  the  Prussian  campaign 
in  1806.  In  1807  he  joined  the  orches- 
tra of  the  Odeon  Theatre  at  Paris, 
changing  in  1812  to  that  of  the  Fey- 
deau.  In  1824  he  assumed  the  man- 
agement of  a  theatre  at  Ghent,  but 
when  this  proved  unsuccessful  he  be- 
came conductor,  filling  a  similar  posi- 
tion at  Antwerp  until  1832,  and  at 
The  Hague  from  1832  to  1835.  He 
was  appointed  director  of  the  Con- 
servatory of  Ghent  in  1835.  Among 
his  writings  are  two  horn  concertos, 
duets  for  horn  and  harp;  fantasias  for 
horn  and  piano;  besides  his  operas, 
Une  nuit  au  chateau;  L'ile  de  Babi- 
lary,  and  Les  Infideles. 

Mengozzi     (men-god'-ze),     Bernardo. 


Italian  tenor  opera-singer  and  com- 
poser; born  in  Florence.  Began  his 
musical  studies  in  his  native  city,  and 
later  went  to  Venice,  where  he  studied 
under  Pasquale  Potenza,  then  cantor 
of  St.  Mark's.  In  1785  he  sang  in 
oratorio  at  Naples  with  Signora 
Benini,  who  later  became  his  wife, 
and  in  1786  they  went  to  England.  In 
1787  he  went  Ito  Paris,  where  he  sang 
before  Marie  Antoinette  and  became 
associated  with  Mandini  and  Viganoni 
of  the  Italian  Opera  Company  of  the 
Theatre  de  Monsieur.  He  stayed  in 
Paris  after  the  Revolution,  and 
in  1795  became  professor  of  singing  in 
the  Conservatory.  He  also  wrote  sev- 
eral operettas  for  the  Feydeau  and 
Montausier  Theatres.  He  died  in 
Paris  before  he  finished  his  most 
important  work,  A  Method  of  Singing 
for  the  Conservatory,  which  has  been 
edited  by  Langle. 

Menter     (men'-ter),     Joseph.       1808- 

Well-known  virtuoso  on  the  violon- 
cello; born  at  Deutenkofen,  Bavaria; 
began  his  musical  education^  on  the 
violin,  but  later  studied  the  violoncello 
with  Moralt  at  Munich.  In  1829  he 
became  a  member  of  the  orchestra 
of  the  Prince  of  Hohenzollern  at 
Heckingen,  but  in  1833  resigned  his 
position  and  took  a  place  in  the  band 
of  the  Royal  Opera  at  Munich.  He 
became  well  known  by  his  concert 
tours  through  Austria,  Holland,  Ger- 
many, Belgium  and  England.  He 
composed  several  fantasies  and  arias 
with  orchestral  accompaniments. 





Menter,  Sophie.    1848- 

Daughter  of  Joseph  Menter;  a  piano 
player  and  teacher;  born  at  Munich. 
Showed  her  musical  ability  very  early, 
studying  first  with  Schonchen,  later 
with  Leonhard  at  Munich  Conserva- 
tory, then  at  the  age  of  thirteen  taking 
private  lessons  of  Niest,  _  In  1863  she 
made  her  debut,  and  in  1867  she 
appeared  at  Frankfort,  where  she  so 
impressed  Tausig  that  he  prevailed 
upon  her  to  come  to  Leipsic  as  his 
pupil.  In  1869  she  began  studying 
with  Liszt,  who  was  much  interested 
in  her,  and  contributed  much  to  her 
musical  education.  In  1872  she  mar- 
ried David  Popper,  a  violoncellist, 
but  was  divorced  in  1886.  She  was 
pianist  at  the  Court  of  Prince  of 
Hohenzollern  and  the  Emperor  of 
Austria,  and  from  1883  to  1887  she 
was  professor  at  the  Conservatory  at 
St.  Petersburg.  She  appeared  in  Eng- 
land in  1881.  She  is  noted  for  her 
wonderful  style  and  technique. 

Mercadante  (mer-ka-dan'-te),  Fran- 
cesco Saverio.  1795-1870. 
Composer,  who  ranks  high  in  the 
list  of  Italian  opera-writers;  born  at 
Altamura,  near  Bari.  When  only 
twelve  years  old  he  was  sent  to  the 
College  of  St.  Sebastian  at  Naples, 
where  under  Zingarelli  he  studied 
composition,  flute  and  violin,  and  after 
a  time  was  made  the  leader  of  the 
orchestra.  For  about  six  years  he 
composed  only  instrumental  music, 
but,  on  being  dismissed  from  the  col- 
lege, he  turned  to  dramatic  composi- 
tion. In  1818  appeared  his  first  work, 
a  cantata  for  the  Teatro  del  Fondo, 
and  in  1819  his  L'Apoteosi  d'Ercole 
was  produced  at  San  Carlo  Theatre 
with  gratifying  success.  He  com- 
posed industriously,  producing  the 
opera  buffa,  Violenza  e  costanzo,  and 
Elisa  e  Claudio  by  which  his  reputa- 
tion was  established.  He  composed 
Andronico  for  the  Venetian  Carnival. 
The  performance  of  some  of  his  works 
at  Vienna  brought  him  into  favor  with 
the  Viennese.  In  1827  he  went  to 
Spain,  returning  to  Naples  in  1831. 
He  was  appointed  to  succeed  Pietro 
Generali  as  maestro  di  cappella  of  the 
Novara  Cathedral  in  1833.  In  1836  he 
went  to  Paris  to  superintend  the  pro- 
duction of  his  opera,  I  Briganti,  and 
in  1837  II  Giuramento  was  performed 
at  Milan.  The  opera  buffa,  I  due 
illustri  rivali,  produced  in  1838,  intro- 
duced   an    innovation    in    the    use    of 

brass  instruments  to  mark  the  accent 
of  the  accompaniment,  which  proved 
a  disagreeable  characteristic  of  the 
instrumentation  of  Italian  Opera  of  a 
later  period.  He  was  made  director 
of  music  at  the  Cathedral  at  Lanciano 
in  1839,  and  in  1840  director  of  the 
Naples  Conservatory.  Owing  to  the 
loss  of  an  eye  at  Novara,  he  became 
totally  blind  in  1862,  and  had  to  dic- 
tate his  compositions.  He  died  at 
Naples  eight  years  later.  Mercadante 
was  a  member  of  the  Institute  of 
France  and  the  Italians  ranked  him 
very  high  as  a  dramatic  writer.  He 
is  one  of  the  best  of  the  composers  of 
the  school  headed  by  Rossini  and  is 
usually  named  with  Bellini  and  Doni- 
zetti. He  produced  litanies;  canta- 
tas; psalms;  vespers;  about  twenty 
masses;  a  hymn  to  Garibaldi  in  1861, 
and  one  to  Rossini  in  1866;  funeral 
symphonies  to  Bellini,  Donizetti,  Ros- 
sini and  Pacini;  II  lamento  di  Bardo, 
after  he  became  blind,  Messa  solenne; 
Le  sette  parole  di  Nostro  Signore; 
La  Rimembrance;  II  Lamento  dell' 
Arabo;  besides  his  operas,  which  num- 
bered about  sixt3^  Of  these,  I  Bri- 
ganti, produced  at  Paris,  and  Elisa  e 
Claudio  and  II  Giuramento,  both  given 
at  La  Scala  in  Milan,  are  usually  con- 
sidered his  best. 

Mereaux   (ma-ro),  Jean  Amedee  Le- 
froid  de.    1803-1874. 

Grandson  of  Jean  Nicolas  Lefroid, 
son  of  Joseph;  was  a  pianist,  teacher 
and  musical  writer.  He  was  born  in 
Paris  and  began  his  piano  training  at 
the  age  of  ten  under  Reicha.  He 
appeared  successfully  in  concert  in 
Paris  and  London.  In  1835  he  began 
to  teach  in  Rouen,  remaining  there 
until  his  death.  His  most  important 
work  is  his  collection  of  clavecin 
music,  Les  Clavecinistes  de  1637  a 
1790,  which  he  published  in  1867. 

Mereaux,  Jean  Nicolas  Amedee  Le- 
froid de.  1745-1797. 
Organist  and  dramatic  composer; 
is  best  known  for  his  two  oratorios, 
Esther  and  Samson.  He  studied 
under  French  and  Italian  masters, 
and  was  made  organist  of  the  church 
of  St.  Jacques  du  Haut  Pas  in  Paris. 
Among  his  works  are  his  operas  La 
Ressource  comique;  Le  Retour  de 
Tendresse;  Laurette;  Alexandre  aux 
Indes;  Le  Duel  comique;  CEdipe  et 
Jocaste,  and  Fabius.  His  ode  on  the 
birth  of  the  Dauphin  is  well  known. 



Mereaux,  Joseph  Nicolas  Lefroid  de. 


Son  of  Jean  Nicolas  Lefroid.  French 
organist  and  pianist;  born  in  Paris. 
He  studied  music  with  his  father.  He 
was  professor  in  the  royal  school  of 
singing  and  subsequently  professor  of 
piano  and  organist  of  the  Protestant 
Temple  of  Oratory.  He  is  said  to  have 
played  the  organ  at  the  Feast  of  the 
Federation  in  1789.  Some  of  his  com- 
positions are  Cantata  for  the  Coro- 
nation of  Napoleon  I.,  with  full 
orchestra  accompaniment;  sonatas  and 
fantasies  for  piano;  nocturne  for  piano 
and  violin;  some  sonatas  for  piano 
and  violin. 
Meriel   (ma-ri-el),  Paul.     1818- 

Violinist  and  composer;  born  at 
Mondontheau,  Loire-et-Cher.  As  a 
boy  he  supported  himself  by  violin- 
playing.  He  was  a  student  with 
Alessandro  Napolepne  at  Lisbon  and 
with  Somma  at  Perpignau.  He  became 
conductor  of  a  traveling  orchestra 
which  played  at  Amiens,  where  he 
produced  his  comic  opera  Cornelius 
I'argentier.  In  1847  he  began  teach- 
ing in  Toulouse,  where  later  he 
became  director  of  the  Conservatory. 
He  was  later  made  Chevalier  of  the 
Legion  of  Honor.  He  produced  sev- 
eral comic  operas,  Les  Precieuses  rid- 
icules, Le  Retour  au  pays,  L'Orpheon 
en  voyage,  Les  Paques  de  la  Reine, 
as  well  as  his  symphony,  Le  Tasse; 
his  dramatic  oratorio,  Cain;  and  his 
grand  opera,  I'Armorique. 

Merk   (mark),  Joseph.     1795-1852. 

Austrian  violoncellist;  born  in 
Vienna.  As  a  child  he  studied  sing- 
ing and  the  violin,  but  later  under 
Schindlocker  he  took  up  the  violon- 
cello and  soon  became  very  proficient. 
He  traveled  about  for  a  few  years, 
finally  obtaining  the  position  of  first 
violoncellist  at  the  Opera  at  Vienna 
in  1818.  In  1823  he  was  made  pro- 
fessor at  the  Conservatory  then 
founded,  and  in  1834  he  became  vir- 
tuoso of  chamber-music  to  the  Em- 
peror. He  wrote  six  studies  for  the 
violoncello,  which  are  considered  val- 
uable contributions  to  the  literature 
for  that  instrument,  besides  concer- 
tos; polonaises;  variations;  fantasies; 
and  twenty  exercises. 

Merkel     (mar-kel),     Gustav     Adolf. 

One  of  the  best  organists  and  organ 
composers  of  the  Nineteenth  Century; 

born  at  Oberoderwitz,  Saxony.  He 
studied  the  organ  under  Johann 
Schneider  and  counterpoint  under 
Julius  Otto,  and  was  also  a  pupil  of 
Schumann  and  Reisiger.  In  1858  he 
was  made  organist  of  the  Waisenhaus- 
kirche  at  Dresden;  in  1860  of  the 
Kreuzkirche,  and  in  1864  he  was 
appointed  Court  organist.  From  1867 
to  1873  he  directed  the  Singakademie 
at  Dresden,  and  in  1861  he  became  a 
professor  at  the  Dresden  Conserva- 
tory. The  number  of  his  composi- 
tions reached  one  hundred  and  eighty 
and  were  of  such  very  high  standard 
as  to  prove  him  a  true  disciple  of  the 
lofty  Bach.  Among  his  writings  are 
a  large  number  of  fugues,  preludes, 
variations,  fantasies,  and  sonatas;  also 
some  compositions  for  organ,  violin, 
and  violoncello. 

Mermet  (mar-ma),  Auguste.  1815-1888. 

Dramatic  composer;  son  of  a 
French  general;  abandoned  his  mili- 
tary profession  and  turned  his  atten- 
tion to  music.  He  studied  the  flute 
and  under  Halevy  and  Lesueur  took 
up  composition.  After  struggling  for 
fifteen  years  he  succeeded  in  getting 
his  opera,  Roland  a  Roncevaux,  per- 
formed, but  it  proved  only  moderately 
successful,  being  commonplace  musi- 
cally and  interesting  only  because  of 
the  martial  character  of  its  libretto. 
He  then  wrote  Joan  of  Arc  which 
was  not  so  well  received  as  his  other 
opera  had  been.  In  1865  he  received 
cross  of  the  Legion  of  Honor.  Be- 
sides the  operas  mentioned  he  has 
written  La  Banniere  du  roi  and  Pais, 
and  other  French  compositions,  also 
an  opera-bouflfe  entitled  Pierrot  pendu. 

Mersenne    (mer-sen'),    Marie.      1588- 

Franciscan  monk;  interesting  as  the 
author  of  a  rare  and  voluminous  his- 
tory of  music,  now  very  valuable 
because  of  the  specimens  of  compo- 
sitions it  contains,  also  because  of 
its  rarity.  He  lived  in  Paris  and  is 
said  to  have  known  Descartes.  Among 
his  works  are  his  curious  Preludes  de 
I'Harmonie  Universelle  with  its  quaint 
discussion  of  the  horoscope  necessary 
to  produce  the  perfect  musician  and 
his  L'Harmonie  Universelle,  which 
appeared  in  1636  and  which  con- 
tained  over   fifteen   hundred   pages. 

Mertens  (mar'-tens),  Joseph.    1834- 

Flemish  violinist  and  dramatic  com- 
poser;  was   born   in  Antwerp,   where 




he  became  first  violin  at  the  opera, 
and  teacher  of  violin  at  the  local 
conservatory.  Between  1878  and  1879 
he  conducted  the  Flemish  Opera  in 
Brussels.  Some  of  his  one-act  operas 
which  proved  popular  are  De  zwarte 
Capitan;  Les  trois  etudiants;  L' ego- 
iste;  De  Vergissing  and  De  Vriger. 
Besides  these  he  wrote  some  instru- 
mental music,  some  romances  and 
sacred  choruses. 

Mertke  (mert'-ke),  Eduard.  1833-1895. 

Pianist,  teacher  and  composer;  was 
born  at  Riga.  He  studied  theory 
under  Agthe  and  piano  under  S.  von 
Liitzau,  and  is  said  to  have  played 
before  the  public  at  the  age  of  ten. 
In  1850  he  played  in  concert  in  St. 
Petersburg  and  Moscow.  His  ver- 
satility is  shown  by  the  fact  that 
from  1853  until  1859  he  was  first 
violinist  at  the  Gewandhaus  at  Leip- 
sic.  He  made  a  piano  concert  tour 
in  1859,  then  taught  in  Wesselung, 
Lucerne,  Freiburg  and  Mannheim 
until  1869,  when  he  became  teacher 
of  piano  at  Cologne  Conservatory. 
He  has  written  an  opera,  Lisa,  oder 
die  Sprache  des  Herzens;  a  cantata 
called  Des  Liedes  Verklarung;  some 
piano  arrangements  of  Mendelssohn's, 
vVeber's  and  Hummel's  concerted 
pieces;  and  some  Russian  folk-songs 
beside  editing  Chopin's  works. 

Merulo     (ma-roo'-l6),      Claudio     da 
Correggio.     1533-1604. 

Born  at  Correggio,  Italy.  He  re- 
ceived a  good  musical  education, 
probably  at  Venice  or  at  Brescia,  and 
at  the  age  of  twenty-four  he  became 
second  organist  at  St.  Mark's,  defeat- 
ing nine  other  candidates  for  the  post, 
and  succeeding  Annibale  Padovano 
as  first  organist  in  1566.  The  same 
year  he  became  a  publisher,  but  was 
not  successful  and  soon  abandoned 
this  venture.  In  1579  he  began  to 
write  rnotets  and  madrigals,  but  this, 
too,  failed  him.  He  was  associated 
with  such  men  as  Willaert,  Zarlino, 
A.  Gabrielli,  Padovano  and  Costanzo 
Porta,  and  the  greatness  of  his  organ 
playing  made  him  well  known  to  the 
musicians  of  Italy,  Germany  and 
Northern  Europe.  In  1584  he  went 
to  Mantua,  then  to  Parma  in  1586, 
where  he  became  organist  to  Duke 
Ranuccio  Farnese  at  La  Steccata. 
He  was  knighted  by  the  Duke  and 
filled^  his  position  as  organist  until 
he   died   at   the   age   of   seventy-one. 


His  work  is  valuable  historically,  par- 
ticularly his  organ  pieces,  which  com- 
pare favorably  with  the  compositions 
of  German  organists  of  that  period. 
Of  his  compositions  which  exist  to- 
day, six  vocal  pieces  are  in  Torchi's 
L'Arte  Musical  in  Italia,  in  volume 
one,  and  four  organ  toccatas  in  vol- 
ume three. 

Merz  (marts),  KarL    1834-1890. 

Teacher  and  writer  on  musical  sub- 
jects; born  at  Bensheim,  near  Frank- 
fort-on-the-Main.  He  received  some 
lessons  from  his  father  who  was  or- 
ganist at  Bensheim  and  from  F. 
Kunkel,  and  when  only  eight  or  nine 
years  old  played  the  violin  in  a  quar- 
tet club  at  the  home  of  Baron  Roden- 
stein.  When  eleven  years  old  he 
took  his  father's  place  as  organist, 
continuing  to  fill  it  until  he  left  Bens- 
heim to  go  to  school.  After  gradu- 
ating from  college  in  1853  he  taught 
school  near  Bingen-on-the-Rhine  until 
1854,  when  he  came  to  America. 
Through  J.  H.  Bonawitz  he  obtained 
a  position  in  an  orchestra  in  Phila- 
delphia, and  later  became  organist  in 
the  Sixth  Presbyterian  Church,  also 
serving  in  the  capacity  of  critic  on  a 
German  musical  journal  headed  by 
Wolsieflfer.  In  1856  he  went  to  Lan- 
caster County,  Pennsylvania,  to  teach 
in  a  seminary,  and  in  1859  he  went 
south,  remaining  until  1861,  when  he 
settled  at  Oxford,  Ohio,  and  became 
professor  of  music  at  the  Oxford 
Female  College.  In  1868  he  began 
his  literary  career,  contributing  musi- 
cal hints  to  Brainard's  Musical 
World,  and  in  1873  becoming  editor 
of  that  magazine.  In  1882  he  moved 
to  Wooster,  Ohio,  becoming  professor 
of  music  in  Wooster  University.  His 
works  consist  of  operettas,  sacred 
pieces,  choruses  and  songs,  also  dance 
music,  and  pieces  for  violin  and  vio- 
loncello. His  instructive  works  are 
Modern  Method  for  Reed  Organ, 
Karl  Alerz  Piano  Method,  and  Har- 
mony and  Musical  Composition. 

Messager  (mes-sa-zha),  Andre  Charles 
Prosper.     1853- 

Contemporary  French  composer  and 
operatic  conductor  of  distinguished 
ability;  born  at  Montlu(;on,  Allier. 
After  studying  for  some  time  at  the 
Niedermeyer  School  in  Paris,  he 
went  to  the  School  of  Religious  Music 
to  take  composition  and  harmony 
lessons    of    Camille    Saint-Saens.      In 

1874  he  became  organist  at  Saint- 
Sulpice,  and  he  afterward  was  organ- 
ist at  St.-Paul-St.-Louis  and  maitre  de 
chapelle  at  Sainte-Marie  des  Batign- 
olles.  In  1876  he  was  awarded  gold 
medal  by  the  Societe  des  Composi- 
teurs for  a  symphony  in  four  move- 
ments which  fidouard  Colonne  di- 
rected at  the  Chatelet  concerts,  and 
his  cantata  for  chorus  and  orchestra 
entitled  Promethee  enchaine  won 
second  Premier  prize  at  a  Concours 
de  la  Ville  de  Paris.  In  1883  he  made 
his  debut  as  an  operatic  composer  by 
finishing  Frangois  les  Bas-bleus  which 
Firnini  Bernicot  left  incomplete  at 
his  death.  Two  years  later  his  own 
three-act  operetta,  La  Fauvette  du 
Temple  was  successfully  produced  at 
the  Folies-Dramatiques  and  during 
that  same  year  came  his  first  pro- 
nounced success,  La  Bearnaise,  a 
three-act  operetta,  which  was  intro- 
duced at  the  Bouflfes  Parisiens,  and  in 
October,  1886,  was  given  at  the 
Prince  of  Wales  Theatre,  in  London, 
with  Marie  Tempest  and  Florence  St. 
John  in  leading  roles.  The  three-act 
comic  opera,  La  Basoche,  which  ap- 
peared at  the  Opera  Comique  in  1890 
was  immensely  successful,  and  in  1891 
•was  translated  into  English  by  Sir 
Augustus  Harris  and  Eugene  Oudin, 
and  given  at  the  Royal  English  Opera, 
with  Esther  Pallister,  Ben  Davies 
and  David  Bispham,  then  a  debutant, 
as  the  chief  singers.  La  Basoche  is 
delightfully  tuneful  and  is  written  in 
the  brilliant,  sparkling  style  charac- 
teristic of  Parisian  comic  opera.  His 
next  interesting  opera  was  a  lyric 
comedy  on  the  subject,  Madame 
Crysantheme  from  Pierre  Loti's  novel, 
and  this  appeared  in  the  Theatre 
Lyrique  in  1893.  Other  composi- 
tions to  be  performed  during  that 
j'ear  were  the  ballet,  Scaramouche 
and  the  operetta.  Miss  Dollar,  both 
played  at  the  Nouveau  Theatre.  In 
1894  he  wrote  Mirette  for  the  Savoy 
Theatre,  London;  in  1895  he  com- 
posed Le  Chevalier  d'Harmontel, 
given  at  the  Opera  Comique;  in  the 
following  year  Les  Petites  Michus 
was  played  at  Bouflfes  Parisiens..  In 
1898  Carre  gave  him  the  position  of 
conductor  of  orchestra  at  the  Opera 
Comique  and  Veronique  was  played 
at  the  BouflFes  Parisiens.  Une  Aven- 
ture  de  la  Guimart  was  performed  at 
the  Opera  Comique  in  1900  and  Les 
Dragons  de  I'lmperatrice  came  out  at 
the  Varietes  in   1905.     In   1901   Mes- 


sager    succeeded     Maurice 


Grau  as 
artistic  director  of  Royal  Opera  at 
Covent  Garden  and  up  to  the  present 
time,  1908,  still  fills  that  position. 
He  is  married  to  Hope  Temple,  a 
popular  song-writer. 

Metastasio  (ma-tas-ta'-zi-6),  Pietro 
Antonio  Domenico  Bonaventura. 

Italian  poet,  who  won  glory  for  his 
country  in  her  time  of  deepest  deg- 
radation, and  distinction  for  him- 
self, by  perfecting  the  musical  drama, 
invented  by  Zeno,  and  raising  it  to  a 
recognized  literary  form.  He  was 
born  at  Rome  and  was  the  son  of 
Trapassi,  a  very  humble  man  in  the 
service  of  the  Pope,  who  did  his  best 
to  educate  his  precocious  child.  The 
boy  was  adopted  by  a  famous  lawyer, 
Gravina,  who  heard  him  singing  in 
the  street.  He  changed  his  name  to 
Mestastasio  the  Greek  form  of  Tra- 
passi, and  had  him  thoroughly  in- 
structed in  literature,  philosophy  and 
the  law.  Gravina's  death  in  1718  left 
him  in  fairly  good  circumstances,  but 
through  his  own  extravagance  and 
the  schemes  of  his  rivals  he  lost  all 
he  had  and  was  obliged  to  go  to 
Naples  to  escape  his  creditors.  There 
he  found  employment  with  a  lawyer, 
Castagnola,  who  strictly  forbade  him 
to  have  anything  to  do  with  literary 
pursuits.  Secretly  he  produced  a 
masque,  The  Garden  of  Hesperides, 
which  attracted  the  attention  of  the 
singer,  Maria  Bulgarini,  called  La 
Romanina,  who  at  once  became  his 
patroness  and  took  him  into  her 
household.  His  first  great  success, 
the  production  of  his  Deserted  Dido 
in  1734,  was  largely  due  to  her  per- 
formance. The  piece  was  almost  a 
parody  on  Virgil,  but  the  public  was 
wildly  enthusiastic  over  it  and  the 
receipts  from  it  were  sufficient  to  pay 
Metastasio's  Roman  debts.  In  1729 
Emperor  Charles  VI.  sent  for  him 
to  take  Zeno's  place  as  Court  poet  at 
Vienna  and  he  went  after  bidding 
farewell  to  La  Romanina,  who  wished 
to  follow  him.  She  died  suddenly 
soon  afterwards,  possibly  by  some 
unnatural  means,  for  Metastasio  had 
soon  become  attached  to  Countess 
Althan  at  Vienna.  His  career  as 
Court  poet  was  brilliant  and  he  re- 
mained a  favorite  showered  with 
honors  until  the  close  of  his  romantic 
life,  the  only  interruption  of  his  work 
being  the  Austrian  war  of  succession 



in  1740.  On  his  death-bed  he  was 
given  the  blessing  of  Pope  Pius  VI., 
then  visiting  at  the  Court  of  Joseph 
II.  As  a  man  Metastasio  was  selfish 
but  had  an  intensely  passionate  and 
emotional  nature,  and  as  a  poet  he 
united  the  playwright's  cleverness  of 
Scribe  and  a  wonderful  poetic  power, 
which  made  his  verses  veritable 
melody.  His  characters  were  weak 
and  artificial,  and  his  drarnas  seem 
lifeless  now,  because  of  their  classic 
form.  He  was  a  musical  composer 
and  singer  as  well  as  a  poet.  Of  his 
twenty-nine  dramas,  the  best  are 
Olimpiade;  Achille  in  Sciro;  Clem- 
enza  di  Tito,  set  to  music  by  Mozart; 
AtiUo  Regolo;  Artaserse;  Temistocle; 
and  Zenobia.  He  also  wrote  oratorios, 
cantatas,  pieces  of  circumstance,  son- 
nets and  elegies.  His  opera  texts 
have  been  set  to  music  by  Gluck, 
Hasse,  Porpora,  Handel,  Jommelli, 
Mozart  and  others. 

Methfessel     (mat'-fes-sel),     Albert 
Gottlieb.     1785-1869. 

German  song-writer  and  conductor; 
was  born  at  Stadtilm,  in  Thuringia, 
and  died  at  Heckenbeck.  He  played 
at  the  Court  of  Rudolstadt  in  1810, 
was  musical  director  at  Hamburg  in 
1822,  and  in  1832  became  Court 
chapelmaster  at  Brunswick,  a  posi- 
tion which  he  held  for  ten  years, 
when  he  retired  on  a  pension.  He  is 
chiefly  known  for  his  German  stu- 
dent songs,  as  Rheinweinhed, 
Deutscher  Ehrenpreis  and  Krieger's 
Abschied.  He  composed  an  opera,  Der 
Prinz  von  Basra;  an  oratorio,  Das 
befreite  Jerusalem;  piano-music  and 
collections  of  songs. 

Metra   (ma-tra),  Jules  Louis  Olivier. 

Composer  of  popular  French  dance- 
music;  born  at  Rheims.  His  father 
was  an  actor  and  he  also  played 
juvenile  parts.  He  studied  music  with 
Edmond  Roche  and  in  several  small 
theatres  of  Paris  he  played  on  the 
violin,  violoncello  and  doublebass 
viol.  From  1849  to  1854  he  studied 
harmony  with  Elwart  at  the  Paris 
Conservatory,  then  composition  with 
Ambroise  Thomas.  He  conducted 
orchestra  at  the  Beaumarchais  Thea- 
tre and  afterward  at  the  dance  halls, 
Bal  Robert,  Mabille,  Chateau  des 
Fleurs,  Athnee  musicale,  filysee 
Montmartre,  Casino-Cadet  and  Bal 
Frascati;   he  also  conducted  for  the 


masked  balls  of  the  Opera  Comique 
and  the  opera  balls  and  the  Theatre 
de  la  Monnaie,  Brussels,  and  for  sev- 
eral years  was  conductor  at  the 
Folies-Bergeres.  Among  his  composi- 
tions are  his  waltzes,  La  Vague,  Les 
Roses,  and  Le  tour  du  monde; 
mazurkas;  quadrilles;  and  polkas,  as 
well  as  eighteen  operettas  and  ballet- 
divertissements,  which  he  produced  at 
the  Folies-Bergeres  and  the  ballet 
Yedda,  which  he  brought  out  at  the 
opera.     He  died  in  Paris. 

Mettenleiter   (met'-ten-li-ter),  Johann 
Georg.     1812-1858. 

Organist,  choirmaster  and  musical 
composer;  born  at  St.  Ulrich,  near 
Ulm,  where  later  he  became  choir- 
master and  organist.  He  is  known 
chiefly  on  account  of  his  scholarly 
church  compositions  of  which  he  pub- 
lished Manuale  breve  cantionum  ac 
precum  and  Enchiridion  chorale,  both 
with  organ  accompaniments;  and 
95th  Psalm  for  six  male  voices.  In 
manuscript  he  has  left  some  masses, 
two  Misereres,  a  Stabat  Mater  and 
an  Ave  Maria  for  double  chorus.  His 
brother  has  written  a  biography,  en- 
titled Johann  Georg  Mettenleiter,  ein 

Metzdorff  (mets'-dorf),  Richard.  1844- 

Composer  of  vocal  and  instrumental 
music;  born  at  Danzig;  studied  in 
Berlin  under  Geyer,  Dehn  and  Kiel. 
He  became  chapelmaster  of  orches- 
tras at  Berlin,  Nuremburg,  Bruns- 
wick, Hanover  and  Diisseldorf. 
Among  his  compositions  are  his 
opera,  Rosamund,  produced  at  Wei- 
mar, 1875,  and  Haybart  und  Signe 
which  appeared  in  1893.  He  also 
wrote  three  symphonies;  an  overture 
to  King  Lear;  the  ballad,  Frau  Alice, 
for  contralto,  chorus  and  orchestra; 
several  collections  of  song;  trios  for 
piano  and  strings;  sonatas  and  other 
pieces  for  piano;  two  symphonies, 
one  in  F,  one  in  D  minor. 

Meyer   (mi'-er),  Gustav.     1859- 

Composer  and  conductor;  born  at 
Konigsberg,  Prussia;  began  his  musi- 
cal education  in  his  native  town  under 
Robert  Schwalm.  From  1880  to  1884 
he  studied  with  Reinecke  and  Jadas- 
sohn in  the  Conservatory  at  Leipsic. 
He  was  chapelmaster  at  Leignitz, 
Gorlitz,  Eisenach,  Dorpat  and  Bres- 
lau,  where  he  stayed  five  years,  then 
at  Stettin.  In  1895  he  became  con- 
ductor  at   the   Leipsic    City   Theatre, 




His  compositions  include  the  three- 
act  operetta,  Der  Hochstappler;  the 
ballet  pantomime,  Kiinstlerfest;  the 
four-act  farce  with  songs,  Aus  beweg- 
ter;  the  ballet,  Elektra,  and  many 
charming  songs. 

Meyer,  Jenny.     1834-1894. 

A  concert-singer  and  excellent 
teacher;  was  born  in  Berlin,  where 
she  taught  singing  from  1865  at 
Stern's  Conservatory,  which  she  pur- 
chased and  became  directoress  of  in 
1888.     She  died  in  Berlin. 

Meyer,  Leopold  von.     1816-1883. 

Pianist  of  brilliant  and  showy  man- 
ner of  playing;  born  at  Baden,  near 
Vienna.  He  studied  with  Czerny  and 
Fischof,  making  his  professional 
debut  in  1835.  Most  of  his  life  was 
spent  in  extensive  concert  tours 
through  Europe  and  America.  During 
his  tour  of  Amerka,  from  1845  to 
1847,  he  gave  concerts  in  New  York 
at  the  Broadway  Tabernacle  and  he 
played  in  Boston  where  he  aroused 
great  enthusiasm  in  the  young  pian- 
ist, William  Alason,  who  heard  him 
during  that  engagement.  He  is  said 
to  have  preferred  his  own  light  and 
effective  compositions  to  the  less 
showy  works  of  the  classicists  and 
was  known  as  a  brilliant  rather  than 
an  accurate  player.  Of  his  composi- 
tions the  best  known  is  his  waltz. 
Souvenir  de  Vienne. 

Meyer,  Waldemer.     1853- 

Violin  virtuoso  of  distinguished 
ability;  was  born  in  Berlin.  His  talent 
was  so  remarkable  that  the  great 
Joachim  himself  instructed  him  for 
four  years  receiving  no  remuneration 
for  his  teaching.  He  obtained  for 
Meyer  a  position  as  first  violin  in 
the  Berlin  Court  band,  where  he 
played  from  1873  to  1881.  He  made 
a  concert  tour  with  Pauline  Lucca, 
and  later  alone  toured  France,  Eng- 
land, Belgium  and  Germany,  every- 
where achieving  a  brilliant  success. 

Meyer-Helmund    (mi'-er    hel-moont), 

Erik.     1861- 

German  opera  and  song-writer; 
born  at  Petersburg.  Began  the  study 
of  music  with  his  father,  then  at  Ber- 
lin took  up  composition  with  Kiel  and 
singing  with  Stockhausen.  He  has 
been  a  very  successful  concert-singer 
and  has  composed  a  large  number  of 
delicate  and  charming  songs.  He 
took  up   his   permanent   residence   in 


St.  Petersburg  in  1900,  giving  a  song 
recital  there  at  which  Herr  Gorski 
sang  his  songs  and  compositions.  He 
has  written  two  very  successful 
operas,  Der  Liebeskamp  and  Mar- 
gitta;  the  one-act  burlesque,  Trischka; 
the  ballet  Riibezahl,  Der  Berggeist, 
given  with  great  success  at  Leipsic, 
and  many  songs. 

Meyer- Lutz    (mi-er   loots),   Wilhelm. 


Organist  and  conductor;  born  at 
Miinnerstadt,  near  Kissingen.  At 
Wiirtzburg  he  studied  under  Eisen- 
hofer  and  Keller.  In  1848  he  went 
to  England,  where  he  played  the 
organ  at  Birmingham  and  Leeds  and 
later  at  St.  George's  Roman  Catholic 
Church  in  London.  From  1851  to 
1855  he  conducted  the  orchestra  at 
the  Surrey  Theatre,  and  since  1869 
he  has  been  conductor  at  the  Gaiety 
Theatre.  He  has  written  eight  operas, 
some  chamber-music  and  several 

Meyer-Olbersleben  (mi'-er  ol'-bers-la- 
ben),    Max.     1850- 

Teacher  and  composer;  born  at 
Olbersleben,  near  Weimar;  began  his 
musical  studies  with  his  father,  later 
studying  with  Miiller-Hartung  and 
finally  with  Liszt  at  Weimar.  Liszt 
recommended  him  to  the  patronage 
of  the  Duke  who  sent  him  to  Munich 
for  two  years'  study  under  Cornelius, 
Wiillner  and  Rheinberger.  After 
spending  a  year  at  Brussels  and  an- 
other at  Munich  he  returned  to  VVei- 
mar  and  became  professor  of  piano 
and  theory  at  the  Orchestra  School 
of  his  old  master,  Muller-Hartung.  In 
1877  he  went  to  Wiirzburg  to  teach 
counterpoint  and  composition  in  the 
Royal  Conservatory  of  Music  and  in 
1879  he  became  conductor  of  the  cele- 
brated Wiirzburger  Liedertafel.  He 
was  made  a  Royal  professor  in  1885, 
and  in  1896  his  ability  was  so  widely 
recognized  that  he  was  made  a  mem- 
ber of  the  Board  of  Directors  of  the 
Deutscher  Sangerbund  in  collabora- 
tion with  Kremser,  directing  the  Fifth 
National  Song  Festival  at  Stuttgart. 
In  1907  he  was  appointed  to  succeed 
Dr.  Khebert  as  director  of  the  Royal 
Conservatory  of  Wiirzburg.  Meyer 
has  showed  great  ability  as  a  com- 
poser, having  written  a  large  number 
of  compositions,  among  them  Der 
Hauben  Krieg  and  Clare  Dettin;  two 
overtures,  Feierklange  and  Festouver- 



Meyer- Olbersleben 
ture  as  well  as  some  chamber-music; 
piano-pieces;  songs;  choruses;  a  piano 
trio;  some  pieces  for  piano  and  cello; 
a  cantata,  The  Blind  Elf;  and  many 
other  vocal  and  instrumental  pieces. 

Meyerbeer    (mi'-er-bar),   G  i  a  c  o  m  o. 

"The  idol  of  the  Parisian  public, 
the  Monarch  of  the  Grand  Opera,"  as 
Hervey  calls  him,  did  more  to  ad- 
vance the  opera  of  the  Nineteenth 
Century  than  any  other  composer  ex- 
cept Wagner.  He  was  born  at  Ber- 
lin, and  was  of  Jewish  extraction,  his 
name  being  properly  Jakob  Liebmann 
Beer.  The  prefix  Meyer  was  added 
on  the  death  of  a  rich  relative  who 
left  Jakob  his  fortune  on  that  con- 
dition. The  Jakob  became  Giacomo 
after  Meyerbeer's  sojourn  in  Italy. 
His  father,  Herz  Beer,  was  a  wealthy 
banker,  his  mother,  Amalie  Wulf, 
was  a  refined  and  well-educated 
woman,  and  two  of  his  brothers  be- 
came famous  like  himself,  Wilhelm 
as  an  astronomer,  and  Michael  as  a 
poet.  When  a  very  young  child 
Meyerbeer  showed  a  remarkable  tal- 
ent for  music,  which  was  encouraged 
by  his  parents,  and  when  he  was 
only  seven  years  old,  he  made  his 
debut  as  a  pianist,  playing  one  of 
Mozart's  concertos.  He  studied  first 
under  Lauska.  At  the  age  of  nine  he 
had  made  wonderful  progress.  He 
studied  composition  for  some  time 
under  Zelter,  whom  he  thoroughly 
disliked,  and  finally  gave  up  in  favor 
of  Bernard  Anselm  Weber,  who  was 
then  directing  the  Berlin  Opera. 
Weber  proved  to  be  a  devoted  teacher 
to  the  young  Meyerbeer,  and  at  one 
time  sent  a  fugue  of  his  pupil's,  which 
he  thought  admirable  work,  to  Vog- 
ler.  The  Abbe,  far  from  commending 
it,  finally  returned  it  with  a  treatise 
of  the  fugue^  and  a  fugue  by  himself 
on  the  same  theme,  showing  the  nu- 
merous errors  which  he  thought  the 
young  composer's  work  contained. 
Meyerbeer  then  wrote  another  fugue, 
using  the  Abbe's  suggestions,  and  this 
so  pleased  the  old  man  that  he  in- 
vited Meyerbeer  to  spend  two  years 
with  him  at  Darmstadt  as  a  pupil  and 
member  of  his  household.  There  the 
young  man  worked  with  unlimited 
diligence,  wrote  a  fugue  or  other 
sacred  composition  every  day  for  the 
instructor's  criticism,  and  formed  his 
life-long  friendship  with  Carl  Marie 
von  V/eber.    His  first  published  works 


were  Sacred  Songs  of  Klopstoclc,  and 
an  oratorio,  God  and  Nature,  which 
was  played  before  the  Grand  Duke, 
and  won  for  the  writer  the  position 
of  composer  to  the  court. 

His  first  opera,  Jephthah's  Vow, 
which  appeared  at  Munich  in  1813, 
was  not  a  success,  owing  probably 
to  its  oratorio  form  and  biblical  sub- 
ject. A  comic  opera,  Alimelek,  or 
The  Two  Caliphs,  given  at  Stuttgart 
the  same  year,  was  received  a  little 
better.  Meyerbeer  then  went  to 
Vienna  as  a  concert  pianist  and  pro- 
duced The  Two  Caliphs  there,  but  it 
failed  again.  The  young  musician 
was  by  this  time  becoming  thoroughly 
discouraged,  and  was  on  the  point  of 
giving  up  music  entirely  when  he 
was  advised  by  Salieri  to  go  to  Italy 
and  make  a  thorough  study  of  the 
voice  before  writing  any  more 
operas.  In  1815  he  went  to  Venice 
and  there  he  soon  abandoned  the 
scholasticism  of  Abbe  Vogler  and 
adapted  himself  to  the  flowing  ex- 
travagant style  of  Rossini,  who  then 
held  supreme  power  over  Italian 
Opera.  Meyerbeer  actually  succeeded 
in  rivaling  him  and  gained  at  once 
the  public  admiration  and  immediate 
success  which  was  his  aim  throughout 
his  life.  Among  his  Italian  works 
were  Romilda  e  Costanza,  ^iven  at 
Padua  in  1818  with  Pisaroni  in  the 
leading  part;  Semiramide  ricono- 
sciuta;  Eduardo  e  Cristina;  Emma  di 
Resburgo,  played  in  Germany  as 
Emma  von  Leicester;  Marghenta  d' 
Anjou,  written  for  Scala,  which  was 
the  best  example  of  his  work  of  this 
period;  L'esule  di  Granata;  Alman- 
sor;  and  the  beginning  of  Crociato. 

This  borrowed  success  so  easily 
attained,  did  not  content  the  com- 
poser long,  however.  His  German 
friends  had  become  dissatisfied  with 
him,  among  them  Carl  von  Weber, 
who  did  everything  in  his  power  to 
induce  him  to  return  to  his  native 
land  and  to  devote  himself  to  her 
musical  advancement.  Meyerbeer 
then  tried  to  produce  a  three-act 
opera.  Das  Brandenburger  Thor,  at 
Berlin,  but  failed,  and  having  finished 
Crociato,  which  he  had  begun  in 
Italy,  he  brought  it  out  at  Vienna, 
where  it  caused  such  a  sensation  that 
the  composer  was  crowned  on  the 
stage.  It  was  the  last  of  his  Italian 
triumphs  and  has  been  called  the 
link  between  his  period  of  "  wild 
oats "    as    he    considered    his    Italian 




writings,  and  his  period  of  the  great 
works  which  have  made  him  known 
as  a  master  today. 

In  1826  he  went  to  Paris  to  see  a 
performance  of  Crociato  there,  and 
this  resulted  in  his  almost  constant 
residence  in  that  city  from  that  time 
until  his  death  and  in  the  develop- 
ment of  his  genius  to  its  fullest  ex- 
tent. It  was  a  time  when  Paris  typi- 
fied the  chaotic  condition  of  all 
Europe.  Everything  was  in  a  state 
of  unrest.  The  old  order  of  things 
had  been  abandoned  for  new,  untried 
systems  of  government,  society, 
learning  and  art.  It  was  a  time  of 
experiment,  where  nothing  was  estab- 
lished and  where  the  bold  or  unique 
held  sway  and  dominated  the  public 
rather  than  the  artistic  or  refined. 
The  years  from  1824  to  1831  were  so 
taken  up  with  other  interests,  such 
as  the  death  of  his  father,  his  mar- 
riage and  the  death  of  two  children, 
that  he  put  no  works  before  the 
public.  Nevertheless,  they  were  val- 
uable as  a  preparation  for  his  great 
works  to  follow,  for  it  was  during  this 
time  that  he  made  his  exhaustive 
study  of  the  French  as  a  people,  and 
of  the  French  Opera  from  the  works 
of  Lully  down  to  his  own  time.  Dur- 
ing this  time  also  his  connection  with 
Eugene  Scribe,  who  became  his 
librettist,  began. 

Robert  le  Diable,  produced  in  1831 
at  the  Academy  of  Music,  was  as 
great  an  event  in  the  operatic  world 
as  Victor  Hugo's  Hernani  in  that  of 
the  drama.  The  fantastic  story  with 
its  weird,  supernatural  vein  made  a 
deep  impression  everywhere.  The 
music  gave  wonderful  emphasis  to 
the  words,  and  the  instrumentation  of 
the  piece  was  clever  in  the  extreme. 
It  is  thought  by  many  to  be  the  most 
original  and  ingenious  of  all  Meyer- 
beer's works.  When  Les  Huguenots 
appeared  in  1836  the  public  was  at 
first  disappointed,  for  it  had  expected 
a  repetition  of  Robert,  but  the  latter 
opera,  with  its  sober  grandeur  in 
v.'hich  the  supernatural  had  no  part, 
was  wholly  unlike  the  first  great  work 
of  the  composer.  However,  it  was 
soon  universally  conceded  that  Les 
Huguenots  surpassed  Robert.  In  this 
opera  the  composer  sometimes,  as  in 
the  last  duet,  reaches  a  dramatic  in- 
tensity unparalleled  in  any  of  his 
other  works.  The  coloring  of  the 
whole  is  as  rich  and  beautiful  as  that 
of  Robert.     In  1838  Meyerbeer  began 


to  work  upon  Scribe's  libretto  of 
L'Africaine,  but  his  dissatisfaction  and 
constant  changing  finally  angered 
Scribe,  and  in  order  to  pacify  him 
Meyerbeer  produced  another  one  of 
his  works,  Le  Prophete,  in  1849.  Like 
Les  Huguenots  it  took  time  for  this 
to  succeed  and  it  never  became  as 
popular  as  the  two  operas  preceding 
it.  Gounod  thought  it  Meyerbeer's 
masterpiece.  Meyerbeer  had  been 
made  general  musical  director  by 
the  King  in  1842,  so  from  that  date 
he  spent  much  of  his  time  at  Berlin. 
He  brought  out  a  German  opera  in 
1844,  Ein  Feldlager,  in  Schlesien,  in- 
troducing Jenny  Lind  in  Germany. 
He  produced  Weber's  Euryanthe  and 
Wagner's  first  work,  Rienzi,  at  Ber- 
lin, but  afterwards  conducted  only  his 
own  works.  In  1846  he  wrote  a  very 
creditable  overture  and  incidental 
music  to  his  brother  Michael's  drama, 
Struensee,  which  was  his  most  im- 
portant instrumental  work.  His  next 
work  in  Paris  was  the  production  of 
two  comic  operas,  L'fitoile  du  Nord, 
dealing  with  some  adventures  of  Peter 
the  Great,  in  1854,  and  Le  Pardon  de 
Ploermel,  or  Dinorah,  a  Breton  story 
of  buried  treasure,  in  1859.  Both 
were  quite  well  received  by  the  public 
and  created  much  excitement  among 
the  French  composers,  who  consid- 
ered them  an  invasion  into  their  own 
private  territory.  The  composer's 
health  was  beginning  to  fail  by  this 
time.  Scribe  had  died,  and  he  was 
still  working  on  L'Africaine,  with 
which  he  was  never  satisfied.  He 
brought  out  two  cantatas,  a  march  for 
the  Schiller  Centenary  Festival,  and  a 
march-overture  for  the  London  Inter- 
national Exhibition  in  1862.  In  1863 
he  returned  to  Paris  for  the  last  time 
and  died  there,  before  having  accom- 
plished the  production  of  L'Africaine. 
This  last  of  his  works,  the  composi- 
tion of  which  had  occupied  part  of 
his  time  during  twenty-six  years,  was 
given  at  the  Academy  in  Paris  and 
also  in  London,  in  1865.  In  this  work 
there  is  less  striving  for  effect  than 
in  his  earlier  ones,  more  polish,  and 
perhaps  some  signs  of  return  to  the 
Italian  influence.  However,  it  was 
injured  by  the  composer's  constant 
changes,  and  while  it  has  many  won- 
derfully beautiful  passages  it  lacks 

No  composer  has  had  more  widely 
differing  criticisms  than  Meyerbeer, 
and  the  severest  fault  with  which  he 



has  been  charged  is  that  of  surrender- 
ing to  the  public,  and  of  striving  for 
effect  and  immediate  popularity.  It 
is  true  that  he  adapted  himself  with- 
out effort  to  any  school,  that  he 
seized  the  opportunities  of  his  time 
and  became  its  representative,  but  he 
introduced  enough  that  was  new  to 
lyric  drama  in  his  time  to  pave  the 
way  for  the  modern  music-drama. 
As  Berlioz  said  of  him,  "  He  had  the 
good  fortune  to  have  talent  and  the 
talent  to  have  good  fortune."  His 
intense  dramatic  moments  have  made 
his  musical  reputation,  and  the  only 
drag  upon  his  powers  was  his  fear  of 
his  own  originality,  probably  inspired 
by  the  rigid  instructions  of  his  youth. 
He  has  been  compared  to  Scott, 
painting  men  and  women  of  the  past 
as  they  appeared  to  each  other.  Her- 
vey  says,  "  The  Meyerbeer  opera  was 
just  as  characteristic  an  exoression  of 
the  artistic  spirit  of  1830  as  Victor 
Hugo's  and  Dumas's  dramas;  Alfred 
de  Musset's  poetry;  Delacroix's  can- 
vases; Berlioz's  symphonies;  or  Cho- 
pin's piano-music." 

M6zeray     (maz-re'),     Louis     Charles 
Lazare  Costard  de.    1810-1887. 

Barytone  singer,  conductor,  and 
dramatic  composer;  born  in  Bruns- 
wick. When  fifteen  years  old  he 
became  second  leader  of  the  orchestra 
at  the  Strasburg  Theatre,  studying 
under  Talliez  and  Wachenthal.  At 
seventeen  he  became  leader  of  the 
Liege  Theatre,  also  conducting  the 
Conservatory  concerts  and  the  Con- 
certs Gretry.  In  1830  he  was  made 
conductor  at  the  Royal  Theatre  at 
The  Hague,  but  in  1833  he  went  to 
Paris,  where  he  studied  counterpoint 
and  fugue  under  Reicha.  He  was 
orchestra  conductor  at  Ghent,  Rouen 
and  Marseilles  before  becoming  con- 
ductor at  the  Grand  Theatre  at  Bor- 
deaux in  1843,  a  position  which  he 
filled  successfully  for  thirty  years. 
Previous  to  his  accepting  the  con- 
ductorship  at  Bordeaux  he  had  sung 
barytone  at  Montpelier,  Antwerp  and 
Nantes.  In  1843  he  founded  the  St. 
Cecilia  Society.  Two  of  his  operas 
are  Guillaume  de  Nassau;  and  Le 
Sicilien  ou  I'amour  peintre. 

Micheli   (tne-ka'-le),   Romano.     1575- 

Italian  contrapuntist  and  writer  of 
church-music;  born  in  Rome.  He 
studied  music  under  Francesco  Sori- 

ano  and  Nanini,  and  traveled  to  Milan, 
Ferrara,  Bologna,  Venice,  Florence 
and  Naples  in  order  to  meet  all  the 
great  musicians  of  the  time  and  learn 
of  them.  He  became  a  priest  and  for 
a  while  was  sent  to  Aquileia,  in  1616 
was  maestro  di  capella  at  Con- 
cordia, Modena,  and  in  1625  returned 
to  Rome  to  became  maestro  di  cap- 
pella  at  San  Luigi  de'  Francesi.  He 
was  a  writer  of  canons  and  other 
forms  of  church-music  and  is  the 
author  of  the  following:  Musica  vaga 
ed  artificiosa;  Madrigale  a  sei  voci  in 
canoni;  Canoni  musicali  composti 
sopra  le  vocali  di  piu  parole;  La 
potesta  pontifica  diritta  della  Sanc- 
tissima  Trinita  compieta  a  sei  voci, 
and  Letere  di  Romano  Micheli  ro- 
mano  alii  musici  della  Cappella  di 
N.  S.  ed  altri  musici  romani,  which 
explains  a  kind  of  canon  he  had  in- 
vented; many  masses;  psalms;  re- 
sponses, and  such  compositions. 

*  Mickwitz    (fon    mik'-wits),    Harold 
von.     1859- 

Talented  pianist;  born  at  Helsing- 
fors,  Finland,  of  German  parentage. 
Began  studying  the  piano  at  five  and 
composed  a  number  of  works  before 
he  was  eight.  At  the  St.  Petersburg 
Conservatory  he  studied  under  Ark, 
Johansen  Brassin,  and  Rimsky-Kor- 
sakov;  then  in  1880  he  went  to  Vienna 
for  three  years'  study  with  Lesche- 
tiszky.  In  1886  he  obtained  the  posi- 
tion of  teacher  of  advanced  piano 
classes  at  Karlsruhe  Conservatory, 
and  in  1893  he  accepted  a  similar  posi- 
tion at  Wiesbaden  Conservatory.  In 
1897  he  accepted  the  directorship  of 
the  North  Texas  Conservatory  at 
Sherman,  Texas.  In  1905  Mr.  Von 
Mickwitz  came  to  Chicago,  where  he 
has  been  at  the  head  of  the  piano  de- 
partment of  the  Bush  Temple  of 
Music.  He  intends,  however,  to  re- 
turn to  Sherman,  Texas,  to  the  Con- 
servatory, which  is  practically  his  own 
creation.  He  has  published  elegant 
piano-music,  somewhat  in  the  style  in 
which  Tschaikowsky  wrote. 

Middelschulte  (mid'-el-shool-te),  Wil- 

helm.     1863- 

Organ  virtuoso  and  composer;  born 
near  Dortmund,  Westphalia.  He  was 
fond  of  music  from  boyhood,  and  at 
the  age  of  twelve  had  attained  suffi- 
cient knowledge  of  the  organ  to  play 
the  church  service.  Ill  health,  how- 
ever,   delayed    a    regular    course    in 




music  for  several  years,  but  before  he 
was  twenty  he  entered  the  Royal 
Academy  of  Church  Music,  Berlin, 
where  for  several  years  he  studied, 
his  teachers  being  August  Haupt  in 
organ  and  theory,  August  Loeschhorn 
in  piano,  Dr.  Julius  Alsleben  in  his- 
tory and  conducting,  and  Franz  Com- 
mer.  While  still  a  student  he  became 
Haupt's  assistant  at  the  organ  of  the 
Parochial  Church,  and  associate 
teacher  in  the  Academy.  In  1888  he 
succeeded  Rust  as  organist  of  St. 
Lucas  Church  in  Berlin,  retaining  this 
post  until  1891,  when  he  came  to  the 
United  States  to  accept  that  of  organ- 
ist and  choir-director  of  the  Cathe- 
dral of  the  Holy  Name,  Chicago. 
Shortly  before  his  departure  from 
Germany  he  played  by  invitation  the 
memorial  service  to  Emperor  Fried- 
rich  III.  at  Bornstedt.  At  the  Co- 
lumbian Exposition '  of  1893  in  Chi- 
cago, he  gave  three  recitals,  and  in 
1894  played  with  the  Thomas  Orches- 
tra. He  was  immediately  appointed 
official  organist  of  the  orchestra,  and 
has  since  appeared  with  them  fre- 
quently as  soloist,  playing  many  of 
the  best  works  for  organ  and  orches- 
tra, among  them  his  own  concerto  in 
A  minor,  which  has  been  pronounced 
by  Guilmant  "  a  magnificent  work." 
Under  Theodore  Thomas'  direction 
he  was  organist  of  the  Cincinnati 
May  Festival.  At  present  he  is 
organist  of  St.  James'  Roman  Catholic 
Church,  Chicago.  He  is  connected 
with  the  Wisconsin  Conservatory  of 
Music,  Milwaukee,  as  professor  of 
organ  and  of  musical  theory,  and  has 
been  one  of  the  directors  of  that  insti- 
tution from  its  beginning. 

Mr.  Middelschulte's  reputation  as 
an  organist  is  cosmopolitan.  He  has 
appeared  in  the  principal  cities  of  the 
United  States  and  also  in  Germany, 
where  his  playing  has  elicited  the 
highest  praises  from  both  critics  and 
musicians.  He  possesses  a  phenom- 
enal musical  memory,  playing  all  his 
recital  programs  without  notes,  a 
proceeding  unusual  among  organists. 
He  is  an  ardent  admirer  of  Bach's 
works,  and  is  conceded  to  be  the 
greatest  living  interpreter  of  them. 
He  has  composed  chiefly  for  the 
organ,  his  published  works  being  a 
Passacaglia  in  D  minor,  pronounced 
by  the  eminent  theorist,  Bernhard 
Ziehn,  to  be  worthy  of  mention 
beside  that  of  Bach;  canons  and 
fup^ue  on  the  choral.  Vater  unser  in 

Himmelreich;  concerto  on  a  theme 
by  Sebastian  Bach;  canonical  fan- 
taisie  on  Bach;  fugue  on  four  themes 
by  J.  S.  Bach;  also  a  toccata,  for 
which  he  has  received  congratulations 
from  Guilmant.  His  unpublished 
works  include  Variations  and  Finale 
on  an  original  theme;  cadenzas  to 
two  of  Handel's  and  one  of  Rhein- 
berger's  concertos;  and  an  etude  for 
pedals  alone.  Perpetual  Motion.  Mr. 
Middelschulte  has  been  twice  repre- 
sented on  the  programs  of  the  Ger- 
man Society  of  Tonal  Art,  of  which 
Richard  Strauss  is  president.  His 
compositions  combine  the  modern 
resources  of  advanced  musical  theory 
with  strict  classical  forms,  and  are 
considered  among  the  most  difficult 
works  for  the  organ. 

Mr.  Middelschulte's  influence  on  his 
pupils  and  friends  is  of  the  highest, 
both  as  a  man  and  as  a  musician.  His 
wife,  formerly  Miss  Annette  Musser, 
is  a  gifted  and  cultivated  musician, 
for  some  years  before  her  marriage  an 
organist,  pianist  and  teacher  promi- 
nent in  Memphis,  Tennessee.  She  is 
at  present  the  efficient  organist  of  St. 
Paul's  Universalist  Church,  Chicago. 

Mihalovich  (me-ha'-lo-v!ch),  Edmund 

von.     1842- 

Dramatic  composer  of  the  neo- 
German  School;  born  at  Fericsancze, 
Slavonia.  He  received  his  common 
school  education  and  his  early  musical 
training  at  Pesth.  In  1865  he  studied 
theory  with  Hauptmann  at  Leipsic, 
and  later  he  went  to  Munich,  where 
Hans  von  Biilow  taught  him  piano. 
He  is  an  ardent  admirer  and  disciple 
of  Wagner  and  his  writings  reflect 
the  standards  of  the  new  German 
Operatic  School.  He  wrote  the  bal- 
lads, Hero  and  Leander;  La  ronde  du 
sabbat:  Das  Geisterschifif,  and  Die 
Nixe;  the  three-act  opera,  Toldi,  Hag- 
barth  und  Signe,  and  some  piano- 

Mikuli  (me'-koo-le),  Karl.    1821-1897. 

Teacher  and  musical  writer,  best 
known  for  his  edition  of  Chopin's 
works,  which  contains  copies  of 
marginal  comments  made  by  Chopin 
on  Mikuli's  student  copies  of  that 
master's  works,  and  which  is  in  con- 
sequence considered  standard.  He 
was  born  in  Czernowitz,  Bukowina, 
and  in  1839  went  to  Vienna  as  a 
student  of  medicine.  He  soon  turned 
to  music,  however,  and  in  1844  went 



to  Paris  to  study  piano  under  Chopin, 
and  composition  under  Reicha,  re- 
turning to  his  own  country  in  1848. 
He  toured  Russia,  Romania,  Galicia, 
and  in  1858  was  appointed  artistic 
director  of  the  Leipsic  Conservatory, 
leaving  and  founding  a  school  of  his 
own  in  1888.  Besides  his  edition  of 
Chopin's  works  he  has  pubHshed  sev- 
eral pieces  which  show  the  influence 
of  that  master.  In  1858  he  be<^"me 
director  of  the  Galician  Society 

MilanoUo  (mi-lan-6r-15),  Maria.  1832- 


Sister  and  inseparable  companion  oi 
Teresa  Milanollo;  born  in  SavigUano. 
Her  sister  began  giving  her  violin 
lessons  when  she  was  a  very  small 
child,  and  her  ability  appeared  from 
the  first.  She  made  her  debut  in 
Boulogne  when  only  six  years  old, 
and  after  that  traveled  always  with 
her  sister,  appearing  in  Belgium,  Ger- 
many and  France,  and  creating  a  sen- 
sation on  her  appearance  with  her 
sister  in  1843.  In  1845  she  played  at 
a  Philharmonic  concert  in  London, 
upon  which  occasion  the  English 
critics  condemned  her  technique  as 
over-elaborate  and  exaggerated.  With 
her  sister  she  returned  to  Paris  in 
1848,  and  died  there  that  same  year. 

Milanollo,  Teresa.     1827-1904. 

Gifted  violinist;  born  at  Savigliano, 
near  Turin,  Italy.  Her  parents  were 
poor,  but  every  sacrifice  was  made  to 
give  her  and  her  sister  a  musical 
education.  After  some  lessons  on  the 
violin  from  Giovanni  Ferrero,  a  musi- 
cian of  her  native  place,  she  was 
taken  to  Turin,  where  she  became  a 
pupil  of  Gebboro  Mori  at  the  Capella 
Carlo  Alberto.  She  appeared  a  few 
times  in  concert  and  received  such 
great  applause  that  her  parents  de- 
cided to  take  her  to  Paris.  At  Mar- 
seilles, Teresa  appeared  in  concert 
and  was  given  a  letter  of  introduction 
to  Lafont.  Arriving  in  Paris  in  1837 
she  immediately  became  his  pupil, 
playing  five  times  at  the  Opera  Co- 
mique  and  making  a  tour  with  him 
through  Holland  and  Belgium  and 
England.  Her  sister  Maria  joined  her 
and  together  they  gave  concerts  in 
France,  Holland  and  Belgium,  return- 
ing to  Paris  in  1839.  She  appeared 
before  Louis  Philippe  in  Paris  and  at 
the  Paris  Conservatory,  studied  with 
De  Beriot  in  Bologna,  then  traveled 
through  Germany  and  Belgium.    She 

appeared  in  London  again  in  1845. 
On  the  death  of  her  sister  in  1848  she 
retired,  but  gradually  resumed  concert 
work  until  her  marriage  to  M.  Charles 
Joseph  Parmentier,  when  she  retired 
permanently.  From  1878  until  she 
died  she  lived  very  quietly  in  Paris. 
Her  compositions  are  Ave  Maria, 
chorus  for  male  voices;  two  romances; 
Fantaisie  elegiaque  for  violin;  tran- 
script and  variations  for  violin  and 

Milchmeyer     (milkh'-mi-er),     Philipp 

Jacob.    1750-1813. 

Piano-player  and  musical  inventor; 
born  at  Frankfort-on-the-Main.  In 
1780  he  was  Court  mechanician  at 
Mayence,  and  invented  a  piano  key- 
board having  three  manuals,  which, 
according  to  Cramer,  in  Magazin  der 
Musik,  produced  a  hundred  and  fifty 
varied  combinations  of  sounds.  He 
taught  piano  in  Strasburg,  and  died 
there  in  1813.  His  book,  Anfangs- 
grunde  der  Musik  um  das  Piano, 
sowohl  in  Riicksicht  des  Fingersatzes 
als  auch  der  Manieren  und  des  Aus- 
drucks  richtig  spielen  zu  lernen,  pub- 
lished in  1797,  is  considered  rather 

Milder-Hauptmann   (mel'-der  howpt'- 
man),  Pauline  Anna.     1785-1838. 

Dramatic  soprano,  with  a  voice  of 
wonderful  strength  and  beauty.  Was 
born  at  Constantinople.  She  was  liv- 
ing in  Vienna  as  a  maid  to  a  lady  of 
high  rank  when  the  manager,  Schika- 
neder,  found  her  and  persuaded  her  to 
study  for  opera,  offering  to  take 
charge  of  her  musical  education  and 
debut.  She  became  a  pupil  of  To- 
mascelli,  and  later  of  Salieri,  and  made 
her  debut  in  1803  as  Juno  in  Der 
Spiegel  von  Arkadien  by  Siissmayer. 
Owing  to  her  commanding  presence 
and  really  magnificent  voice  she  was 
immediately  successful  and  obtained 
a  position  to  sing  at  the  Imperial 
Court  Theatre.  After  a  tour  in  1808, 
in  which  she  was  enthusiastically  re- 
ceived wherever  she  sang,  she 
returned  to  Vienna  and  was  immedi- 
atley  engaged  as  prima  donna.  In 
1810  she  married  Herr  Hauptmann. 
In  1812  she  appeared  in  Berlin  in 
Iphigenia  in  Tauris,  by  Gluck,  scoring 
such  a  triumph  that  in  1816  she  was 
offered  a  permanent  contract  with  the 
Royal  Theatre  of  that  city.  This 
position  she  held  until  1829,  when, 
owing  to  constant  disagreements  with 



Spontini,  the  director,  she  left  the 
company  and  traveled  in  Sweden, 
Denmark  and  Russia.  Her  last  ap- 
pearance was  in  Vienna  in  1836,  and 
her  death  occurred  two  years  later  in 
Berlin.  Mme.  Milder-Hauptmann  had 
a  marvelous  voice,  but  she  was  in- 
dolent and  capricious  and  did  not 
work  or  study  conscientiously.  Cheru- 
bini  wrote  Faniska,  and  Beethoven, 
Leonore  in  Fidelio  especially  for  her. 
She  appeared  to  best  advantage  in 
such  roles  as  Iphigenia,  Armida  and 

Millard,  Harrison.    1830- 

American  composer  and  teacher  of 
vocal  music;  born  in  Boston,  Mass. 
As  a  child  he  sang  in  a  church  choir, 
and  when  only  ten  entered  the  chorus 
of  the  Handel  and  Haydn  Society. 
From  1851  to  1854  he  studied  singing 
in  Italy,  and  as  tenor  concert-singer 
traveled  through  Ireland  and  Scot- 
land with  Catherine  Hayes.  While 
he  was  abroad  he  wrote  articles  for 
Dwight's  Journal  of  Music  and  other 
American  magazines.  He  returned  to 
Boston  in  1854,  and  in  1856  as  a 
singer,  teacher  and  composer  he  set- 
tled in  New  York.  In  1859  he  pro- 
duced Viva  la  America,  the  first 
important  patriotic  song.  As  first  lieu- 
tenant in  the  Nineteenth  New  York 
Regiment  he  served  in  the  Civil  War, 
and  was  wounded  at  the  battle  of 
Chickamauga  and  sent  home.  After 
his  recovery  he  was  given  a  position 
in  the  New  York  custom  house.  He 
has  published  over  three  hundred 
songs,  among  them  the  well-known 
Flag  of  the  Free,  and  has  also 
adapted  songs  from  the  French  and 
German.  He  has  written  a  Grand 
Mass,  four  Te  Deums;  also  the  four- 
act  opera,  Deborah. 

Miller,  Edward.     1731-1807. 

English  organist  and  composer; 
born  at  Norwich.  His  early  musical 
education  was  obtained  at  Lynn  under 
Dr.  Burney.  In  1756  he  was  appointed 
organist  of  Doncaster,  and  continued 
to  fill  that  position  for  fifty  years.  He 
died  in  Doncaster  in  1807.  Among  the 
works  he  has  published  are  six  solos 
for  German  flute,  with  remarks  on 
double  tonguing;  elegies  for  voice 
and  piano;  songs;  an  ode  with  instru- 
mental parts;  six  harpsichord  so- 
natas; psalms  and  hymns,  among 
them  Psalms  of  David,  for  the  use  of 
parish  churches,  in  which  occurs  the 

well-known  hymn,  Rockingham;  also 
the  Elements  of  Thorough-bass  and 
Composition  and  Institute  of  Music, 
or  Easy  Instruction  for  the  Harpsi- 

Millocker    (mil'-lek-er),    Karl.    1842- 


Conductor  and  composer  of  a  very 
great  number  of  operettas;  born  in 
Vienna.  He  studied  at  the  Vienna 
Conservatory  and  in  1864  became 
chapelmaster  at  the  Gratz  Theatre, 
a  position  which  he  retained  until 
1866,  leaving  then  to  take  up  similar 
work  at  the  Harmonie  Theatre  in 
Vienna.  This  theatre  failed  in  a  very 
short  time  and  Millocker  removed  to 
Budapest  for  a  time,  but  returned  to 
Vienna  in  1869  and  became  chapel- 
master at  the  Theatre  an  der  Wien. 
He  died  at  Baden  near  Vienna. 
Among  his  compositions  are  a  num- 
ber of  musical  farces  and  many  piano- 
pieces,  some  of  which  have  appeared 
in  the  monthly  installments  of  the 
Musikalische  Presse.  Of  his  oper- 
ettas, Die  lustigen  Binder  and  Der 
todte  Gast,  appeared  in  Gratz;  Die 
Fraueninsel  came  out  in  Budapest; 
Der  Regimenstambour,  Ein  Aben- 
teuer  in  Wien;  Diana;  Drei  Paar 
Schuhe;  Das  ver  wunschene  Schloss; 
Grafin  Dubarry  and  Die  Musik  des 
Teufels  were  performed  in  Vienna. 
His  music  is  sprightly  and  piquant 
and  for  a  time  enjoyed  great  popu- 

Mills,  Sebastian  Bach.     1838-1898. 

Piano  virtuoso  of  unusual  ability, 
who  attained  great  popularity  in 
America;  born  in  Cirencester,  Eng- 
land. His  English  instructors  were 
Cipriani  Potter  and  Stcrndale  Ben- 
nett, and  at  the  age  of  seven  he  had 
so  far  progressed  as  to  play  before 
Queen  Victoria.  At  the  Leipsic  Con- 
servatory he  was  a  pupil  of  Moscheles, 
Plaidy,  Mayer,  Rietz  and  Hauptmann, 
and  later  he  became  one  of  the  young 
men  of  Liszt's  circle  at  Weimar.  In 
1855  he  was  made  organist  of  the 
Roman  Catholic  Cathedral  in  Shef- 
field. In  1858  he  appeared  as  soloist 
at  a  Gewandhaus  concert  in  Leipsic, 
and  in  1859  he  came  to  the  United 
States  on  a  concert  tour  that  proved 
so  successful  that  he  decided  to  settle 
here.  He  was  a  great  favorite  in 
New  York,  and  from  1859  to  1877 
appeared  every  season  in  concerts  of 
the    Philharmonic    Society,    of    which 




he  became  honorary  member  in  1866. 
In  1859,  1867  and  1878  he  made  con- 
cert tours  through  Germany,  each 
time  being  warmly  received.  He  died 
in  Wiesbaden,  Germany.  He  was  a 
most  successful  teacher  and  has  done 
much  for  the  promotion  of  music  in 
New  York.  All  of  his  compositions 
are  for  piano  and  are  graceful  and 
light  in  form.  Some  of  them  are 
Alpine  Horn,  transcription;  Murmur- 
ing Fountain;  two  Tarantelles;  Recol- 
lections of  Home;  Fairy  Fingers;  the 
polka,  Toujours  gai;  and  Barcarole 
venitienne.  Besides  the  Philharmonic 
Society,  Mills  was  a  member  of  the 
Tonkiinstler  Verein  of  Cologne,  and 
of  the  Arion  Society  of  New  York. 

Mingotti  (men-got'-ti),  Regina.    1728- 


Celebrated  singer  of  Italian  opera; 
born  of  German  parentage  at  Naples. 
On  the  death  of  her  father  she  was 
placed  in  an  Ursuline  Convent  and 
here  received  her  first  musical  in- 
struction, remaining  until  her  fif- 
teenth year.  While  still  very  young 
she  married  Mingotti,  impresario  of 
the  Dresden  Opera,  who  immediately 
placed  her  under  the  care  of  Porpora, 
with  whom  she  made  rapid  progress. 
Very  soon  after  her  debut  in  Dresden 
she  had  attained  such  popularity  as 
to  have  become  the  rival  of  Faustina- 
Hasse.  She  left  the  Dresden  Opera 
in  1751  to  appear  during  two  seasons 
under  Farinelli's  management  in  Ma- 
drid, and  in  1754  went  to  England, 
where  she  became  immensely  popular. 
She  toured  Italy,  and  in  1772  settled 
in  Munich,  where  she  lived  until  1787, 
retiring  then  to  Neuburg- on  -  the- 
Danube,  where  she  died. 

Minoja  (me-no'-ya),  Ambrosio.    1752- 


Italian  composer  of  opera  and 
church-music;  born  at  Ospitaletto, 
near  Brescia,  Italy.  He  studied  under 
Nicolo  Sala  at  Naples,  and  in  1772 
succeeded  Lampugnani  at  the  Teatro 
della  Scala,  Milan,  where  from  1789 
to  1809  he  was  maestro  al  cembalo  at 
La  Scala,  and  from  1814  to  1824  In- 
spector of  Studies  at  the  Conserv- 
atory. He  wrote  the  opera,  Zenobia, 
in  Rome  in  1788,  and  the  opera,  Tito 
nelle  Gallic,  given  at  La  Scala,  Milan, 
in  1787.  An  excellent  singing-teacher, 
he  wrote  Solfeggi,  and  Lettere  sopra 
il  canto.  He  composed  a  march  and 
a  funeral  symphony  on  the  death  of 

General  Hoche,  for  which  he  obtained 
a  gold  medal  from  Bonaparte,  and 
on  that  hero's  coronation  as  King  of 
Italy  he  wrote  a  Veni  Creator  and  a 
Te  Deum,  which  were  performed  in 
Milan  Cathedral. 

Mirecki     (f  rants     me'-rek-e),     Franz/ 


Piano  composer;  born  at  Cracow; 
began  his  career  as  pianist  at  four, 
appearing  in  concert  when  only  six. 
Going  to  Vienna  in  1814  he  studied 
piano  and  composition  with  Hummel, 
and  harmony  wth  Preindl,  and 
became  acquainted  with  Moscheles, 
Beethoven,  Salieri  and  Pixis.  In 
1816  he  went  to  Venice  to  study,  then 
was  for  several  years  in  Paris  and 
finally  went  to  Milan  and  other  cities 
of  Italy.  About  1825  he  became  di- 
rector of  the  San  Carlo  Theatre,  but 
soon  after  went  to  England,  and  in 
1826  returned  to_  Genoa,  where  he 
taught  vocal  music.  In  1838  he  be- 
came director  of  the  School  of  Dra- 
matic Singing,  and  he  died  in  Genoa 
in  1862.  It  is  said  that  he  was  at  one 
time  a  member  of  the  Conservatory  at 
Paris.  He  arranged  a  beautiful  edi- 
tion of  Marcello's  celebrated  psalms, 
in  which  work  he  is  said  to  have  been 
helped  by  Cherubini.  He  wrote  ora- 
torios; symphonies  for  grand  orches- 
tra; sonatas  for  piano  and  violin;  and 
several  collections  of  mazurkas  and 
polonaises.  He  also  wrote  a  treatise 
on  instrumentation,  Trattato  intorno 
agli  stromenti  ed  all'  instrumenta- 

Miry  (me'-re),  Karel.     1823-1889. 

Writer  of  operas;  born  at  Ghent, 
where  he  studied  harmony  and  coun- 
terpoint of  Mengal,  and  later  of 
Gevaert  at  the  Ghent  Conservatory, 
afterward  going  to  Paris  to  complete 
his  education,  but  returning  to  Ghent 
to  lead  an  orchestra  in  one  of  the 
local  theatres.  In  1857  he  was 
appointed  professor  of  counterpoint 
and  composition  a*  the  Conservatory. 
He  wrote  eighteen  Flemish  operas 
and  operettas  for  Brussels,  Antwerp 
and  Ghent,  among  these  being  Bri- 
gitta.  La  Lanterne  magique  and 
Charles-Quint,  Bouchard  d'Avesnes, 
Maria  van  Burgondie,  De  Keizer  bij 
de  Boeren,  De  occasie  maakt  den  dief, 
Brutus  en  Cesar,  Le  Mariage  de  Mar- 
guerite, La  Saint  Lucas,  given  in 
Ghent;  Anne  Mie,  Ees  Engel  op 
Wacht,    Drie    Koningen    Avond,    in 




Antwerp;  Frans  Ackerman,  Het  Drie- 
koningenfeest,  La  rose  d'or,  Le  poete 
et  son  ideal,  Twee  zusters,  in  Brus- 
sels. Also  the  ballets,  La  bouquetiere, 
La  fee  des  eaux,  and  Klida. 

Mohr  (mor),  Hermann.    1830-1896. 

Composer  and  musical  educator; 
born  at  Nieustadt.  He  studied  at  the 
Teachers'  Seminary  at  Eisleben,  and 
in  1850  went  to  Berlin,  founding  the 
Luisenstadt  there.  He  also  directed 
the  Mohn  Conservatory  at  Berlin. 
He  taught  in  Zeckwer's  Conservatory 
in  Philadelphia  after  1886,  and  died  in 
Philadelphia  ten  years  later.  He  has 
written  the  opera,  Der  Orakelspruch; 
the  male  choruses,  Jauchzend  erhebt 
sich  die  Schopfung  and  Am  Altare  der 
Wahrheit;  the  cantata,  Bergmanns- 
gruss;  songs  and  piano-compositions. 

Mohring  (ma'-ring),  Ferdinand.   1816- 

Composer  and  singing-teacher;  born 
at  Alt-Ruppin.  Originally  he  de- 
cided to  follow  the  profession  of 
architecture,  and  accordingly  attended 
the  Polytechnic  School  at  Berlin. -His 
education  in  musical  composition  he 
received  at  the  Berlin  Academy.  He 
was  organist  and  musical  director  at 
SaarbriJcken  in  1840,  and  became 
Royal  music  director  in  1844.  In 
1845  he  was  organist  and  singing- 
teacher  at  Neu-Ruppin.  Toward  the 
latter  part  of  his  life  he  went  to  Wies- 
baden, passing  the  remainder  of  his 
days  there  in  retirement.  He  wrote 
the  two  unsuccessful  operas,  Schloss 
Warren,  and  Das  Pfarrhaus;  many 
fine  male  choruses,  among  them  Nor- 
rnannenzug,  and  some  other  unpub- 
lished music. 

Moir,  Frank  Lewis.     1852- 

English  song  composer;  born  at 
Market  Harboro';  showed  musical 
talent  as  a  child.  He  studied  painting 
at  South  Kensington,  obtaining  cer- 
tificates for  model  and  free-hand 
drawing,  and  during  his  student  days 
he  sang  in  the  choir  of  Royal  Albert 
Hall,  where  Gounod  was  at  that  time 
conducting.  Finally  his  love  of  music 
overcame  his  other  art  and  he  began 
to  fit  himself  for  musical  composition. 
In  1890  he  won  a  scholarship  at  the 
National  School  for  Music  founded 
by  the  Corporation  of  the  City  of 
London.  Here  he  received  excellent 
instruction  in  counterpoint  of  Dr. 
Bridge,   in   composition   gf   Ebenezer 


Prout,  and  in  harmony  of  Sir  John 
Stainer.  After  two  years'  study  he 
received  a  certificate  of  highest  honor 
in  composition.  He  has  writen  the 
comic  onera,  The  Royal  Watchman; 
the  madrigal.  When  at  Chloe's  Eyes 
I  Gaze,  which  took  the  Madrigal  So- 
ciety prize  in  1881;  a  melody  in  A  for 
violin  and  piano;  the  songs,  Pest  of 
All;  Only  Once  More;  Among  the 
Passion  Flowers;  A  Lark's  Flight; 
The  Golden  Meadow;  Love  Shall 
Never  Die;  and  many  others.  He 
married  Eleanor  Farnol,  a  soprano, 
who  gives  recitals  of  his  songs. 

Molique  (mol-ek'),  Wilhelm  Bemhard. 

Violin  virtuoso  and  composer;  born 
at  Nuremberg.  His  father,  the  town 
chapelmaster,  was  his  first  instructor 
and  taught  him  to  play  several  instru 
ments,  but  soon  selected  the  violin 
as  the  instrument  upon  which  to  per- 
fect his  son.  When  Molique  was 
fourteen,  Spohr  came  to  Nuremberg 
and  was  persuaded  to  teach  him, 
praising  the  progress  he  had  already 
made  and  prophesying  a  successful 
future.  He  showed  so  much  talent 
that  Maximilian  I.  of  Bavaria  became 
his  patron,  sending  him  to  Munich, 
where  in  1816  he  began  to  study  under 
Rovelli.  After  two  years  in  Munich, 
he  played  in  the  orchestra  of  the 
Theatre  an  der  Wien  at  Vienna,  re- 
turning to  Munich  after  Rovelli's 
death  in  1820  and  becoming  conductor 
of  the  Royal  band.  In  1822  he  made 
his  first  artistic  tour,  stopping  at 
Leipsic,  Dresden,  Berlin  and  Hanover, 
and  gaining  wide  recognition  as  an 
excellent  violinst.  In  1826  he  became 
first  violin  and  director  of  the  Royal 
band  at  Stuttgart,  a  position  which 
he  held  until  1849,  spending  his  vaca- 
tions in  concert  tours  to  Paris,  St. 
Petersburg  and  Vienna.  In  1849  he 
moved  to  London,  where  he  became 
well  known  as  a  solo  and  quartet 
player  and  a  teacher  of  violin.  His 
oratorio,  Abraham,  was  first  per- 
formed at  the  Norwich  Festival  in 
1860.  In  1866  he  retired  to  Cann- 
stadt,  near  Stuttgart,  where  he  died  in 
1869.  He  has  written  some  excellent 
violin-music,  of  which  the  concerto 
in  A  minor  is  usually  considered  the 
best.  His  other  works  are  nine  other 
concertos;  eight  quartets;  a  sym- 
phony; a  mass;  three  violin  sonatas; 
duet  for  various  combinations  of  in- 
struments, and  a  concertino. 



Mollenhauer    (mol'-len-how-er),    Ed- 
ward R.    1827- 

Violinist;  the  youngest  of  three 
brothers;  born  at  Erfurt,  Saxony.  He 
received  his  first  instruction  under  his 
brother  Frederic,  then  studied  under 
Ernst  and  Spohr.  After  playing  in 
Germany  and  under  the  patronage  of 
Archduchess  of  Dessau  in  St.  Peters- 
burg, he  was  ordered  back  to  Ger- 
many to  do  military  service,  but  fled 
to  England,  joining  JuUien's  Orches- 
tra as  solo  violinist,  and  coming  to 
America  with  that  orchestra  in  1853. 
He  founded  a  school  for  violin-play- 
ing in  New  York.  He  was  one  of  the 
first  teachers  in  America  to  use  the 
Conservatory  system  of  teaching. 
Among  his  compositions  are  an  opera, 
The  Corsican  Bride;  two  comic 
operas,  Breakers,  and  the  Masque 
Ball;  violin-pieces;  string  quartet; 
some  songs;  a  Passion  symphony,  and 
two  other  symphonies. 
Mollenhauer,  Emil.    1855- 

One  of  the  most  talented  of  Ameri- 
can choral  conductors;  born  at  Brook- 
lyn, New  York.  He  received  his 
general  education  in  the  public  schools 
of  Brooklyn  and  at  Russell's  Acad- 
emy, New  York.  When  only  nine 
years  old  he  played  violin  in  Niblo's 
Garden,  and  when  fourteen  he  played 
in  the  orchestra  of  Booth's  Theatre. 
At  the  age  of  sixteen  he  was  one  of 
the  first  violinists  in  the  Thomas  Or- 
chestra. He  was  a  member  of  the 
Damrosch  Orchestra  and  of  various 
musical  societies  of  New  York  and 
Brooklj'n  until  1884,  when  he  moved 
to  Boston.  Here  he  was  a  member  of 
the  Boston  Symphony  Orchestra 
from  1884  to  1888,  then  he  conducted 
the  Germania  Orchestra  and  the  Mu- 
nicipal concerts  until  1903.  His  great- 
est work  has  been  done  in  connection 
with  the  Handel  and  Haydn  Society, 
of  which  he  became  conductor  in 
1899  and  which  he  has  wholly  reor- 
ganized, dismissing  old  members  unfit 
for  work  and  filling  their  places  by 
new.  Besides  his  work  with  this  so- 
ciety he  has  been  connected  with  clubs 
at  Lynn,  Brockton,  Salem  and  New- 
buryport,  and  with  the  Boston  Apollo 
Club  and  Festival  Orchestra. 

Moller      (mol'-ler),     Joachim.      1541- 


Organist  and  notable  composer  of 
church-music,  who  in  later  years 
dropped  his  surname  and  was  known 
as  Joachim  von  Burck  or  von  Burgk. 

He  was  born  in  Burg,  then  under  the 
government  of  the  Bishop  of  Magde- 
burg. His  teacher  was  Herinann 
Noricus,  but  most  of  his  musical 
knowledge  was  gained  through  careful 
study  of  the  works  of  Orlando  di 
Lasso,  whom  he  greatly  admired  and 
tried  to  imitate.  In  1566  he  became 
cantor  of  the  Church  of  St.  Blasius 
at  Miihlhausen,  where  he  remained 
until  his  death,  and  where  he  was 
succeeded  by  many  famous  musicians, 
among  them  John  Sebastian  Bach. 
He  was  also  Symphonista  of  Miihl- 
hausen and  Alderman  of  the  City 
Council,  which  in  1626  published  at 
the  expense  of  the  city  all  the  odes 
and  hymns  of  Helmbold  edited  by 
him  in  a  collection  of  six  volumes. 
Schoberlein's  Schatz  contains  many  of 
his  hymn  arrangements,  partly  in 
motet  and  partly  in  choral  form.  Some 
of  his  compositions  are  Die  Deutsche 
Passion,  dedicated  to  the  Lutheran 
Cathedral  Chapter  at  Magdeburg; 
several  books  of  Odae  Sacrae  of  Helm- 
bold;  Harmonise  sacrae  tan  viva  voce 
quam  instrumentis;  Sacro  Cantiones; 
Passio  Jesu  Christi;  twenty  Deutsche 
Liedlein;  Crepundia  Sacra,  a  collection 
of  school  songs;  thirty  Geistlische 
Lieder;  Symbolum  Apostolicum  Ni- 
caeum;  Te  Deum  laudamus,  and  many 
other  church  compositions. 

Molloy,  James  Lyman.     1837- 

Irisli  composer  of  songs;  was  born 
at  Cornolore,  King's  County,  Ireland. 
Having  taken  the  degree  of  M.  A.  at 
the  Catholic  University  of  Ireland  he 
was  called  to  the  English  bar  in  1864, 
and  is  a  member  of  the  Southeastern. 
Sessions  and  Brighton  Circuit  of  the 
Middle  Temple.  He  has  written  three 
operettas.  Very  Catching,  The  Stu- 
dent's Frolic,  and  My  Aunt's  Secret; 
and  a  great  number  of  popular  songs, 
among  them  being  Blue  Eyes;  Col- 
leen; Will  o'  the  Wisp;  Clang  of  the 
Wooden  Schoon;  Loves  Old  Sweet 
Song;  Because  I  Do;  Old  Chelsea 
Pensioner;  Irish  Piper;  Darby  and 
Joan;  Thady  O'FIynn;  Kerry  Dance; 
Child's  Vision;  Old  Sailor  Wife; 
Vagabond;  Carnival;  Eily's  Reason. 
He  has  also  edited  Irish  Melodies, 
with  new  accompaniments,  and  has 
written  a  book  called  Our  Autumn 
Holiday  on  French  Rivers. 

Momigny   (mo-men'-ye),  Jerome  Jo- 
seph de.     1762-1855. 
Organist,      teacher      and      musical 

theorist;  born  at  Philippeville  in  Bel- 



gium.  When  twelve  years  old  he  was 
organist  at  St.  Omer,  and  a  little  later 
at  the  Abbey  of  Sainte-Colombe,  and 
in  1785  at  Lyons.  During  the  Revo- 
lution he  retired  to  Switzerland,  and 
in  1800  he  went  to  Paris,  where  he 
founded  a  music  business  and  taught, 
later  removing  to  Tours.  He  wrote 
Complet  d'Harmonie  et  de  Composi- 
tion d'apres  une  Theorie  Neuve, 
which  purported  to  be  a  new  discov- 
ery in  regard  to  theory  of  music,  but 
which  does  not  seem  to  have  been 
important.  He  was  also  musical  edi- 
tor of  the  Encyclopedic  Methodique, 
a  work  interrupted  by  the  Revolution. 
He  has  composed  string  quartets; 
violin  sonatas;  trios;  sonatas  for  piano 
and  violin;  premiere  anee  de  lemons  de 
piano;  and  sonatas  and  other  pieces 
for  piano. 

Monasterio     (mo-nas-ta'-ri-o),    Jesus 

de.     1836-1903. 

Eminent  Spanish  violinist,  who  was 
instrumental  in  developing  a  knowl- 
edge of  classical  music  in  Spain;  born 
at  Potes  in  Santander  province. 
From  his  seventh  year  he  was  under 
royal  patronage  and  was  given  the 
best  instruction  Madrid  could  furnish. 
In  1845  he  made  a  debut  as  a  child 
prodigy,  and  from  1849  to  1851  he  was 
a  pupil  of  De  Beriot  at  the  Brussels 
Conservatory,  returning  to  Madrid  in 
1852  and  scoring  an  immediate  suc- 
cess. In  1861  he  made  a  successful 
tour  through  France,  Belgium,  Hol- 
land and  Germany,  and  at  Weimar  he 
was  offered  the  post  of  Court  chapel- 
master,  which  he  declined,  preferring 
to  return  to  his  native  land.  He  was 
professor  of  violin,  and  in  1894  be- 
came director  at  the  Madrid  Conserv- 
atory, and  he  was  also  Court  violinist. 
He  is  said  to  have  formed  the  Quartet 
Society  in  Madrid  in  1861.  He  died  at 
Santander.  He  wrote  many  successful 
compositions  for  violin,  among  them 
Adieux  a  I'Alhambra,  and  two  ecclesi- 
astical compositions  without  accom- 

Mondonville  (mori-doA-ve'-yu),  Jean 
Joseph  Cassanea.  1711-1772. 
French  violinist  and  dramatic  com- 
poser; born  at  Narbonne.  His  musi- 
cal ability  appeared  very  early,  and 
after  studying  violin  he  traveled 
about,  finally  settling  at  Lille.  In 
Paris  in  1737  he  produced  three  9f 
his  motets  with  such  success  that  in 
1744  he  was  appointed  to  succeed  Ger- 


vais  as  superintendent  of  the  Royal 
Chapel,  Versailles.  In  1752  when 
strife,  known  as  <^uerre  des  Bouffons, 
arose  between  factions  upholding  the 
Italian  or  French  Opera,  Mondonville 
was  appointed  representative  of 
National  Art,  and  under  the  patronage 
of  Mme.  de  Pompadour  achieved  suc- 
cess for  his  opera,  Titon  et  I'Aurore. 
Owing  to  this  success  he  became  direc- 
tor of  the  Concerts  Spirtituels  in 
1755,  conducting  the  concerts  with 
pronounced  success  and  producing 
three  oratorios,  Les  Fureurs  de  Saiil, 
Les  Israelites  au  mont  oreb,  and  Les 
Titans.  He  wrote  a  number  of  operas, 
none  of  which  was  successful,  among 
them  being  Isbe;  Le  Carnival  du  Par- 
nasse;  La  serva  Padrona;  Daphne  et 
Alcimadura;  Les  Fetes  de  Paphos; 
Thesee;  Pscyhe;  Venus  et  Adonis; 
Bacchus  et  Erigone,  written  for  Mme. 
de  Pompadour's  Theatre  in  Versailles; 
and  the  ballet,  Les  Projets  de 
I'Amour,  as  well  as  violin  sonatas  and 
concertos,  pieces  for  harpsichord  and 
violin,  trios  and  motets. 

Moniuszko    (mo-ru-oosh'-ko),   Stanis- 

law.     1820-1872. 

Dramatic  composer;  born  in  the 
department  of  Minsk,  Lithuania.  He 
first  studied  under  August  Freyer  in 
Warsaw,  then  went  to  Berlin,  where 
from  1837  to  1839  he  was  the  pupil  of 
Rugenhagen.  He  settled  in  Wilna  as 
teacher  and  organist  in  the  church  of 
St.  John,  remaining  until  1858  when 
he  became  chapelmaster  of  the  Opera 
in  Warsaw,  where  in  1846  he  had  pro- 
duced his  first  opera,  Halka.  He 
later  became  professor  at  the  War- 
saw Conservatory  He  died  at  War- 
saw in  1872,  and  twenty  years  later  a 
branch  of  the  Warsaw  Musical  Soci- 
ety was  organized  to  publish  his 
manuscript  works,  and  to  found 
a  museum.  Among  his  composi- 
tions are  The  Bohemians;  Jaw- 
nutz;  Music  for  Hamlet;  The  Paria; 
The  New  Don  Quixote:  The  Coun- 
tess; The  Haunted  Castle;  Betty; 
The  cantatas,  Milda,  Goddess  of 
Beauty  and  Viola;  a  descriptive  com- 
position, Night  in  the  Apennines,  be- 
sides the  hymn.  Madonna,  for  solo, 
chorus  and  orchestra;  a  mass;  piano- 
pieces  and  songs. 

Monk,  Edwin  George.    1819-1900. 

Organist  and  composer  of  church 
music;  born  at  Frome,  Somersetshire, 
England.      His    father    was   his     first 




teacher,  but  later  he  studied  piano 
with  Henry  Field,  and  organ  with 
George  Field.  He  went  to  London 
where  he  studied  vocal  music  in  Hul- 
lah's  classes  and  solo  with  Henry 
Philips.  In  England  he  held  several 
appointments  under  G.  A.  Macfarren 
as  organist  and  in  1844  he  went  to 
Ireland  to  become  organist  and  music- 
master  in  the  newly  organized  Col- 
lege of  St.  Colomba.  In  1847  he  set- 
tled in  Oxford,  where  he  was  one  of 
the  founders  of  the  University  Motet 
and  Madrigal  Society.  In  1848  he 
graduated  as  Bachelor  of  Music 
at  Oxford  and  was  made  lay  precen- 
tor, organist  and  musicmaster  of  the 
new  College  of  St.  Peter's  at  Radley. 
In  1856  he  received  his  degree  of 
Doctor  of  Music,  and  in  1859  he  be- 
came choirmaster  and  organist  at 
York  Cathedral,  succeeding  Dr.  Cam- 
idge.  He  died  at  Radley.  His  com- 
positions consist  of  a  Veni  Creator 
Spiritus,  Anthems  and  a  Service.  With 
Rev.  R.  C.  Singleton  he  edited  the 
Anglican  Chant  Book;  the  Anglican 
Choral  Service  Book;  the  Anglican 
Hymn  Book;  and  with  Sir  F.  A.  G. 
Ousley,  The  Psalter  and  Canticles 
and  Anglican  Psalter  Chants.  He 
compiled  the  librettos  of  Sir  George 
Macfarren's  Oratorios,  John  the  Bap- 
tist, Joseph,  and  The  Resurrection. 
He  is  also  well  known  as  an  astrono- 
mer, and  in  1871  became  a  Fellow  of 
the  Royal  Astronomical  Society. 

Monk,  William  Henry..   1823-1889. 

Organist  and  musical  director;  born 
in  London;  received  his  musical  train- 
ing from  Thomas  Adams,  J.  A.  Hamil- 
ton and  G.  A.  Griesbach.  After  acting  as 
organist  in  Eton  Chapel,  Pimlico,  St. 
George's  Chapel,  Albemarle  Street, 
and  Portman  Chapel,  St.  Marylebone, 
he  became  musical  director  at  King's 
College,  London,  in  1847,  and  in  1849 
was  made  organist.  In  1874  he  suc- 
ceeded Hullah  as  professor  of  vocal 
music.  He  was  appointed  professor 
at  the  School  for  the  Indigent  Blind 
in  1851  and  organist  of  St.  Mathias, 
Stoke  Newington  in  1852,  and  also 
delivered  lectures  on  music  at  the 
London  Institution,  Edinburgh,  and 
the  Royal  Institution,  Manchester.  In 
1876  he  became  a  professor  in  the 
National  Training  School  for  Music 
and  in  1878  he  began  to  teach  in  Bed- 
ford College,  London.  He  died  in 
London.  Beside  his  work  as  a 
teacher  he  was,  for  a  while,  editor  of 


The  Parish  Choir  and  one  of  the  edi- 
tors of  Hymns,  Ancient  and  Modern, 
and  he  composed  Te  Deums;  Kyries; 
anthems  and  other  church-music. 
Monpou  (mori-poo),  Franjois  Louis 
Hippolyte.  1804-1841. 
Composer  of  songs  and  opera;  born 
in  Paris.  When  only  five  he  was  a 
chorister  at  Saint-Germain  I'Auxer- 
rois  and  when  nine  he  sang  at  Notre 
Dame.  In  1817  he  entered  Choron's 
school  and  two  years  later  went  as 
organist  to  Tours.  He  proved  incap- 
able of  filling  this  position  and  re- 
turned to  Choron,  becoming  assistant 
at  his  school  and  studying  harmony 
with  Porta,  Chelard  and  Fetis.  After 
this  he  held  the  post  of  organist  at 
St.  Nicholas  des  Chants,  St.  Thomas 
d'Aquin  and  the  Sorbonne.  He  began 
his  career  of  song  composer  in  1828 
with  the  publication  of  a  nocturne  for 
three  voices  written  to  Beranger's  Si 
j'etais  petit  oiseau,  and  afterward 
composed  many  songs  to  the  words 
of  the  poets  of  the  romantic  school, 
among  them  de  Musset  and  Victor 
Hugo.  In  1835  he  began  to  compose 
operas  and  in  five  years  produced  Les 
deux  Reines;  Perugina;  La  chaste 
Suzanne;  Le  Luthier  de  Vienne;  Un 
Conte  d'Autrefois;  La  Reine  Jeanne; 
La  Planteur,  and  Piquillo.  This  tre- 
mendous amount  of  work  broke  down 
his  health  and  he  died  at  Orleans.  The 
instrumentation  and  general  compo- 
sition of  his  operas  is  very  poor  and 
they  are  now  all  forgotten. 
Monsigny  (mori-sen-ye),  Pierre  Alex- 
andre.    1729-1817. 

French  dramatic  composer;  born  at 
Fauquemberge,  near  St.  Omer,  in  the 
province  of  Artois.  He  studied  the 
violin  with  no  thought  of  becoming 
a  musician.  In  1749,  soon  after  his 
father's  death,  he  obtained  a  clerk- 
ship in  the  offices  of  the  Chamber  of 
Accounts  of  the  Clergy  of  France. 
Was  later  appointed  maitre  d'hotel  to 
the  Due  d'Orleans  and  was  enabled  to 
help  his  family  by  the  large  salary  he 
received.  Inspired  by  hearing  Pergo- 
lesi's  Serva  Padrona  he  studied 
harmony  with  Gianotti,  doublebass 
in  the  Opera  orchestra,  who  taught 
after  Rameau's  system.  After  five 
months'  instruction,  Monsigny  wrote 
Les  Aveux  indiscrets,  which  was  pro- 
duced successfully  at  the  Theatre  de 
la  Foire  in  1759.  For  the  same  theatre 
he  composed  Le  Maitre  en  droit;  Le 
Cadi  dupe,  which  attracted  the  libret- 




tist,  Sedaine,  with  whom  he  after- 
ward worked,  writing  On  ne  s'avise 
jamais  de  tout,  to  his  libretto.  This 
was  his  last  opera  produced  at  the 
Theatre  de  la  Foire.  He  wrote  from 
1764  to  1777  for  the  Comedie  Italienne. 
Although  Felix,  ou  I'enfant  trouve,  was 
exceedingly  successful,  it  was  his  last 
opera.  Whether  from  fear  of  a  ri- 
valry with  Gretry  or  from  fatigue,  he 
never  wrote  again.  As  inspector-gen- 
eral of  canals  and  maitre  d'hotel  to 
Due  d'Orleans  he  had  amassed  a  con- 
siderable fortune,  which  was  swept 
away  during  the  Revolution.  In  1798 
the  societaires  of  the  Opera  Comique 
made  up  a  subscription  which  yielded 
him  an  annuity  of  about  five  hundred 
dollars  On  the  death  of  Puccini  in 
1800  he  became  inspector  of  instruc- 
tion at  the  Conservatory  of  Music, 
but,  feeling  that  his  own  very  inade- 
quate technical  training  had  not  ren- 
dered him  competent  to  fill  this  posi- 
tion, he  resigned  in  1802.  In  1813  he 
was  appointed  to  Gretry's  place  in  the 
Institut  and  in  1816  was  decorated 
with  the  cross  of  the  Legion  of  Honor. 
He  died  a  year  later  in  Paris.  Owing  to 
the  meagre  technical  training  he  had 
received  the  orchestration  for  his 
operas  was  always  poor,  but  his  plays 
were  full  of  melody  and  dramatic  truth 
and  were  more  natural  and  amusing 
than  much  of  the  work  of  his  time. 
The  best  of  them  is  Le  Deserteur,  per- 
formed in  1769;  Le  Cadi  dupe  is  also 
notable  for  its  animation  and  truly 
comic  element.  The  other  operas  are 
L'lle  sonnante;  Le  Roi  et  le  Fermier; 
Le  Faucon;  Le  Rendezvous  bien  em- 
ploye; Rose  et  Colas;  Aline,  Reine  de 
Golconde,  and  La  belle  Arsene. 

Montagnana     (mon-tay-na'-na),     Do- 

menico.     1700-1740. 

Violin-maker  who  was  an  appren- 
tice to  Antonius  Stradivarius.  He  is 
not  so  well  known  as  other  master 
violin-makers  owing  to  the  insertion 
of  false  signatures  into  his  instruments 
by  unscrupulous  dealers,  but  he  ranks 
with  Carlo  Bergonzi.  He  worked  at 
Cremona  and  later  at  Venice,  where 
he  made  violas  and  superb  violoncel- 
los, gaining  from  Charles  Reade  the 
title  of  the  mighty  Venetian.  Though 
the  pupil  of  Stradivarius,  his  instru- 
ments are  quite  different  in  shape,  with 
much  larger  and  bolder  scroll  and  a 
varnish  of  wonderful  smoothness  and 
beauty.  His  instruments  are  now 
very  rare  and  valuable. 

Monte  (mon'-te),  Fillippo  de.     1521- 


Composer  of  madrigals  and  church 
music;  born  at  Mons,  or  according  to 
some  authorities,  Mechlin.  He  pub- 
lished his  first  book  of  masses  in  1557 
in  Antwerp,  and  tradition  has  it  that 
he  knew  Lassus  and  also  Orlando,  at 
whose  recommendation  he  became 
chapelmaster  to  Maximilian  II.,  in 
Vienna,  in  1568.  He  served  Rudolph 
in  the  same  capacity  in  Prague,  and 
became  canon  and  treasurer  of  the 
Cathedral  of  Cambrai.  He  died  in 
Vienna.  Among  his  many  writings 
are  nineteen  books  of  madrigals  to 
five  voices;  eight  books  of  madrigals 
to  six  voices;  canzonets  and  madri- 
gals to  seven  voices;  Madrigali  spir- 
ituali  to  five  voices;  masses  to  five 
voices;  and  mass  to  six  voices;  several 
masses  to  four  and  five  voices;  a  Ben- 
edicta  es;  six  books  of  motets  to  five 
and  six  voices;  two  books  of  motets 
to  six  and  twelve  voices;  some  French 
chansons;  and  Sonnets  de  Pierre  de 

Monteclair  (mon-ta-klar),  Michel  Pig- 

nolet  de.    1666-1737. 

Dramatic  and  instrumental  com- 
poser; born  at  Audelot.  As  a  choris- 
ter at  the  Cathedral  of  Langres  he 
studied  under  Jean  Baptiste  Moreau. 
He  became  musicmaster  to  the  Prince 
of  Vaudemont  and  went  with  him  to 
Italy.  Returning  to  Paris  in  1700  he 
entered  the  orchestra  of  the  Opera  as 
a  doublebass  player,  a  position  which 
he  filled  for  thirty  years  and  was  then 
given  a  pension.  He  died  at  St.  Denis. 
Among  his  compositions  are  the 
operas,  Les  Fetes  de  I'ete,  and  Jeptha; 
six  concertos  for  two  flutes;  four  col- 
lections of  minuets;  cantas  for  voice 
with_  basso  continuo;  motets;  a 
requiem;  six  trios  for  strings;  and  his 
Methode  pour  apprendre  la  musique. 

Monteverde  (mon-ta-ver'-de),  Claudio. 


Originator  of  instrumentation  in 
opera,  and  pioneer  in  the  use  of  cer- 
tain musical  forms  contrary  to  ancient 
ideas  of  counterpoint;  was  born  in 
Cremona,  Italy.  While  very  young  he 
played  the  viola  in  the  orchestra  of 
the  Duke  of  Mantua,  and  studied 
counterpoint  under  Marc^  Antonio 
Ingegneri,  ducal  maestro  di  cappella, 
although  he  probably  derived  more 
knowledge  from  the  writings  of  the 
Florentine  musical  reformers,  Casein! 



and  Peri,  than  from  the  instruction  of 
this  master.  In  1584  his  Canzonettes 
for  three  voices  was  published  m 
Venice  and  three  years  later  his  First 
Book  of  Madrigals  appeared  followed 
by  five  others  in  1593,  1594,  1597, 
1599  and  1614.  About  this  time  Canon 
Artusi  of  St.  Savior  at  Bologna  pub- 
lished Imperfections  of  Modern  Music, 
an  attack  on  the  modern  schools  as 
exemplified  in  Cruda  AmarilH,  the  best 
known  of  Monteverde's  Madrigals. 
The  composer  answered  this  attack  in 
a  letter,  Agli  studiosi  lettori,  which  he 
inserted  in  a  following  book  of  Mad- 
rigals, and  finally  went  to  Rome  to 
justify  his  position  by  presenting 
some  of  his  compositions  to  Pope 
Clement  VIII.  for  examination.  In 
1602  he  succeeded  Ingegneri  as 
maestro  to  the  Duke.  In  1607  he 
brought  out  his  first  opera,  Orfeo,  in 
honor  of  the  marriage  of  the  Duke's 
son,  Francesco  di  Gonzaga,  to  the 
Infanta  of  Savoy.  This  was  followed 
in  1608  by  Arianna.  Another  compo- 
sition of  this  kind  was  II  ballo  delle 
ingrate,  produced  at  the  same  time  as 
Orfeo.  He  also  wrote  Scherzi  musi- 
cali  a  tre  voci,  some  vespers  and 
motets.  In  1613  he  was  appointed 
successor  to  Martinengo  as  maestro 
di  cappella  of  St.  Mark's  in  Venice. 
The  salary  of  that  office  was  increased 
a  hundred  ducats,  and  an  additional 
fifty  ducats  was  giv^n  him  to  cover  the 
expense  of  moving  from  Mantua.  For 
several  years  he  wrote  only  church- 
music,  but  in  1621  he  composed  a 
Grand  Requiem  in  honor  of  Duke 
Cosmos   II.,  which   was   more   appro- 

friate  to  the  stage  than  to  the  church, 
n  1624  he  wrote  II  Combattimento  di 
Tancredi  and  Clorinda,  in  which  his 
use  of  the  instrumental  tremolo  was 
an  innovation.  By  this  time  he  was 
generally  considered  the  foremost 
musician  of  Italy  and  had  impressed 
his  musical  ideas  and  principles  on 
all  his  contemporaries.  He  composed 
Licori,  la  finta  pazza,  in  1627;  the  can- 
tata, II  Rosajo  fioritu  in  1629;  and  the 
grand  opera,  Proserpina  rapita  in 
1630,  and  a  Grand  Thanksgiving  mass 
having  trombone  accompaniment  to 
the  Gloria  and  Credo 

In  1633  he  entered  the  priesthood. 
In  1637  the  first  opera  house  in  the 
world  was  opened  in  Venice  and  in 
1639  Monteverde  wrote  L'Adone,  to 
be  performed  there;  in  1641  Arianna 
was  revived  at  the  new  St.  Mark's 
Theatre,  and  during  that  year  he  wrote 


two  new  operas,  II  Ritorno  d'Ulissi  in 
Patria  and  Le  Nozze  di  Enea,  also  the 
ballet  Vittoria  d'Amore  for  a  carnival 
at  Piacenza.  In  1642  he  wrote  his 
last  opera,  L'Incoronazione  di  Poppea. 
In  1643  he  died  and  was  buried  in  a 
chapel  of  the  Chiesa  dei  Frari. 

Most  of  Monteverde's  works  were 
lost  and  we  have  only  printed  copies 
of  three  volumes  of  church-music,  the 
complete  score  of  Orfeo,  eight  books 
of  Madrigals  the  Canzonettes  pub- 
lished in  1584  and  a  volume  of 
musical  scherzos.  Besides  the  compo- 
sitions we  have  mentioned  he  wrote 
much  church-music,  masses,  psalms. 
Magnificats  Salves  and  motets.  Our 
debt  to  Monteverde  is  not  for  his 
compositions  but  for  the  freedom  he 
brought,  for  the  many  new  elements 
he  introduced  into  the  writing  of 
harmony  and  for  the  great  advance  he 
made  in  musical  drama.  He  may  be 
called  the  first  great  modern  musician. 
In  the  instrumentation  to  his  opera, 
Orfeo,  he  seems  almost  to  have  fore- 
stalled Wagner  in  using  certain  instru- 
ments to  accompany  certain  charac- 

Montigfny-Remaury  (moA-ten-ye  ra- 
mo-re),  Fanny  Marcalline  Caroline. 

A  piano  virtuosa  of  remarkable 
ability;  born  at  Pamiers,  Ariege, 
France.  Taught  music  at  first  by  her 
elder  sister,  Elvire  Remaury.  In  1854 
she  entered  the  pianoforte  class  of 
Professor  Le  Couppey  at  the  Con- 
servatory. She  took  the  first  prize 
for  piano-playing  in  1858,  a  prize  for 
solfege  in  1859,  and  the  first  prize  for 
harmony  in  1862.  Her  rendering  of 
Mendelssohn's  G  minor  Concerto  at 
a  Conservatory  concert  immediately 
placed  her  among  the  finest  piano 
virtuosi  in  France.  She  married  Leon 
Montigny  in  1860,  but  he  lived  only 
twelve  years  after  the  marriage. 
Madame  Montignj^  has  toured  Eng- 
land and  the  Continent  and  is  every- 
where looked  upon  as  a  performer  of 
the  first  rank.  Her  style  of  playing 
is  forcible  and  vigorous  but  full  of 
refinement,  and  is  chiefly  remarkable 
for  the  faithfulness  with  which  she 
portrays  the  characteristics  of  the 
composer  whose  music  she  is  playing. 

Morales  (mo-ral'-as),  Cristofero.  1512- 

Spanish  writer  of  religious  music; 
born  in  Seville.    From  1535  to  1540  he 




was  a  member  of  the  Papal  Chapel 
under  Pope  Paul  III.,  and  during  the 
years  spent  there  he  composed  much 
fine  church-music,  among  which  was 
his  unsurpassed  Lamentabatur  Jacob, 
for  many  years  sung  by  the  Papal 
Choir  on  the  fourth  Sunday  in  Lent. 
From  1544  to  1545  he  is  said  to  have 
been  master  of  the  chapel  at  Toledo 
and  to  have  sung  in  the  Cathedral  at 
Malaga  in  1551.  He  returned  to 
Seville  in  1552  and  in  1553  died,  either 
at  Seville  or  Malaga.  His  training 
seems  to  have  been  along  the  lines  of 
the  Netherlands  school  of  counter- 
point, and  his  writings  show  great 
fire  and  originality.  Reprints  of  por- 
tions of  his  masses,  magnificats  and 
motets  have  appeared.  He  wrote  two 
collections  of  masses,  one  for  five 
voices  and  one  for  four;  a  well-known 
Magnificat;  his  Lamentations  of  Jere- 
miah for  four,  five  and  six  voices, 
besides  many  other  church  composi- 

Morel     (mo-rel),    Auguste    Frangois. 

Writer  of  songs;  best  known  for 
his  chamber-music;  born  at  Marseilles. 
He  was  _  chiefly  self-educated,  and 
appeared  in  Paris  in  1836  as  a  com- 
poser of  songs  and  a  writer  of  musical 
articles  In  1850  he  returned  to 
Marseilles,  where  in  1852  he  became 
a  director  at  the  Conservatory,  re- 
taining this  position  until  1873.  In 
1877  he  went  again  to  Paris,  where  he 
remained  until  his  death.  In  recogni- 
tion of  his  talents  he  was  made 
Chevalier  of  the  Legion  of  Honor 
in  1860.  Some  of  his  works  are  music 
to  Autraris;  La  fille  d'Eschyle;  an 
opera,  Le  jugement  de  Dieu;  the 
ballet,  L'etoile  du  mario;  two  sym- 
phonies; some  quintets;  overtures; 
cantatas;  five  string  quartets;  and 
many  songs. 

Morgan,  George  Washbourne.     1822- 

Born  in  Gloucester,  England;  was 
first  great  concert  organist  to  come 
to  America.  _  His  talents  appeared 
early  and  it  is  said  that  he  played  a 
service  at  the  Gloucester  Cathedral 
when  only  eight  years  old.  In  1834 
he  sang  in  the  Philharmonic  Chorus 
at  Gloucester.  He  was  apprenticed 
to  John  Amott,  was  organist  in  sev- 
eral churches  and  in  1845  conductor 
of  the  Gloucester  Philharmonic  con- 
certs. In  1853  he  came  to  New  York, 
where    he     became    organist    at     St. 


Thomas'  Church,  going  to  Grace 
Church  in  1854  and  remaining  until 
1867,  when  he  left  to  become 
organist  of  St.  Ann's  Church.  Later 
he  was  organist  at  Dr.  Tal- 
mage's  Tabernacle  at  Brooklyn  for 
fourteen  years.  He  played  in 
Boston  in  1859  at  Tremont  Temple 
and  later  had  the  honor  of  being  the 
first  performer  on  the  new  organ  in 
Music  Hall.  From  1886  to  1888  he 
was  organist  at  the  Dutch  Reformed 
Church  in  New  York.  He  died  in 
Tacoma,  Washington,  in  1892.  He 
was  a  brilliant  organist,  noted  for  his 
pedaling,  and  was  probably  the  first 
to  play  Bach  and  Beethoven  in  con- 
cert in  the  United  States. 
Morgan,  John  Paul    1841-1879. 

Talented  organist  and  composer; 
was  born  in  Oberlin,  Ohio.  In  1858 
he  was  organist  at  the  Congrega- 
tional Church  in  Mt.  Vernon,  Ohio, 
but  later  went  to  New  York,  where  he 
studied  for  three  years  under  J.  Huss, 
meanwhile  acting  as  organist  and 
director  of  music  at  the  South  Fifth 
Street  M.  E.  Church  in  East  Brook- 
lyn. He  went  to  Cleveland  in  1862 
and  there  became  organist  at  the  Sec- 
ond Presbyterian  Church  and  also 
taught  music.  The  following  spring 
he  went  to  Germany  to  study  theory 
and  composition  and  worked  with 
Hauptrnann,  Richter,  Reinecke  and 
Papperitz,  studying  piano  with  Wen- 
zel,  Plaidy  and  Moscheles  and 
organ  with  Richter.  He  graduated 
from  the  Conservatory  in  1865  and 
after  spending  some  months  with 
A.  G.  Ritter  at  Madgeburg  he  re- 
turned to  America.  At  Oberlin,  Ohio, 
he  conducted  a  series  of  oratorio  con- 
certs and  founded  the  Oberlin  Con- 
servatory. In  1866  he  went  to  New 
York,  becoming  organist  of  the 
Church  of  the  Messiah  in  Brooklyn, 
and  in  1867  receiving  an  appointment 
to  Trinity  Church,  New  York;  he  also 
led  several  musical  societies  and  taught 
organ  in  the  schools  of  Mason  and 
Thomas  and  Carl  Anschutz.  He  be- 
came conductor  for  the  Handel  and 
Haydn  Society  of  San  Francisco  and 
of  the  Oakland  Harmonic  Society,  be- 
sides playing  organ  in  the  F^'rst  Pres- 
byterian Church  at  Oakland,  where 
he  died. 

Morlacchi    (mor-lak'-ke),    Francesco. 


Italian  composer  of  dramatic  and 
church-music;   was   born   at   Perugia. 




His  father  gave  him  violin  lessons 
when  he  was  seven,  and  when  he 
was  twelve  sent  him  to  Caruso,  mas- 
ter of  the  local  Cathedral,  who  taught 
him  singing,  thorough-bass  and  cla- 
vier He  learned  to  play  the  organ 
with  Mazetti  and  by  an  oratorio,  Gli 
angeli  al  sepulchuro,  attracted  the  in- 
terest of  Count  Pietro  Baglioni  who 
sent  him  to  Loretto  to  study  coun- 
terpoint with  Zingarelli.  The  severity 
and  strictness  of  this  master's  teach- 
ings were  so  httle  liked  by  him  that 
after  a  year  and  a  half  he  returned 
to  Perugia,  but  soon  went  to  Bologna, 
where  he  completed  his  studies  under 
Padre  Mattei,  and  in  1806  became  a 
member  of  the  Philharmonic  Acad- 
emy of  that  city.  His  unusual  talent 
was  recognized  even  during  his  stu- 
dent days,  and  in  1805  he  was  asked 
to  write  a  cantata  for  Bonaparte's 
coronation  as  King  of  Italy.  About 
this  time  he  produced  a  Pater  Nos- 
ter,  a  Te  Deum,  a  Miserere  for  six- 
teen voices  and  a  cantata  given  at 
the  Lyceum  at  Bologna.  In  1807  he 
produced  a  musical  farce  entitled  II 
Poeta  inCampagna  at  the  Pergola 
Theatre  in  Florence  and  the  same 
year  he  was  invited  to  Verona  where 
he  gave  the  opera  bouffe,  II  Ritratto. 
His  first  real  success  came  with  the 
production  of  II  Corrado,  at  Parma, 
in  1808.  After  this  he  wrote  Enone 
a  Paride,  Oreste,  Rinaldo  d'Asti,  La 
Principessa  per  ripiego,  II  Simoncino, 
La  Aventure  d'une  Giornata  and  a 
grand  mass  and,  lastly,  Le  Danaide, 
performed  so  successfully  at  the 
Argentino  Theatre  in  Rome,  in  1810, 
that  his  reputation  was  established  as 
a  writer  of  opera.  He  became  chapel- 
master  of  the  Italian  Opera  at 
Dresden,  where  he  composed  a  grand 
mass  for  the  Royal  Chapel  of  Saxony, 
and  in  1812  he  wrote  the  much  ad- 
mired Passion  Oratorio.  In  1813, 
when  ^  Dresden  was  the  center  of 
operations  for  the  allied  army  against 
Napoleon,  he  was  forcibly  compelled 
to  write  a  cantata  for  the  Emperor 
of  Russia's  birthday,  and  soon  after, 
when  the  Russian  government  ordered 
the  abolition  of  the  chapel  at  Dresden 
he  had  to  entreat  an  audience  before 
the  Czar  in  order  to  get  the  decree 
countermanded.  In  1814,  when  the 
King  returned  to  Dresden,  he  com- 
posed a  grand  mass  and  a  sprightly 
and  charming  opera  buffa,  II  Bar- 
biere  di  Siviglia,  in  honor  of  the  oc- 
casion.    Strangely   enough,   the   same 


year  he  produced  a  triumphal  can- 
tata on  the  capture  of  Paris  by  the 
allies  and  a  mass  in  Slavonic,  for  un- 
accompanied voices,  for  Prince  Re- 
puin  who  had  been  Russian  governor 
at  Dresden.  In  1816  he  returned  to 
Italy  on  a  visit  and  was  everywhere 
greeted  with  enthusiasm;  he  was 
made  a  member  of  the  Academy  of 
Fine  Arts  at  Florence,  and  at  Perugia 
was  honored  by  a  special  performance 
of  Le  Danaide  and  his  Passion  Ora- 
torio, receiving  from  Pope  Pius  VII. 
the  order  of  the  Golden  Spur  and  the 
title  of  Count  Palatine.  The  same 
year  he  wrote  La  Villanella  Rapita 
di  Pirna  for  an  opera  at  the  Theatre 
at  Pilnitz.  Three  of  his  compositions 
bear  the  date,  1817;  they  are  the  ora- 
torio, Isacco,  written  with  rhythmical 
instead  of  recitative  declamation;  the 
opera  Laodicea,  written  for  San 
Carlos  at  Naples,  and  Gianni  di 
Parigi,  for  La  Scala  at  Milan.  During 
the  years  that  followed  he  wrote 
many  operas  and  much  church-music, 
among  which  was  the  excellent 
requiem  written  on  the  death  of  the 
King  of  Saxony,  1827.  In  1841  he 
died  at  Innsbruck.  Some  of  his  other 
compositions  are  La  Morte  d'Abel; 
II  Colombo;  La  Gioventu  di  Enrico 
v.;  Donna  Aurora;  La  capricciosa 
pentita;  II  da  d'Avenello;  Tebaldo  ed 
Isolma;  I  Saraceni  in  Sicilia;  II  Reni- 
gato;  and  II  Disperato  per  eccesso  di 
buon  cuore;  all  operas.  His  church- 
music  consisted  of  ten  grand  masses 
for  the  Dresden  Chapel;  ten  oflfer- 
tories;  a  Miserere  in  three  parts; 
six  masses;  twenty-three  psalms  and 
twelve  antiphonies;  he  also  wrote 
about  twenty  cantatas,  six  organ  so- 
natas and  some  piano-music  and 

Morley,  Thomas.     1557-1604. 

One  of  the  foremost  composers  of 
songs  and  madrigals  of  the  Eliza- 
bethan era;  began  his  early  musical 
education  under  William  Byrd,  and 
received  the  degree  of  Bachelor  of 
Music  from  Oxford,  in  1588.  He  is 
supposed  to  have  been  organist  of 
St.  Giles  Church,  Cripplegate,  from 
1588  to  1589,  then  to  have  taken  a 
position  as  organist  at  St.  Paul's 
Cathedral.  In  1592  he  was  made  gen- 
tleman of  the  Chapel  Royal  and  also 
Gospeller,  after  having  served  for  a 
time  as  Epistler.  In  1602  he  had 
resigned  his  position  in  Chapel  Royal. 
He  died  about  1604.     He  is  said  to 




have  known  Shakespeare  and  to  have 
written  the  music  for  the  song,  "  It 
was  a  lover  and  his  lass,"  in  As  You 
Like  It,  which  song  appeared  in  his 
Aires  or  Little  Short  Songs  to  Sing 
and  Play  to  the  Lute  with  the  Bass 
Viole.  His  most  valuable  work  is  his 
A  Plaine  and  Easie  Introduction  to 
Musick,  which  contains  eight  com- 
positions, chiefly  motets.  His  other 
works  are  The  First  Booke  of  Can- 
zonets to  two  Voices;  Canzonets  or 
Little  Songs  to  three  Voices;  Can- 
zonets, or  Little  Short  Songs  to  four 
Voices;  Madrigals  to  Foure  Voyces; 
Madrigals  to  Five  Voyces,  Celected 
out  of  the  best  approved  Italian 
Authors;  The  First  Booke  of  Ballatts 
to  Five  Voyces;  Canzonets  or  Little 
Short  Aers  to  Five  and  Six  Voyces; 
The  Triumphs  of  Qriana  to  five  and 
six  voyces  composed  by  diuers  seue- 
rall  aucthors;  The  First  Booke  of 
Consort  Lessons  made  by  diuers  ex- 
quisite Authors  for  six  Instruments; 
and  The  Whole  Booke  of  Psalmes 
with  their  Wonted  Tunes  compiled 
by  sundrie  Authors. 

Morse,  Charles  Henry.     1853- 

American  musical  educator  and  or- 
ganist; born  at  Bradford,  Massachu- 
setts. He  studied  at  the  New  Eng- 
land Conservatory  of  Music,  taking 
harmony  of  S.  A.  Emery,  organ  of 
George  E.  Whiting  and  piano  of 
J.  C.  D.  Parker.  In  1876  he  was 
graduated  from  the  Boston  Univer- 
sity College  of  Music  and  the  follow- 
ing year  was  awarded  the  degree  of 
Bachelor  of  Music.  From  1873  to 
1877  he  was  teacher  of  organ  and 
piano  at  the  New  England  Conserv- 
atory of  Music  and  from  1875  to  1884 
he  taught  at  Wellesley  College.  In 
1885  he  founded  the  Northwestern 
Conservatory  of  Music  at  Minneapo- 
lis and  directed  it  until  1891.  From 
1891  to  1899  he  was  organist  at  Ply- 
mouth Church,  Brooklyn,  New  York, 
and  in  1901  he  took  charge  of  the 
music  at  Dartmouth  College.  Since 
its  beginning  he  has  been  vice-presi- 
dent in  the  Music  Department  of 
the  Brooklyn  Ilnstitute  of  Arts  and 
Sciences;  he  has  been  a  trustee  of  the 
New  England  Conservatory  of  Music 
and  president  of  its  Alumni  Associa- 
tion, and  was  one  of  the  founders 
of  the  American  Guild  of  Organists. 
He  has  compiled  and  arranged  many 
excellent  collections  of  church-music, 
some  of  the  well-known  ones  being: 


Short  and  Easy  Anthems;  A  March 
Album;  The  Contemporary  Organist; 
The  Junior  Church  Organist;  The 
Wellesley  Collection  for  Female 
Voices;  The  Plymouth  Hymnal; 
Choral  Songs;  Christmas  Carols; 
Agnus   Dei. 

Mortier  de  Fontaine  (mort-ya  du-fon- 
ten),  Henri  Louis  Stanislas.  1816- 

Russian  pianist  of  great  technical 
ability  He  made  his  professional 
debut  at  Danzig  in  1832  and  the  fol- 
lowing year  appeared  in  Paris.  He 
went  to  Italy  in  1837,  returned  to 
Paris  in  1842  and  in  1850  went  back 
to  Russia,  settling  in  St.  Petersburg, 
where  he  taught  from  1853  to  1860. 
For  the  next  eight  years  he  lived 
in  Munich,  then  visited  Paris  and 
London,  where  he  spent  the  latter 
part  of  his  life.  He  is  said  to  have 
been  the  first  musician  who  played 
Beethoven's  Sonata,  Opus  106,  in 

Moscheles  (mo'-she-les),  Ignaz.  1794- 

Piano  virtuoso  and  composer  of  the 
first  rank;  was  born  at  Prague  of  a 
Jewish  family  of  great  refinement  and 
culture.  His  father,  a  musical  ama- 
teur, determined  that  one  of  his  five 
children  should  be  a  thoroughly 
trained  musician,  and  accordingly 
placed  his  eldest  daughter  under  a 
piano  teacher  named  Zadrakha.  Young 
Moscheles  was  usually  present  at  her 
music  lessons  and  on  one  occasion 
showed  such  impatience  at  her  stu- 
pidity that  the  teacher  allowed  him 
to  take  her  place  at  the  piano  and 
was  greatly  astonished  at  his  pro- 
ficiency.  After  that  the  lessons  were 
given  to  Moscheles  instead  of  his 
sister  and  the  result  was  rapid  prog- 
ress. _  In  1804  his  father  took  him 
to  Dionys  Weber,  who  said  that  he 
had  talent  and  would  make  a  musi- 
cian if  he  would  follow  his  directions 
explicitly.  Moscheles  became  the 
pupil  of  Weber  and  thus  was  laid  the 
solid  foundation  of  his  musicianship. 
When  Moscheles  was  fourteen  years 
old  his  father  died,  leaving  the  family 
in  very  moderate  circumstances.  It 
was  decided  that  the  young  musi- 
cian's public  career  should  begin  and 
a  musical  was  arranged  in  Prague  at 
which  he  played  a  concerto  of  his 
own  composition.  This  venture  was 
so    successful    that    the    lad's    mother 



decided  to  send  him  to  Vienna  to 
continue  his  studies  and  to  earn  his 
living.  On  arriving  at  Vienna  he  was 
warmly  welcomed  in  the  homes  _  of 
Baroness  Eskeles  and  the  musical 
publisher  Artaria,  met  Streicher  and 
became  a  student  of  theory  under 
Dom  -  Kapellmeister  Albrechtsberger 
During  all  this  time  he  earned  his 
living  as  pianist  and  teacher.  He 
knew  all  the  prominent  musicians  in 
Vienna  and  often  entered  into  friendly 
rivalry  with  Hummel  and  ^Meyerbeer, 
with  whom  he  sometimes^ improvised, 
composing  several  duets  in  this  way. 
During  1814,  Artaria,  the  publisher, 
commissioned  him  to  arrange  piano 
scores  of  Beethoven's  Fidelio,  which 
he  did  under  that  master's  supervision. 
Early  in  1815  he  wrote  the  famous 
Alexander  Variations  to  be  played  at 
a  charity  concert.  In  the  autumn  of 
1816  Moscheles  started  on  a  profes- 
sional tour  to  Leipsic,  Dresden, 
Munich  and  Augsburg  where  he  wrote 
his  popular  concerto  in  G  minor.  He 
then  went  to  Brussels,  and  the  last 
of  the  year  arrived  in  Paris.  Here 
he  was  soon  in  demand  as  a  teacher 
and  pianist  at  the  homes  of  the  lead- 
ing families.  In  May,  1822,  he  went 
to  London,  where  he  repeated  his  so- 
cial and  musical  success  and  laid  the 
foundation  for  his  later  achievements 
as  a  resident  musician  in  _  that  city. 
He  appeared  -rt^ith  the  Philharmonic 
Society,  playing  his  E  flat  concerto 
and  the  Alexander  Variations.  He 
spent  the  summer  of  1822  in  the 
country  with  Kalkbrenner,  and  while 
there  wrote  his  Allegri  di  Bravura 
and  a  Polonaise  in  E  flat.  After  a 
brilliantly  successful  tour  through 
Normandy  with  Lafont  he  returned 
to  Paris  and  plunged  into  the  social 
and  musical  life  of  that  city.  After 
playing  at  the  Concerts  Spirituels  on 
Easter  Sunday  he  went  to  London, 
arriving  just  in  time  to  join  Cramer 
in  a  concert  for  which  as  a  finale  of 
a  sonata  of  Cramer's  he  wrote  the 
allegro  of  his  famous  Hommage  a 
Handel.  _  Moscheles  stayed  in  Eng- 
land until  the  summer  of  1823  and 
during  this  time  won  for  himself  an 
enviable  place  in  the  musical  world 
of  London.  In  August  of  that  year 
he  started  for  home,  and  after  stop- 
ping at  Paris,  Frankfort  and  Offen- 
bach, where  he  examined  the  Mozart 
manuscript,  he  arrivedat  Prague.  For 
four  months  after  this  he  was  very 
ill,   but   in    May,    1824,    was   able   to 


inaugurate  the  Redoutensaal  with  a 
concert,  and  in  June  appeared  before 
the  Emperor.  In  October  he  went  to 
Leipsic  and  from  there  to  Berlin, 
where  he  began  his  friendship  with 
Mendelssohn,  which  was  the  most  im- 
portant musical  connection  of  his  life. 
At  the  repeated  request  of  Mendels- 
sohn's parents  he  gave  him  some  les- 
sons, although  he  looked  upon  him 
then  as  a  finished  artist. 

In  the  middle  of  December  Mo- 
scheles reluctantly  left  the  Mendels- 
sohn family  at  Berlin,  and  after 
giving  concerts  at  Potsdam,  Magde- 
burg and  Hanover  arrived  at  Hamburg 
in  the  beginning  of  1825.  Here  he  met 
Charlotte  Embden,  to  whom  he  was 
married  in  March  of  that  year.  The 
following  May  they  went  to  London 
and  Moscheles  immediately  began  a 
busy  life  of  teaching  and  concert 
work.  Three  of  his  favorite  concert 
pieces  during  this  time  were  Clair  de 
Lune,  Rondo  in  D  major  and  Recol- 
lections of  Ireland.  In  August  he 
went  to  Hamburg  and  then  to  Leipsic, 
Dresden  and  to  Prague  to  his  sister's 
wedding,  then  to  Berlin,  where  they 
again  saw  the  Mendelssohns.  He 
finished  his  important  Twenty-four 
Studies  in  December,  1826,  at  Ham- 

The  years  that  followed  were  busy 
ones  for  Moscheles,  for  he  was  ex- 
ceedingly popular  as  a  teacher  and 
concert  player,  was  constantly  at 
work  on  compositions  and  active  in 
the  social  life  of  musical  London. 
His  home  was  a  rendezvous  for  all 
German  musicians  who  came  to  Lon- 
don, among  whom  he  received  Carl 
Maria  von  Weber,  Felix  Mendelssohn 
and  many  others.  During  the  sum- 
mer of  1829  he  made  a  concert^  tour 
of  Sweden  and  was  enthusiastically 
received.  In  1832  he  was  made  a  di- 
rector of  the  Philharmonic  Society 
and  during  that  year  produced  at  the 
concerts  two  new  works,  a  new  sym- 
phony and  his  C  major  concerto. 
During  1833  Mendelssohn  again  came 
to  London  to  act  as  godfather  to 
Moscheles'  little  child.  Moscheles* 
compositions  for  this  year  were  the 
B  major  concerto,  the  impromptu  in 
E  flat  major,  and  a  composition  made 
with  Mendelssohn  on  the  Gypsy 
March  from  Weber's  Preciosa.  In 
1834  besides  his  usual  number  of  con- 
certs we  find  Moscheles  playing  at 
the  Birmingham  Festival  and  giving 
a   private   performance    of   Israel    in 



Egypt.  His  most  important  compo- 
sition for  that  year  was  the  overture, 
Joan  of  Arc.  During  the  winter  of 
1836  and  1837  Moscheles  gave  three 
piano  concerts,  which  were  then  a 
novelty  in  London,  and  after  an  im- 
mense amount  of  labor  brought  out 
and  himself  conducted  Beethoven's 
Ninth  Symphony  with  brilliant  suc- 
cess at  a  Philharmonic  Society  con- 
cert. His  compositions  for  that  year 
were  two  studies  written  during  his 
vacation.  Moscheles  inaugurated  the 
season  of  1838  bj'  a  series  of  histori- 
cal concerts,  and  during  the  winter 
of  1838  to  1839  held  chamber  concerts 
every  Saturday  at  his  own  home. 
During  this  winter  he  wrote  the  study 
in  A  and  Liebesfriihling  and  w^orked 
on  an  edition  of  Beethoven's  work. 
In  18.39  he  appeared  with  Ferdinand 
David  at  the  second  concert  of  the 
Philharmonic  Societ3%  playing  his  Pas- 
toral Concerto  on  this  occasion.  The 
following  year  he  was  appointed 
Court  pianist  to  Prince  Albert.  Dur- 
ing this  year  he  prepared  for  publica- 
tion his  Recollections  of  Beethoven, 
and  brought  out  Methode  des 
Methodes,  written  with  Fetis.  In  1841 
he  again  conducted  the  Ninth  Sym- 
phony at  a  Philharmonic  concert. 
During  his  holidays  at  Boulogne  he 
wrote  the  serenade  and  a  tarentella 
and  arranged  Beethoven's  Septet  as  a 
piano  duet. 

The  year  1846  was  an  important 
one  for  Moscheles  and  marked  a  turn- 
ing point  in  his  career  In  January 
he  accepted  the  position  of  head  of 
the  department  for  playing  and  com- 
position at  the  Leipsic  Conservatory, 
which  enabled  him  to  work  at  the  side 
of  his  beloved  Felix  Mendelssohn. 
His  four  matinees  for  Classical  Piano 
Music  of  that  j'car  were  very  success- 
ful, and  after  a  brilliant  farewell  con- 
cert he  left  for  Germany.  After 
stopping  at  Frankfort,  where  he  first 
met  Jenny  Lind,  he  arrived  in  Leipsic 
and  immediately  took  up  his  duties 
at  the  Conservatory  and  began  that 
system  of  careful  teaching  and  that 
friendly  service  to  his  pupils  which 
made  him  greatly  beloved  by  them. 
His  friendship  with  Mendelssohn  and 
his  family  was  a  source  of  great  pleas- 
ure to  both  musicians,  and  on  Men- 
delssohn's death  a  year  later  he 
grieved  not  only  for  a  great  musician 
cut  oflF  from  his  work  but  also  for  a 
friend.  During  a  visit  to  England  in 
1861   he   played   at   the   Philharmonic 


concert,  and  on  another  visit  in  1866 
he  composed  his  Familienleben  while 
at  the  seaside  surrounded  by  children 
and  grandchildren.  Thus  working  at 
the  Conservatory  and  spending  vaca- 
tions in  travel  to  various  countries 
he  passed  a  long  and  useful  life.  His 
death  occurred  at  Leipsic,  March  10, 
1870.  He  was  a  thorough  disciple  of 
classic  music.  As  a  piano-player  he 
ranked  with  Hummel.  He  wrote  a  great 
number  of  compositions  of  rare  ex- 
cellence. Some  of  the  more  important 
are  Concerto  Pathetique,  Hommage 
a  Handel  for  two  pianos,  Concerto  in 
G  minor,  Alexander  Variations, 
Twenty-four  Studies,  Concerto  Pas- 
toral, Charactertistic  Studies,  the 
grand  fantasie.  Souvenirs  of  Ireland, 
grand  trio  for  piano,  violin  and  cello. 
Grand  Senate  Symphonique  and  Duo 
Concertant  on  the  Gypsy  March  from 
Preciosa,  written  with  Mendelssohn. 
With  Fetis  he  wrote  his  Methode  des 
Methodes  for  piano. 

Mosel  (mo'-zel),  Ignaz  Franz.     1772- 

Composer  and  conductor;  a  native 
of  Vienna.  A  pupil  of  Joseph  Fischer 
from  1812  to  1816,  he  conducted  the 
first  festivals  of  the  Gesellschaft  der 
Musikfreude  for  which  services  he 
was  ennobled  and  given  the  title  of 
Hofrath.  From  1820  to  1829  he  held 
the  position  of  conductor  and  vice- 
director  of  the  two  Court  theatres  and 
from  1829  until  his  death  he  was  the 
chief  custodian  of  the  Imperial 
Library.  For  Paradies,  the  blind 
pianist,  he  arranged  Haydn's  Crea- 
tion and  Cosi  fan  tutti  for  two  pianos, 
and  he  also  arranged  the  Creation, 
Cherubini's  Deux  journees  and 
Medee  for  string  quartet  besides 
translating  the  text  and  putting  addi- 
tional instrumentation  to  some  of 
Haydn's  oratorios  for  the  use  of  the 
Gesellschaft  der  Musikfreude.  Among 
his  own  compositions  are  the  opera, 
Cyrus  und  Astyages;  the  comic  operas 
Die  Feuerprobe  and  Der  Mann  von 
vierzig  jahrem;  the  cantata,  Hermes 
und  Flora;  overtures,  entr'actes; 
dances  and  songs.  Of  his  writings 
on  musical  subjects  there  are  t)ber 
das  Leben  imd  die  Werke  des  Antonio 
Salieri;  Versuch  einer  ..^sthetik  des 
dramatischen  Tonsazts;  Uber  die 
Original  partitur  des  Requiems  von 
W.  A.  Mozart;  Die  Tonkunst  in  Wien 
wahrend  der  letzten  fiinf  Decennien, 
and  Geschichte  der  Hofbibliothek. 



Mosenthal  (mo'-zen-tal),  Joseph.  1834- 

Conductor  and  musical  writer;  born 
at  Hesse-Cassel,  Germany,  but  was 
identified  with  the  music  of  New  York 
City  during  the  latter  half  of  the 
Nineteenth  Century.  He  received  a 
thorough  musical  education,  being  the 
pupil  of  Bott,  Kraushaar  and  Spohr, 
under  whom  he  led  the  second  violins 
of  the  Court  Orchestra  for  four  years. 
Coming  to  America  in  1853  he  imme- 
diately became  identified  with  musical 
work  in  New  York,  playing  for  a  time 
in  Jullien's  Orchestra  and  in  1860  be- 
coming organist  at  Calvary  Church, 
where  he  remained  until  1878.  He 
was  a  member  of  the  famous  Mason 
and  Thomas  String  Quartet,  playing 
second  violin,  and  for  forty  years  he 
played  first  violin  in  the  Philharmonic 
Orchestra.  Besides  this  work  he  was 
a  prominent  teacher  in  New  York. 
He  was  the  conductor  of  the  New 
York  Mendelssohn  Glee  Club,  and 
died  while  conducting  a  rehearsal  of 
this  organization. 

Moskowa  (moshk'-va),  Joseph  Na- 
poleon Ney,  Prince  de  la.  1803- 

Eldest  son  of  Marshal  Ney;  a 
musical  writer  and  composer  who 
contributed  greatly  to  the  advance- 
ment of  music  in  France.  He  was 
born  in  Paris,  and  as  a  child  showed 
great  musical  ability,  composing  a 
mass  which  was  performed  at  Lucca. 
He  acquired  recognition  for  several 
articles  which  he  had  written  for  vari- 
ous periodicals,  among  them  the 
Revue  des  deux  Mondes  and  the  Con- 
stitutionnel,  and  with  Adolphe  Adam, 
he  founded  the  Societe  des  Concerts 
de  musique  religieuse  et  classique,  and 
published  for  that  society  a  catalog 
of  the  works  in  its  fine  collection, 
which  catalog  is  now  extremely  rare. 
He  was  a  friend  of  Delsarte  and  of 
the  composer  Niedermeyer  whom  he 
assisted  in  founding  the  ficole  de 
musique  Religieuse.  In  1831  he  com- 
posed a  mass  for  voices  and  orchestra 
which  was  given  by  the  pupils  of 
Choron's  School  with  great  success, 
and  in  1840  he  brought  out  his  one- 
act-opera,  Le  Cent-Suisse,  at  the  Opera 
Comique,  following  it  in  1855  by  an- 
other one-act  comic  piece  entitled 
Yvonne.  Moskowa  was  also  a  briga- 
dier-general under  Napoleon  III.  He 
died  in  St.  Germain-en-Laye. 

Mosonyi  (mo-son' -ye),  Michael  Brandt. 


A  piano-player  and  composer;  one 
of  the  ablest  representatives  of  Hun- 
garian music;  born  at  Boldog-Aszony, 
Hungary.  In  1834  he  went  to  Pres- 
burg,  where  for  seven  years  he  taught 
piano  in  the  household  of  Count 
Pejachevits.  In  1842  he  moved  to 
Pesth  where  he  met  Liszt,  who  ad- 
mired him  greatly  and  in  1857  wished 
to  produce  his  German  opera,  Max- 
imilian, in  Weimar,  but  by  suggesting 
several  changes  so  discouraged  its 
author  that  he  threw  the  manuscript 
into  the  fire.  About  1860  his  compo- 
sitions began  to  assume  a  distinctly 
national  tone,  and  he  began  to  write 
under  the  nom  de  plume,  Mosonyi, 
his  name  in  the  Magyar  tongue,  in 
stead  of  using  Michael  Brandt,  as 
formerly.  In  1861  he  produced  his 
Hungarian  opera,  Szep  Ilonka,  and 
soon  followed  this  by  Almos,  which, 
however,  he  never  finished.  He  also 
wrote  a  funeral  symphony  for  Count 
Szechenyi;  his  symphonic  poem. 
Triumph  and  Mourning  of  the 
Honved;  Studies  for  the  improvement 
of  Hungarian  Music;  Childhood's 
Realm,  besides  an  overture  with  the 
national  song  Szozat  and  other  songs 
national  in  character. 

Moszkowski  (mosh-kof'-shki),  Moritz. 

Pianist  and  composer;  born  at 
Breslau,  Silesia.  He  studied  first  at 
Breslau  and  the  Conservatory  in 
Dresden,  then  at  Stern's  Conservatory 
and  Kullak's  Academy  in  Berlin,  in 
which  city  he  has  lived  for  over 
thirty  years.  His  first  concert,  given 
in  Berlin  in  1873,  was  brilliantly  suc- 
cessful and  was  followed  by  many 
others  in  Berlin,  Paris,  Warsaw  and 
London.  In  1897  he  went  to  Paris 
to  live  and  in  1899  he  was  made  a 
member  of  the  Berlin  Academy. 
Although  primarily  a  writer  of  cham- 
ber-music, he  has  produced  an  opera, 
Boabdil  and  a  ballet,  Laurin.  His 
piano  compositions  are  full  of  gaiety 
and  life  and  are  very  popular  Among 
them  are  Spanish  dances  for  piano; 
Concertstiicke  for  violin  and  piano;  a 
Humoresque;  a  Tarantella;  his  piano 
composition  for  four  hands,  entitled 
From  Foreign  Parts,  in  which  he 
portrays  vividly  the  characteristics  of 
various  nationalities,  Spaniards  Hun- 
garians, Russians  and  Italians.  He 
has  also  w^ritten  two  orchestral  suites, 



Jeanne    d'arc,    a    symphony    in    four 
movements;    and    Phantastischer   Zug 
for  orchestra. 

His  brother,  Alexander,  born  at 
Pilica,  Poland  in  1851,  is  musical 
critic  of  the  Deutsches  IMontagsblatt 
and  joint  editor  of  Berliner  Wespen 
at  Berlin  and  has  also  written  several 
humorous  booklets. 

Mottl  (mot'-'l),  Felix.     1856- 

Gifted  German  orchestra  conduc- 
tor; born  at  Unter  St.  Veit,  near 
Vienna.  As  a  boy,  his  beautiful 
soprano  voice  enabled  him  to  enter 
the  Lowenberg  Konvikt,  a  prepara- 
tory school  to  the  Imperial  Court 
Chapel.  Afterward,  at  Vienna  Con- 
servatory he  studied  conducting  under 
Josef  Hellmesberger,  composition 
under  Dessoff,  theory  under  Bruck- 
ner and  Scheuer  'and  piano  under 
Door,  and  took  many  prizes.  Intrusted 
with  the  conductorship  of  the  Acad- 
emic Wagnerverein  of  Vienna,  his 
talents  for  the  work  at  once  mani- 
fested themselves.  In  1876  he  was 
stage  conductor  of  the  Nibelungen- 
Kanzlei,  an  organization  which  took 
charge  of  the  rehearsals  for  the  musi- 
cal festival  at  Bayreuth.  In  1880  he 
succeeded  Dessoff  as  conductor  of 
the  Grand  Ducal  Opera  House  of 
Carlsruhe,  a  position  which  he  held 
until  1903.  He  conducted  the  Phil- 
harmonic concerts  until  1892.  In 
1886  he  conducted  the  festival  per- 
formance of  Tristan  and  Isolde  at 
Bayreuth  so  successfully  that  he  was 
offered  the  position  of  chapelmaster 
of  the  Berlin  Opera,  an  honor  which 
he  declined.  In  1898  he  rejected  a 
similar  offer  from  Munich.  Besides 
this  work  he  has  also  conducted  suc- 
cessfully in  London  and  Paris,  and 
in  1903  and  1904  he  conducted  the 
performance  of  Parsifal  given  in  New 
York.  In  1904  he  was  made  a  director 
of  the  Royal  Academy  of  Music  at 
Berlin,  and  in  1907  at  Munich  he  re- 
ceived the  order  of  St.  Michel  of  the 
second  class  from  Prince  Regent.  He 
is  one  of  the  most  enterprising  of 
modern  conductors  and  at  Carlsruhe 
brought  performances  of  the  Royal 
Opera  House  up  to  a  very  high  stand- 
ard, producing  all  the  Cycles  of  Ber- 
lioz and  of  Richard  Wagner.  As  a 
conductor  his  work  is  distinguished 
by  a  careful  mastery  of  detail  and  a 
conscientious  rendition  of  the  notes  of 
the  score  rather  than  by  any  orig- 
inality   or     force    of    interpretation. 


Mottl  has  been  successful  as  a  com- 
poser. His  opera,  Agnes  Bernauer, 
was  given  at  Weimar  in  1886  and  his 
one-act  opera,  Fiirst  und  Sanger,  came 
out  at  Carlsruhe  in  1893.  He  also 
wrote  Ranim  and  a  festival  piece  en- 
titled Elberstein;  the  song  cycle,  Pan 
in  Busch;  and  a  string  quartet.  He 
arranged  for  orchestra,  Liszt's  piano 
solo,  St.  Francis  Preaching  to  the 
Birds;  and  also  edited  Cornelius'  Bar- 
ber of  Bagdad  and  some  of  Berlioz's 

Moussorgsky   (moos-sorg'-shki),  Mo- 
deste  Petrovich.     1835-1881. 

One  of  the  strangest  and  most 
tragic  figures  in  the  history  of  mod- 
ern music.  He  was  a  man  possessed 
of  great  native  ability,  but  cursed  with 
those  qualities  of  an  artistic  tempera- 
ment which  made  it  almost  impos- 
sible for  him  to  submit  himself  to 
discipline  and  restriction,  or  to  pur- 
sue any  one  course  for  any  length 
of  time.  He  was  incapable  of  enough 
concentration  to  study  the  technical 
part  of  music,  and  as  a  result,  his 
writings  have  had  to  be  edited  by 
other  musicians  before  they  could  be 
presented  to  the  world.  He  was  a 
realist  of  the  most  pronounced  type, 
and  his  compositions,  often  quite  lack- 
ing in  form  or  beauty,  make  a  direct 
appeal  to  the  heart.  Born  at  his 
father's  country  home  at  Kareve,  in 
the  government  of  Pskov,  on  March 
28,  1835,  the  early  part  of  his  life 
passed  quietly  in  the  country.  His 
musical  talents  were  early  developed, 
for  his  parents  were  both  musicians, 
and  his  mother  gave  him  piano  les- 
sons at  which  he  showed  such  prog- 
ress that  when  only  nine  he  could 
play  several  of  Liszt's  compositions. 
He  went  to  the  Ensigns'  School  at  St. 
Petersburg,  and  while  there  continued 
his  music  under  the  pianist,  Herke. 
When  only  seventeen  he  entered  the 
Preobrajensky  Regiment,  famed  as 
one  of  the  smartest  in  the  Russian 
service.  But  the  restrictions  of  a 
military  career  and  its  constant  in- 
terruptions of  his  musical  pursuits 
caused  him  to  resign  from  the  service 
little  more  than  a  year  after  he  had 
entered  it.  Through  an  acquaintance 
with  Dargomysky,  which  he  formed 
in  1857,  he  became  associated  with 
Rimsky-Korsakov,  Borodini,  Balaki- 
rev,  Cui  and  the  other  musicians 
who  formed  the  little  circle  of  neo- 
Russian    musicians.      He    turned    his 



attention  to  the  study  of  Beethoven 
and  Schumann  and  GHnka,  but  could 
not  confine  himself  to  a  serious  study 
of  technics  and  professed  the  great- 
est contempt  for  musicians  whose 
jworks  were  purely  examples  of  tech- 
nical skill.  In  order  to  make  a  living 
Moussorgsky  did  some  translating 
and  took  a  position  in  the  Govern- 
ment Civil  Engineering  Department. 
A  life  of  excess  affected  his  health 
and  caused  the  loss  of  his  position, 
and  in  1866  he  went  to  live  with  a 
brother  at  Minkino.  In  1868  having 
finished  his  opera,  Boris  Godounov, 
he  took  it  to  St.  Petersburg,  but  no 
one  would  undertake  it  until  he  had 
revised  and  shortened  it,  so  it  was  not 
performed  until  1874.  It  reached  its 
twentieth  performance  during  that 
season,  and  in  1889  it  was  performed 
in  Moscow.  Thus  encouraged,  he  be- 
gan to  write  an  opera  around  the 
story  of  Princess  Khovanstchina.  In 
1870  he  went  to  St.  Petersburg  to 
live,  working  for  a  time  in  the  Gov- 
ernment Department  of  Forests  and 
afterwards  in  the  Department  of  Con- 
trol; but  he  was  permanently  dis- 
missed in  1879,  when  he  went  on  a 
concert  tour  through  Central  and 
Eastern  Russia  with  the  distinguished 
singer,  Mile.  Leonov.  This  enter- 
prise promised  to  better^  Moussorg- 
sky's  circumstances,  but  it  came  too 
late.  After  leading  a  life  of  excess, 
and  in  his  latter  years  indulging  in 
the  use  of  drugs,  his  health  was  com- 
pletely gone  and  he  died  on  his  forty- 
second  birthday  in  the  St.  Nicholas 
Military  Hospital  in  St.  Petersburg. 
His  disposition  seems  to  have  been 
passionate  and  impatient  of  control, 
proud  and  self-willed.  He  had  the 
greatest  amount  of  self-confidence 
and  of  belief  in_  his  own  originality. 
The  most  imaginative  of  musicians, 
his  object  was  to  copy  nature  as  ex- 
actly as  possible;  regardless  of  laws 
and  forms  of  music,  to  portray  living 

His  songs  are  usually  regarded  as 
his  finest  work,  and  though  they  are 
often  formless,  incoherent  expressions 
of  moods,  their  force  always  strikes 
to  the  heart.  His  series  of  children's 
songs,  entitled  The  Nursery,  gives  re- 
markable pictures  of  the  many  phases 
of  childhood,  and  the  Song-Cycles, 
Sunlight,  and  Songs  and  Dances  of 
Death,  written  near  the  end  of  his 
life,  portray  his  own  anguish  and 
struggle.    His  opera,  Boris  Godounov, 


based  on  Pushkin's  powerful  histori- 
cal drama,  is  a  wonderful  piece  of 
character  painting,  as  is  also  his  other 
opera,  Khovanstchina.  Many  of  his 
compositions  have  been  revised  and 
edited  by  other  Russian  musicians, 
among  them  Boris  Godounov,  revised 
by  Rimsky-Korsakow  in  1896,  and  the 
chorus,  La  Nuit  au  Mont-Chauve,  and 
Khovanstchina  also  revised  by  Rimsky- 
Korsakow.  Among  other  composi- 
tions are  ten  sketches  for  piano  called 
Pictures  from  an  Exhibition;  Una 
Larne;  On  the  Southern  Shores  of 
Crimea;  A  Child's  Joke;  The  Semp- 
stress; The  Matchmaker,  of  which  he 
completed  only  one  act;  Joshua  Navin 
and  the  Destruction  of  Sennacherib, 
both  based  on  Hebraic  themes; 
choruses,  Salammbo  and  CEdipus;  the 
songs,  Gopak,  The  Little  Feast, 
Dawn,  Night,  Peasant  Cradle  Song, 
The  Seminarist,  Savischna,  Hebrew 
Song,  The  Dneiper,  The  Swaggerer, 
The  Nurse  and  the  Child. 

Mouton  (moo-tori),  Jean  de  HoUingue. 


Well-known  contrapuntist  and  com- 
poser; born  at  Holling,  near  Metz,  in 
the  Department  de  la  Somme,  France. 
He  was  a  pupil  of  Josquin  Despres 
and  afterward  the  teacher  of  Willaert. 
He  was  chapel-singer  to  Louis  XII. 
and  Francis  I.,  and  canon  at  Therou- 
anne  and  St.  Quentin,  where  he  died. 
An  edition  of  five  of  his  masses  is 
one  of  the  earliest  examples  of  a 
whole  book  of  compositions  of  one 
master.  Among  his  published  works 
are  nine  masses;  seventy-five  motets 
and  psalms  and  some  French  songs. 
The  book  of  five  masses  which  Fetis 
thinks  to  have  been  published  in  1508 
was  at  one  time  quite  common,  but 
is  now  very  rare  and  the  copy  of  the 
second  edition  is  considered  the  only 
complete  one.  Twenty-one  of  the 
motets  were  printed  during  Mouton's 
lifetime  and  in  the  British  Museum 
is  a  copy  of  the  twenty-two  motets 
printed  in  1555  by  Le  Roy,  and  also 
a  complete  score   of  this  work. 

Mozart    (mo'-tsart),    Leopold.      1719- 

His  chief  claim  for  interest  is  that 
he  was  the  father  of  Wolfgang 
Amadeus  Mozart,  whose  education  he 
superintended  with  reverent  care.  His 
own  musical  education  was  obtained 
mainly  as  a  chorister  in  Augsburg,  his 
native    town,    and   later   in    Salzburg, 




whither  he  went  to  study  law.  He 
was  an  excellent  violinist  and  in  1743 
he  entered  the  Prince  Bishop's  Or- 
chestra. He  was  appointed  Court 
composer  and  vice-Kapellmeister  in 
1762.  On  discovering  the  decided 
talent  for  music  possessed  by  his 
daughter,  Maria  Anna,  and  his  son, 
Wolfgang,  he  devoted  his  life  to  their 
training,  traveling  with  them  and 
carefully  superintending  their  studies 
both  at  home  and  abroad.  He  died 
at  Salzburg.  He  was  a  composer  of 
pronounced  ability  and  wrote  much 
sacred  music,  twelve  oratorios;  sym- 
phonies; concertos;  six  trio  sonatas 
for  two  violins  with  basso  continuo; 
Offertorium  de  Sacramento  for  four 
voices;  and  many  other  pieces  secular 
and  sacred.  Perhaps  the  most 
important  is  his  Vexsuch  einer  griind- 
lischen  Violinschule,  long  the  only 
violin  method,  and  a  work  of  decided 

Mozart,    Wolfgang    Amadeus.      1756- 

One  of  the  greatest  composers  the 
world  has  yet  known;  born  at  Salz- 
burg, Austria,  1756.  His  father, 
Leopold  Mozart,  was  a  man  of  fine 
education  and  prof  ound  religious  feeling 
and  a  thorough  musician.  Of  seven 
children  there  grew  up  only  Wolf- 
gang and  an  elder  sister,  Maria  Anna, 
who  early  showed  great  musical 
ability  and  as  a  child,  traveled  with 
her  brother  on  his  concert  tours. 
When  only  three  years  old  ]\Iozart 
took  deep  interest  in  his  sister's 
music  lessons  and  learned  to  pick  out 
thirds  on  the  piano.  When  only  four 
he  began  learning  little  pieces  and 
when  five  he  dictated  to  his  father 
some  minuets  and  composed  a  con- 
certo so  difficult  that  no  one  could 
play  it.  In  1762  the  family  made  their 
first  concert  tour,  playing  at  Munich, 
where  the  Elector  received  them 
kindly;  at  Linz  and  at  Vienna.  Here 
at  court  they  made  a  most  favor- 
able impression,  especially  Wolfgang, 
whose  remarkable  talent  and  childish 
naturalness  charmed  the  Emperor  and 
Empress.  After  appearing  in  several 
concerts  the  family  journeyed  to 
Presburg,  returning  to  Salzburg 
early  in  1763.  The  first  tour  had 
proved  so  successful  that  early  in 
June,  1763,  they  started  again,  with 
Paris  as  their  goal.  In  1764  they 
went  to  London  and  played  three 
times  at  court.     Mozart  also  played 


the  organ  and,  during  an  illness  of  his 
father,  wrote  his  first  symphony.  His 
father  had  six  of  his  sonatas  for 
harpsichord  and  violin  engraved  and 
dedicated  them  to  the  Queen,  and  in 
1765  he  presented  to  the  British  Mu- 
seum copies  of  all  his  printed  com- 
positions and  an  engraving  from  the 
Carmontelle  picture.  They  left  Eng- 
land to  play  at  the  Court  of  Holland. 
After  playing  the  organ  at  Ghent  and 
Harlem  they  went  to  Paris,  where 
Mozart  played  several  times  at  court. 
On  the  way  home  they  stopped  at 
Munich,  where  the  Elector  was  much 
pleased  with  Wolfgang's  progress. 
They  reached  Salzburg  in  November, 

During  all  the  time  of  their  travels 
Leopold  Mozart  had  educated  his 
children  most  carefully  and  on  their 
return  to  Salzburg  guided  his  son  in 
a  careful  study  of  Fux's  Gradus  ad 
Parnassum.  The  archbishop  gave 
Wolfgang  the  first  part  of  a  sacred 
cantata  to  compose  and  during  this 
period  he  also  wrote  a  Passions-can- 
tate;  his  first  piano  concerto;  and  a 
Latin  comedy,  Apollo  et  Hyacinthus. 
In  September,  attracted  by  the  ap- 
proaching betrothal  of  Archduchess 
Josepha,  the  family  went  to  Vienna, 
but  when  smallpox  broke  out  fled 
to  Olmiitz,  where  both  children  were 
ill  of  the  disease.  They  did  not  re- 
turn to  Vienna  until  1768,  when  they 
were  well  received  at  court. 

In  December,  1769,  with  his  father,' 
Mozart  started  for  Italy.  In  Verona 
he  performed  one  of  his  symphonies, 
composing  and  singing  an  air  to 
words  that  were  given  him;  in  Milan 
after  playing  in  concert  he  was  com- 
missioned to  write  an  opera  for  the 
next  stagione.  At  Bologna  he  met 
Padre  Martini,  who  delighted  in  him, 
instructing  him  and  giving  him  fugues 
to  work  out,  which  he  did  to  the 
great  critic's  satisfaction  At  Flor- 
ence he  was  graciously  received  by 
Archduke  Leopold  and  played  at 
court,  accompanying  Nardini,  the 
great  violinist,  and  solving  hard  musi- 
cal problems  set  before  him  by  Mar- 
quis des  Ligniville,  director  of  Court 
music  and  a  thorough  contrapuntist. 
Reaching  Rome  on  Wednesday  of 
Holy  Week  he  heard  Allegri's  famous 
Miserere  in  the  Sistine  Chapel  and 
wrote  out  the  entire  composition  from 
memory.  On  his  return  to  Rome  in 
June  the  Pope  granted  him  the  Order 
of   the    Golden    Spur,   with    which   he 




had  also  honored  Gluck.  When 
Mozart  reached  Bologna  he  was 
elected  a  member  of  the  Accademia 
Filarmonica,  of  which  he  became 
maestro  di  cappella  in  1771,  and  he 
received  from  Padre  Martini  a  formal 
testimonial.  He  wrote  a  Miserere 
which  shows  the  impression  made  on 
him  by  one  he  had  heard  in  Rome. 
Returning  to  Milan  he  set  to  work 
on  his  opera,  Mitridate,  Re  di  Ponto, 
which  after  a  deal  of  trouble  with 
singers  and  musical  rivals  he  brought 
out  very  successfully  in  December, 
1770.  After  stopping  at  Vicenza  and 
Verona,  he  returned  to  Milan 
in  August  to  compose  the  opera, 
Ascanio  in  Alba,  which  he  had  been 
commissioned  to  write  for  the  car- 
nival. He  reached  Salzburg  in  1771 
and  was  soon  working  on  an  opera, 
II  Sogno  di  Scipione,  which  was  per- 
formed in  1772.  The  next  year  he 
went  again  to  Milan  to  work  on  the 
opera,  Lucio  Silla,  produced  most 
successfully  in  December.  During 
this  year  he  also  composed  the  im- 
portant litany,  De  Venerabile.  _ 

He  returned  to  Salzburg  in  1773 
and  devoted  himself  to  composing, 
going  that  summer  to  Vienna,  where 
he  first  became  familiar  with  Haydn's 
quartets,  compositions  by  which  he 
was  strongly  influenced.  His  position 
at  Salzburg  in  time  became  so  distaste- 
ful to  him  that  after  the  Archbishop 
had  refused  his  father  permission  to 
go  with  him  on  a  concert  tour,  he 
applied  for  his  discharge,  which  was 
angrily  granted,  and  determined  to 
set  out  in  company  with  his  mother. 

In  September,  1777,  after  a  sorrow- 
ful parting  with  his  father,  Mozart 
and  his  mother  started  for  Munich, 
their  first  stop,  where  they  received 
a  most  discouraging  reception.  At 
Mannheim  they  met  many  congenial 
people  and  remained  for  some  time. 
There  was  Cannabich,  to  whose 
daughter  Mozart  gave  piano  lessons, 
Wieland  and  Freiherr  von  Gem- 
mingen,  Holtzbauer  and  Schweitzer 
and  the  quartet,  Raaff,  Wendling, 
Ramm  and  Ritter  and  also  the 
Webers,  who  played  so  important  a 
part  in  Mozart's  after  life.  About 
this  time  he  fell  in  love  with  Aloysia 
Weber;  he  taught  her  singing  and 
proposed  to  arrange  for  her  appear- 
ance in  opera  in  Italy.  On  hearing 
this  his  father  peremptorily  ordered 
him  to  Paris,  whither  he  went  reluc- 
tantly in  March,  1778.    He  heard  opera 


by  Gluck,  Gretry,  Monsigny  and  Phili- 
dor,  and  wrote  his  Paris  Symphony. 
In  July  his  mother  died  suddenly  in 
Paris,  and  heartbroken,  he  left  in  Sep- 
tember for  Salzburg.  He  arrived  in 
Salzburg  the  middle  of  June  the  fol- 
lowing year  and  worked  steadily 
there  until  1780,  when  he  received  a 
commission  from  Karl  Theodore  to 
write  an  opera  for  the  Munich  Car- 
nival of  the  following  year.  Ihi? 
opera,  Idomeneo,  King  of  Crete,  writ- 
ten to  a  libretto  of  Abbate  Varesco, 
was  very  successful  and  established 
Mozart's  position  as  a  dramatic  writer. 
For  a  while  after  this  he  made  a 
scant  living  teaching  and  composing, 
and  had  leisure  to  fulfil  his  plan  of 
writing  a  German  opera  to  a  libretto 
furnished  him  through  the  influence 
of  the  Emperor.  The  result  was  The 
Escape  from  the  Seraglio,  performed 
very  successfully,  and  at  the  Emper- 
or's special  command  in  July,  1/82. 
About  a  month  after  this  he  married 
Constanze  Weber,  a  sister  of  Aloysia. 
His  married  life  proved  a  sad  one, 
for  although  the  tenderest  affection 
existed  between  him  and  his  wife  they 
were  constantly  involved  in  pecuniary 

In  1785  his  father  visited  him  in 
Vienna,  taking  the  greatest  delight  in 
his  playing  and  composition,  and  while 
there  joining  the  Free  Masons,  in 
which  order  Wolfgang  was  deeply 
interested.  A  performance  of  Ido- 
meneo, given  at  the  palace  of  Prince 
Auersperg,  attracted  the  attention  of 
the  dramatist.  Da  Ponte,  who  obtained 
the  Emperor's  consent  to  adapt  Beau- 
marchais'  Manage  de  Figaro  for 
Mozart.  The  first  performance  of  this 
opera,  given  in  May,  1786,  was  re- 
ceived with  the  greatest  enthusiasm. 
But  even  after  this  Mozart  received 
no  aid  from  court,  and  obtained  his 
only  encouragement  from  Prague, 
where  Figaro  had  created  a  sensation. 
The  composer  was  invited  to  come 
there  and  was  greeted  with  an  ovation; 
in  fact  this  visit  is  one  of  the  few 
bright  spots  in  his  latter  years.  Here 
was  written  Don  Giovanni,  to  a  lib- 
retto of  Da  Ponte's,  and  produced  in 
the  autumn  of  1787.  Soon  after  this 
Gluck  died  and  IMozart  went  to 
Vienna,  hoping  to  be  given  a  suitable 
position,  but  was  greatly  disappointed 
to  receive  only  the  minor  appointment 
of  Kammercompositor,  with  a  salary 
of  about  four  hundred  dollars  a  year. 
During   1787  he  composed  his  three 




finest  symphonies,  those  in  E  flat,  G 
minor  and  C.  During  1788  he  con- 
ducted a  series  of  concerts  organized 
by  van  Swieten,  for  whom  he  added 
wind  parts  to  Handel's  Messiah,  Ode 
to  St.  Cecilia's  Day,  and  Acis  and 

In  1789  he  accepted  an  invitation 
from  Prince  Karl  Lichnowsky  to  go 
to  Berlin.  On  arriving  there  he  was 
taken  to  Potsdam  and  presented  to 
the  King,  who  showed  his  apprecia- 
tion of  Mozart's  genius  by  offering 
him  the  position  of  chapelmaster, 
which  he  refused  because  he  did  not 
wish  to  leave  his  Emperor.  He  gave 
a  concert  in  Leipsic,  played  before 
the  Queen  in  Berlin,  and  returning  in 
June  to  Vienna  set  to  work  to  write 
some  quartets  ordered  by  the  King. 
Receiving  a  commission  from  the 
Emperor  he  began  C'osi  fan  tutti,  of 
Da  Ponte's,  but  before  it  was  finished 
the  Emperor  died.  On  the  coronation 
of  his  successor,  Leopold  II.,  at 
Frankfort,  Mozart  made  his  last  pro- 
fessional tour.  He  gave  a  concert  at 
the  Frankfort  Stadttheatre  and  after- 
ward played  before  the  King  of 
Naples  and  the  Elector  at  Munich; 
but  these  concerts  brought  him  no 
commission  and  he  returned  to  Vienna 
greatly  discouraged.  Soon  after  he 
bade  goodbye  to  Haydn,  whom  he 
had  met  in  1781,  and  whose  friendship 
had  been  of  the  greatest  benefit  to 
him.  He  worked  very  hard  during 
this  time  and  produced  a  beautiful 
motet,  Ave  Verum,  a  forerunner  of 
the  Requiem  and  the  Magic  Flute.  He 
wrote  The  Magic  Flute  to  aid 
Schikaneder,  who  had  a  little  theatre 
in  the  suburb  of  Wieden,  and  while 
hard  at  work  on  it  received  a  com- 
mission to  write  a  requiem  from  a 
mysterious  personage  who  enjoined 
secrecy.  Soon  after  he  was  asked  to 
write  an  opera  for  the  coronation  of 
Leopold  II.,  at  Prague,  in  which  city 
he  composed  and  conducted  La 
Clemenza  de  Tito,  performed  on  the 
evening  of  the  coronation,  when  it 
received  but  little  attention  from  the 
Court  audience.  Disappointed  and 
ill,  Mozart  returned  home  and  finished 
The  Magic  Flute,  which  was  intro- 
duced in  September  and  after  a  few 
performances  became  very  popular. 
He  now  turned  his  attention  to  the 
Requiem,  but  illness  and  disappoint- 
ment had  induced  a  state  of  deep 
dejection  and  he  was  unable  to  pro- 
ceed.   Seized  with  a  haunting  belief  in 


his  approaching  death,  the  Requiem 
score  was  taken  away  from  him.  Then 
for  a  time  he  rallied,  composing  and 
even  conducting  a  cantata  for  his 
lodge,  but  soon  after  relapsing  and 
finally  taking  to  his  bed.  About  this 
time  brighter  prospects  appeared  for 
him;  the  nobles  of  Hungary  raised  a 
fund  guaranteeing  him  a  certain 
annuity,  and  the  people  of  Amster- 
dam took  a  subscription,  to  have  him 
write  some  compositions  for  them. 
But  it  was  too  late.  He  tried  vainly 
to  proceed  with  the  Requiem,  and 
on  December  4  attempted  to  sing  it 
through  with  Hofer,  Shack,  and  Gerl, 
but  on  reaching  the  Lacrimosa  burst 
into  tears  and  put  it  by.  He  died 
Dec.  5,  1791,  and  was  buried  in  a 
pauper's  grave,  the  location  of  which 
is  unknown. 

His  life  was  one  of  struggle  and 
disappointment,  for  through  appreci- 
ation of  his  work  did  not  come  until 
after  his  death.  He  was  unfailingly 
industrious,  and  in  the  short  time  that 
he  lived  he  wrote  many  compositions. 
His  religious  writings  comprise  fifteen 
masses,  four  litanies,  four  Kyries,  and 
many  other  sacred  vocal  compositions, 
of  which  may  be  mentioned  as  im- 
portant his  Litania  de  Venerabili, 
Laurentanae;  two  Litanie  de  Venerabili 
in  B  flat  and  E  flat;  two  vespers  in 
C;  the  motet,  Misericordias  Domine 
Venite  populi;  the  marvelous  Ave 
Verum;  the  mass  in  C  minor;  and  the 
unfinished  Requiem,  greatest  of  all. 
Of  his  forty-nine  symphonies  the  best 
known  are  the  dreamy  one  in  E  flat, 
the  one  in  G  minor,  the  Jupiter  sym- 
phony, vigorous  and  dignified.  His 
many  beautiful  quartets  are  equaled 
only  by  those  of  Haydn  and  Bee- 
thoven. Of  his  operas,  Idomeneo; 
Figaro;  Don  Giovanni;  and  The 
Magic  Flute  are  the  most  important. 
Besides  these  he  has  writen  chamber- 
music,  songs,  and  many  beautiful 
sonatas.  Throughout  all  his  composi- 
tions there  is  a  purity  of  conception, 
a  wealth  of  beauty  such  as  is  found 
only  in  works  of  genius.  In  which- 
ever of  the  many  branches  of  com- 
position he  worked  we  see  the 
greatest  technical  knowledge  linked  to 
loftiness  and  purity  of  thought. 


Breakspeare,  E.  J.  —  Mozart. 
Jahn,  Otto  — W.  A.   Mozart    3  vols. 
Kerst,  Friedrich,  comp.  —  Mozart,  the 
man  and  the  artist. 




Nissen,  G.  N.  von  —  Biographic  W.  A. 

Nohl,  Louis  —  Life  of  Mozart. 
Oulibicheff,     Alexander     von  —  Nou- 

velle  Biographic  de  Mozart.  3  vols. 
Pohl,   K.   F.  —  Mozart  und  Haydn  in 

London.     2  vols. 
Prout,  Ebenezer  —  Mozart. 
Rau,     H.  —  Mozart;     a     biographical 


Mozart,  Wolfgang  Amadeus  jr.    1791- 

Son  of  the  great  Mozart,  and  a  piano- 
player  and  composer  of  considerable 
ability;  was  born  in  Vienna.  He  was 
the  pupil  of  Neukomm,  A.  Streicher, 
Albrechtsberger  and  Salieri  and  made 
his  first  public  appearance  when  four- 
teen years  old,  on  which  occasion  he 
played  a  concerto  of  his  father's  and 
two  compositions  of  his  own,  vari- 
ations on  the  minuet  from  Don  Juan, 
and  a  cantata  in  honor  of  Haydn's 
seventy-third  birthday.  In  1808  he 
came  under  the  patronage  of  Count 
Bawarowsky  of  Galicia,  and  in  1814 
he  founded  the  Cecilia  Society  at 
Lemberg  where  he  lived  many  years 
as  a  teacher  of  piano.  From  there  he 
went  to  Vienna,  then  to  Karlsbad,  in 
Bohemia,  where  he  died.  Among  his 
compositions  are  two  piano  concertos; 
a  piano  sonata;  a  piano  tno;  string 
quartet;  variations;  polonaises  and 
other  piano  compositions;  also  some 

Muck  (mook),  Karl.    1859- 

Orchestra  conductor  and  pianist; 
was  born  at  Darmstadt,  Bavaria.  At 
Heidelberg  and  Leipsic  he  studied 
philosophy,  graduating  from  the  Uni- 
versity in  Leipsic,  studied  at  the  Con- 
servatory for  three  years,  making  his 
musical  debut  in  1880  as  a  pianist  in 
the  Gewandhaus.  He  was  conductor 
at  Zurich,  Salzburg,  Briinn,  and  in 
1886  at  Gratz.  He  was  director  of 
Neumann's  Traveling  Opera  Com- 
pany, and  in  1892  at  Berlin  became 
conductor  of  the  Royal  Opera  until 
1906,  then  came  to  America  to  con- 
duct the  Boston  Symphony  concerts. 
In  1899  he  conducted  German  Opera 
at  Covent  Garden,  and  in  1902  he 
conducted  at  the  Bayreuth  Festival. 

Mudie,  Thomas  Molleson.    1809-1876. 

Composer  and  piano-player;  born  at 
Chelsea;  was  one  of  ten  successful 
candidates  to  enter  the  Royal  Acad- 
emy of  Music  under  its  first  examina- 
tion in  1823.    He  studied  piano  with 

Cipriani  Potter,  composition  with  Dr. 
Crotch  and  with  Willman  the  clari- 
net, the  instrument  which  he  played 
in  the  school  orchestra,  and  upon 
which  he  is  said  to  have  become  a 
delightful  performer,  although  he 
abandoned  it  after  his  student  days. 
During  his  study  at  the  Academy  he 
wrote  several  vocal  pieces  with 
orchestral  accompaniments;  a  sym- 
phony in  C  and  a  symphony  in  B  flat, 
as  well  as  his  Lungi  dal  caro  bene,  of 
which  the  committee  of  management 
paid  the  cost  of  publication.  In  1832 
Mudie  became  a  professor  of  piano  at 
the  Academy,  acting  in  that  capacity 
until  1844.  He  was  organist  at 
Gatton  until  1844,  going  then  to  Edin- 
burgh to  succeed  Devaux  as  teacher, 
and  remaining  there  until  1863,  when 
he  returned  to  London  for  the  re- 
mainder of  his  life.  In  the  library  of 
the  Royal  Academy  are  all  his  scores 
that  remain,  and  all  of  his  printed 
works,  among  them  being  symphony 
in  F;  symphony  in  D;  quintet  in  E  flat 
for  piano  and  strings;  accompaniment 
to  many  of  Wood's  Collection  of 
Songs  of  Scotland;  an  exceedingly 
fine  collection  of  twenty-four  sacred 
songs;  three  church  anthems  for 
three  voices;  three  sacred  duets; 
forty-two  separate  songs;  two  duets; 
and  the  forty-eight  original  piano 
solos,  of  which  twelve  are  dedicated 
to  Sterndale  Bennett. 

Muff  at  (moof'-fat),  Georg. 

Composer  and  harmonist  of  the 
latter  part  of  the  Seventeenth  Cen- 
tury, the  date  and  place  of  whose 
birth  are  unknown.  For  six  years  he 
studied  Lully's  methods  in  Paris,  and 
until  1675  was  organist  of  the  Stras- 
burg  Cathedral.  About  1678  he  was 
made  organist  to  the  Bishop  of  Salz- 
burg, and  traveled  in  Vienna  and 
Rome.  In  1690  he  was  made  organist, 
and  in  1695  master  of  the  pages  and 
chapelmaster  to  the  Bishop  of  Pas- 
sau.  He  died  in  Passau  in  1704.  In 
1690  he  published  his  important 
Apparatus  musico-organist,  which 
consists  of  twelve  toccate  and  which 
he  dedicated  to  Emperor  Leopold  I. 
Other  works  are  Svaviores  harmoni- 
cae  —  Florilegium  I.,  and  Florilegium 
mit  Ernst  und  Lust  Gemengte  Instru- 
mental Music. 

Miihldorfer    (mul'-derf-er),    Wilhelm 

Karl.     1837- 

Born  at  Gratz,  Styria;  a  writer  of 
operas.     His  father  was  inspector  of 




theatres  at  IMannheim,  and  he  studied 
there  and  at  Linz-on-the-Danube.  He 
became  an  actor  at  Mannheim,  but  in 
1855  he  took  a  position  as  chapel- 
master  of  the  City  Theatre  at  Ulm. 
From  1867  to  1881  he  was  chapel- 
master  at  Leipsic,  and  since  1881  he 
has  occupied  a  similar  position  at 
Cologne.  His  writings  are  Prinzessin 
Rebenbliite  and  In  Kyffhauser,  Der 
Commandant  von  Konigstein;  Der 
Goldmacher  von  Strasburg,  all  operas; 
besides  the  ballet,  Waldensamkeit, 
incidental  music  to  several  plays, 
overtures,  choruses  and  songs. 

Mullet   (mul'-ler),  Adolf.     1801-1886. 

Singer  and  composer;  born  at 
Tolna,  Hungary;  a  pupil  of  Rieger, 
organist  of  Briinn  Cathedral,  later  of 
Joseph  Blumenthal  in  Vienna.  Al- 
though when  eight  years  old  he 
played  the  piano  in  concert  he  later 
devoted  himself  to  stage  singing  at 
Prague,  Lemberg  and  Briinn  and  in 
1826  at  the  Karnther  Court  Theatre. 
In  1828  he  was  appointed  chapel- 
master  and  composer  at  the  Theatre 
an  der  Wien,  at  Vienna.  He  was  a 
rapid  composer,  and  in  1868  his 
operas,  operettas,  melodramas  and 
other  works  reached  the  number  of 
five  hundred  and  seventy-nine.  Among 
them  are  operas,  Astraee,  Sera- 
phine;  and  the  operettas,  Die  Schwarze 
Frau,  Die  Erste  Zusammenfunst,  and 
Wer  Andern  eine  Grube  grabt,  fallt 
selbst  hinein;  as  well  as  about  sixty 
Singspiels  and  various  other  compo- 

Muller,  Adolf  jr.     1839- 

Writer  of  operas;  son  of  Adolf 
Miiller;  born  in  Vienna.  He  studied 
with  his  father,  became  chapelmaster 
of  the  Opera  at  Posen  in  1864,  re- 
maining a  year  there,  then  filling  a 
similar  position  at  Magdeburg  until 
1867.  From  1868  to  1875  he  was 
leader  at  Diisseldorf,  and  since  1875 
he  has  conducted  German  Opera  in 
Rotterdam.  He  has  produced  two 
operas,  Waldmeister's  Brantfahrt,  and 
Heinrich  der  Goldschmidt;  and  the 
operettas,  Der  Kleine  Prinz;  Der 
Hofnarr,  Das  Gespenst  in  der  Spinns- 
tube;  Der  Liebeshof;  Die  Kammer- 
jungfer;  Des  Teufels  Weib;  Der 
Blondin  von  Namur;  Der  Millionen 
Onkel;  and  Lady  Charlatan. 

Miiller,  August  Eberhard.    1767-1817. 

Composer    and    performer    on    the 

organ,  piano  and  flute;  born  at  Nord- 

heim,  Hanover.  Received  his  first 
musical  instruction  at  Rinteln,  where 
his  father  was  organist.  He  pro- 
gressed so  rapidly  that  at  the  age  of 
eight  he  had  appeared  in  concert  in 
several  cities.  In  1785  he  went  to 
Leipsic,  and  spent  several  years  in 
Brunswick,  finally  becoming  organist 
at  the  Church  of  St.  Ulrich  at 
Magdeburg  in  1789.  In  1794  he  be- 
came organist  of  St.  Nicholas  Church 
at  Leipsic,  and  in  1800  was  appointed 
assistant  to  Hiller  in  the  Thomas- 
schule,  becoming  cantor  there  on 
Hiller's  death  in  1804.  He  moved  to 
Weimar  in  1810  and  died  there  in 
1817.  He  was  an  excellent  performer 
on  organ,  piano  and  flute,  and  left  the 
following  compositions:  For  organ, 
suites,  choral  variations  and  a  sonata; 
for  flute,  method  for  flute,  eleven  con- 
certos, twenty-three  duets  for  two 
fluteSj  and  a  fantasia  with  orchestra; 
for  piano,  an  excellent  method,  a  trio 
for  piano  and  strings,  two  concertos, 
two  sonatas  for  violin  and  piano,  ca- 
denzas to  Mozart's  concertos  and 
sonatas  for  piano;  also  some  vocal 
music,  an  operetta,  a  sacred  cantata, 
motets  and  songs. 

*  Muller,  Carl  Christian.     1837- 

Composer,  conductor,  and  teacher 
of  harmony  in  New  York  City;  born 
in  Saxe-Meiningen.  He  studied  piano 
with  F.  W.  Pfeifer  and  his  son,  Hein- 
rich; harmony  with  A.  Zellner,  and 
organ  with  Butzert.  Coming  to  New 
York  in  1854  he  was  engaged  for  a 
time  in  a  piano  factory,  then  entered 
the  orchestra  of  Barnum's  Museum, 
ultimately  becoming  its  leader.  He 
established^  himself  as  a  teacher  of 
harmony  in  New  York  and  later 
became  identified  with  the  New  York 
College  of  Music  as  teacher  of  har- 
mony and  associated  branches.  In 
1907  he  was  teaching  at  Dr.  Eber- 
hardt's  Grand  Conservatory,  New 
York  Conservatory,  and  the  Uptown 
Conservatory.  He  translated  Sechter's 
Grundsatze  der  Musikalischen  Com- 
position or  Fundamental  Harmony, 
and  supplemented  it  by  four  sets  of 
tables  on  primary  instruction,  modu- 
lation, chord  succession  and  har- 
monization. For  piano  he  has  pub- 
lished Pleasant  Recollections;  Golden 
Hours,  and  a  great  number  of  pieces 
for  small  bands;  three  sonatas  for 
organ;  a  sonata  for  violin  and  piano; 
a  string  quartet  in  A  minor;  some 
four-part  male  choruses;  songs;  organ 
postludes.       Among    his     works     in 



manuscript  is  a  symphony  for  orches- 
tra in  D  minor;  two  suites  in  G 
minor  and  E  flat  major;  two  over- 
tures; an  Idyll  on  an  excerpt  from 
Hiawatha,  and  other  compositions. 

MuUer,  Friedrich.     1786-1871. 

Eminent  clarinettist  and  composer; 
born  at  Orlamiinde,  Altenburg,  where 
he  began  the  study  of  music  under 
his  father,  who  was  town  musician. 
He  took  up  composition  with  Hein- 
rich  Koch,  and  at  the  age  of  sixteen 
joined  the  orchestra  of  the  Prince 
von  Schwartzburg-Rudolstadt  as  vio- 
loncellist, then  as  clarinettist,  and  suc- 
ceeded Eberwein  as  chapelmaster  in 
1831.  He  also  made  extensive  concert 
tours.  Some  of  his  compositions  are 
two  symphonies;  overtures;  Romance 
varie  for  clarinet  and  orchestra; 
clarinet  etudes;  quartets  and  terzets 
for  horns;  Theme  varie  for  bassoon 
and  orchestra;  four  collections  of 
dances  for  bassoon  and  orchestra;  a 
prize  quartet  for  clarinet  concertos 
and  concertinos  for  clarinet;  diver- 
tissements for  piano  and  clarinet;  and 
musique  militaire. 
Muller,  Ivan.    1786-1854. 

Clarinet  virtuoso,  who  made  im- 
portant improvements  in  his  instru- 
ment; was  born  at  Revel,  Russia. 
After  a  successful  tour  through  Ger- 
many he  went  to  Paris  in  1809  and 
opened  a  clarinet  factory  in  which  he 
manufactured  clarinets  having  thirteen 
keys  and  the  altclarinet,  but  which 
failed,  owing  to  the  fact  that  the 
Conservatory  refused  to  recognize  his 
improvements  on  the  clarinet,  al- 
though afterward  they  were  generally 
adopted.  In  1820  he  left  Paris  and 
after  going  to  Russia,  Germany, 
Switzerland  and  London  he  was  made 
Court  musician  at  Biickeburg,  where 
he  died.  He  wrote  a  method  for  the 
new  thirteen-keyed  clarinet  and  alto 
clarinet,  and  the  following  composi- 
tions: Gamme  pour  La  nouvelle 
clarinet:  divertissement  for  clarinet 
and  orchestra;  concertos  for  clarinet; 
symphonic  concertante  for  two  clari- 
nets;^ six  concertos  for  flute;  pieces 
for  piano  and  clarinet;  and  grand  solo 
for  clarinet  and  orchestra. 
Muller,  Wenzel.    1767-1835. 

Writer  of  German  light  opera;  born 
at  Tyrnau,  in  Moravia.  After  study- 
ing for  a  time  under  Dittersdorf  he 
obtained  a  position  as  orchestra  con- 
ductor at  the  Brunn  Theatre  in  1783, 

leaving  it  in  1786  to  conduct  in 
Marinelli's  Theatre  in  Vienna.  From 
1808  to  1813  he  directed  opera  in 
Prague,  where  his  daughter,  known 
as  Madame  Griinbaum,  was  one  of  the 
singers.  On  his  return  to  Vienna  he 
was  appointed  conductor  of  the 
Leopoldstadt  Theatre,  a  position 
which  he  held  until  a  short  time  be- 
fore he  died  at  Baden,  near  Vienna. 
Immensely  popular  as  a  writer  of 
light  operas,  he  was  in  the  habit  of 
incorporating  in  his  operas  themes 
from  national  melodies  and  dances,  a 
device  which  greatly  pleased  the 
people.  Among  his  productions  may 
be  mentioned  Das  Sonnenfest  der 
Braminen;  Das  neue  Sontagskind; 
Die  Schwestern  von  Prag;  Zauber- 
zither  or  Kasper  der  Fagottist;  Die 
Teufelsmiihle  auf  dem  Wienerberge; 
Tizzischi;  Die  Alte  iiberall  und 
nirgends;  Die  Entfiihring  der  Prin- 
zessin  Europa;  and  travestierte  Zau- 
berflote.  He  also  wrote  symphonies, 
masses  and  overtures. 

Mtiller,  Karl  Friedrich 
Muller,  Theodore   Heinrich  Gustav 
Miiller,  August  Theodor 
Miiller,  Franz   Ferdinand   Georg 

First  Quartet. 
Four  brothers,  educated  especially  as 
quartet-players  by  their  father  -i^gi- 
dius  Muller,  Hofmusikus  to  the  Duke 
of  Brunswick.  They  were  all  born  at 
Brunswick.  Karl  Friedrich,  born  in 
1797,  was  first  violin  in  the  quartet 
and  concertmaster  to  the  Duke;  died 
in  1873.  Theodor  Heinrich  Gustav, 
born  in  1799,  played  viola;  died  in 
1855.  August  Theodor,  who  played 
the  cello,  was  born  in  1802  and  died 
in  1875.  Franz  Ferdinand  Georg  was 
born  in  1808  and  died  in  1855;  played 
the  second  violin  in  the  quartet  and 
was  chapelmaster  to  the  Duke.  The 
Duke  of  Brunswick  permitted  none 
of  his  musicians  to  play  outside  his 
Court,  so  in  1830  the  brothers  re- 
signed from  his  service.  In  1831  they 
gave  concerts  in  Hamburg,  and  in 
1832  in  Berlin.  In  1833  they  made  a 
concert  tour  of  the  principal  cities 
of  Germany  and  France,  and  in  1845 
they  went  as  far  as  Russia,  and  visited 
Holland  in  1852.  They  developed  the 
art  of  quartet-playing  to  a  degree 
approaching  to  perfection,  and  play- 
ing little  except  the  works  of  Bee- 
thoven, Haydn  and  Mozart,  had  a 
decided  effect  on  the  development  of 



MuUer,  Bemhard 
MiiUer,  Karl 
Miiller,  Hugo 
Miiller,  Wilhelm 

Second  Quartet. 
This  second  string  quartet  was 
made  up  of  the  sons  of  Karl  Fried- 
rich,  first  violin  in  the  original  Miiller 
Brothers'  Quartet.  Bernhard,__  the 
eldest,  born  in  1829,  died  in  1895;  he 
played  the  viola.  Karl,  born  in  1829, 
known    after 


and     ■  ~  and 

atteni  y    at 

F:  jc^/c    lo    io/v.      He 

b  '   of  piano  and  theory 

b\  Conservatory    in    1879 

a-  lis  position  until  1887, 

'   to  Dresden  and   c  r, 
male  chorus  Orp 
^^  year.     In  1889  he  c 
tise     Dreysig     Singakademie,    and    \n 
1892  he  beg^n  to   teach  in  the  Con- 
servatory.    He  h?.s  written  the  opera. 

violin.      Hugo,    born    m      .J  ,,; 

1S86;  played  r^gg^j^^-ggj.  vJoHnist  of  recent  times;  was  bora 


helm,   who 

the  celloPiiJ^wish   parents,   near  Presburg,  Hungary ;   w4'^  a 

F  -  '—  "friend  of  Mendelssohn  and  ..Liszt,  but  did  not  agree    • 

.  with  the  principles  of  Liszt. 

Joachim  composed  a  number  of  pieces  for  the 
violin  and  piano,  but  his  greatest  influence  was  ex- 
erted as  a  teacher.  ^J^  took  no  ptipils  at  any  price 
who    Were    not   well/fgnJundfedring  the   principles    of 

iruWf^Bh^^"^  ^"  artist'  of /taletii"tio':matt^i:.J^\^;^§^^ 

.•.igartanddlfiti'd^:%,place  withihirri.  :     ;  •       -t  -\':  .^inris  spent  much  of 

1    r  McianSjTjoaqhJTn  'was   recognized   during  his    life.      At  -tings 

Niit  was  Mrif?^^  lield  in  his   honor  in  Berlin  in   1899  his  ';'^^ 

MUller-riS^^tf^^  aad.  friends   assembled   from    all   parts  of  the  ed  as 

helm    Wofld. 

,d    lUe    Gym- 
■  '.    and    studied 

teacher  at  the  Seminary  v 
coming  professor  in  1864.     ]  r 
to  1859  he  conducted  opera  at  Dres- 
den,    In   1865  he  became  director  of 
church-music  at  Weimar,  and  in  1869 
Opera     chapelmaster.       In     1872     he 
founded     and     directed     t!v 
Ducal     Orchester  -  Und  -  M 
He    resigned    his    other    • 
1889.     He   wrote  a   sy 
theory,  of  which  Vol 
1879;  organ  sonatas  an  ; 
p.nd  part-songs  for  mal. 

Mailer-Reuter  (mia-ler  roi-tir).  Theo- 
dor.    1858- 

Teacher,  conductor  and  composer; 
born  in  Dresden.  Studied  composi- 
tion under  Julius  Otto^nd  Ludwig 
Meinardus,  and  piano  under  Friedrich 

;-  -ttnt    oi 

ii,    which 

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Intervals;  On  Musical  Oratorios;  On 

Cf^^nsonance;  Theory  of  Ancient  Music 

Boetius;     Church     Modes    and 

isation;     Measured     Music     and 

tnt.     The  influence  de  *■■     •-  '  -^! 

music  was  a  restrainir 

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on     and     decried     the    ten- 

\  various  innovations  in  his 

1  h  he  thought  threatened  the 

!  i  structure  of  music. 

Murska  (moor'-shka),  lima  dL    1836- 


Operatic  soprano;  born  in  Croatia. 
She   studied    with    the    Marchesis    in 


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Miiller,  Bernhard 
MuUer,  Karl 
Miiller,  Hugo 
MuUer,  Wilhelm 

Second  Quartet. 
This  second  string  quartet  was 
made  up  of  the  sons  of  Karl  Fried- 
rich,  first  violin  in  the  original  Miiller 
Brothers'  Quartet.  Bernhard,  the 
eldest,  born  in  1829,  died  in  1895;  he 
played  the  viola.  Karl,  born  in  1829, 
was  known  after  his  marriage  as 
Miiller-Berghaus;  played  the  first 
violin.  Hugo,  born  in  1832,  died  in 
1886;  played  the  second  violin.  Wil- 
helm, who  was  born  in  1834,  played 
the  cello;  died  in  New  York  in  1897. 
For  ten  years  they  formed  the  Court 
quartet  to  the  Duke  of  Meiningen; 
they  traveled  through  Russia,  Den- 
mark and  France,  and  in  1866  settled 
in  Rosbeck,  where  Karl  was  appointed 
chapelmaster,  and  the  other  brothers 
members  of  the  orchestra.  In  1873 
the  quartet  was  dissolved,  when  Wil- 
helm became  first  cellist  in  the  Royal 
Orchestra  and  teacher  at  the  Hoch- 
schule  in  Berlin.  Karl  has  lived  at 
Stuttgart  and  Hamburg,  and  is  known 
as  the  composer  of  an  operetta  and 
the  cantata,  Jeptha's  Tochter,  and 
other  pieces.  This  quartet  never  at- 
tained the  perfection  of  the  first  one, 
but  was  favorably  known. 

Muller-Hartung,     Karl     Ernst     Wil- 
helm.   1834- 

Teacher  and  musical  writer;  born 
at  Suiza.  He  attended  the  Gym- 
nasium at  Nordhausen  and  studied 
theology  at  Jena,  then  began  to  study 
with  Kiihmstedt  at  Eisenach,  and  suc- 
ceeded him  as  musical  director  and 
teacher  at  the  Seminary  in  1859,  be- 
coming professor  in  1864.  From  1857 
to  1859  he  conducted  opera  at  Dres- 
den. In  1865  he  became  director  of 
church-music  at  Weimar,  and  in  1869 
Opera  chapelmaster.  In  1872  he 
founded  and  directed  the  Grand 
Ducal  Orchester  -  Und  -  Musikschule. 
He  resigned  his  other  positions  in 
1889.  He  wrote  a  system  of  music 
theory,  of  which  Vol.  I  appeared  in 
1879;  organ  sonatas  and  church-music; 
and  part-songs  for  male  chorus. 

Miiller-Reuter  (mul-ler  roi-ter),  Theo- 
dor.    1858- 

Teacher,  conductor  and  composer; 
born  in  Dresden.  Studied  composi- 
tion under  Julius  Otto^nd  Ludwig 
Meinardus,  and  piano  under  Friedrich 


and  Alwin  Wieck  at  Dresden,  and 
attended  the  Hoch  Conservatory  at 
Frankfort  from  1878  to  1879.  He 
became  teacher  of  piano  and  theory 
at  Strasburg  Conservatory  in  1879 
and  retained  this  position  until  1887, 
when  he  went  to  Dresden  and  con- 
ducted the  male  chorus  Orpheus,  the 
following  year.  In  1889  he  conducted 
the  Dreysig  Singakademie,  and  in 
1892  he  began  to  teach  in  the  Con- 
servatory. He  has  written  the  opera, 
Ondolina  and  Der  tolle  Graf;  female 
choruses  with  piano  accompaniment; 
a  Paternoster  for  mixed  chorus  and 
orchestra;  male  chorus  with  and 
without  accompaniment;  studies, 
songs  and  piano-pieces. 

Muris  (du  mii'-res),  Johannes  de. 

A  disciple  of  Franco;  a  mathema- 
tician and  musical  theorist  of  the 
early  part  of  the  Fourteenth  Century 
of  whom  very  little  is  certainly  known. 
Neither  the  date  nor  the  place  of  his 
birth  has  been  found,  some  authorities 
claiming  him  as  English.  Although 
the  matter  of  his  birthplace  will  prob- 
ably never  be  settled,  we  are  tolerably 
certain  that  de  Muris  spent  much  of 
his  life  in  Paris,  for  he  mentions  hav- 
ing heard  there  a  triplum  composed 
by  Franco,  and  some  of  his  writings 
are  dated  from  the  Sorbonne,  among 
them  Musica  Speculativa  and  Canones 
de  eclipsi  lunse.  He  is  mentioned  as 
a  mathematician  and  musician  in 
manuscripts  of  that  time.  In  the 
British  Museum  is  a  copy  of  Musica 
Speculativa,  an  abridgment  of  Boe- 
tius  attributed  to  him,  which  was 
printed  in  Frankfort  in  1508.  The 
only  writing  which  may  certainly  be 
assigned  to  him  is  the  Speculum 
Musice,  which  is  to  be  found  in  two 
manuscripts  in  the  Bibliotheque  Na- 
tionale  at  Paris.  It  consists  of  seven 
books,  as  follows:  Miscellaneous;  On 
Intervals;  On  Musical  Oratorios;  On 
Consonance;  Theory  of  Ancient  Music 
after  Boetius;  Church  Modes  and 
Solmisation;  Measured  Music  and 
Discant.  The  influence  de  Muris  had 
upon  music  was  a  restraining  one;  he 
believed  in  formality  and  dignity  of 
composition  and  decried  the  ten- 
dencies of  various  innovations  in  his 
time  which  he  thought  threatened  the 
theory  and  structure  of  music. 
Murska  (moor'-shka),  lima  dL    1836- 


Operatic  soprano;  born  in  Croatia. 
She    studied   with    the    Marchesis   in 



Vienna,  and  made  her  debut  in  Flor- 
ence in  1862.  After  singing  at  Pesth, 
Berlin  and  Hamburg  she  obtained  a 
position  in  Vienna,  where  she  sang 
until  1865,  when  she  made  a  London 
debut  at  Her  Majesty's  Theatre  as 
Lucia,  and  sang  at  the  Philharmonic 
Society  concerts.  She  sang  at  Her 
Majesty's,  Drury  Lane  and  Covent 
Garden,  in  London,  and  in  Paris  and 
other  European  cities  until  1873, 
when,  under  M.  de  Vivo,  she  came  to 
America,  and  also  visited  Australia 
between  1873  and  1876,  returning  to 
London  in  1879.  She  was  married 
many  times;  one  of  her  husbands  was 
General  Eider,  by  whom  she  had  a 
daughter  upon  whom  she  lavished  all 
her  earnings.  She  was  very  eccentric 
and  always  had  many  pets  which 
always  traveled  with  her.  While  in 
Australia  in  1876  she  was  married  to 
Alfred  Anderson,  a  musician  of  the 
company,  and  five  months  after  his 
death  to  Mr.  John  T.  Hill.  Some 
years  after  her  tour  she  returned  to 
the  United  States  and  obtained  a  posi- 
tion as  teacher  in  New  York,  but  in 
this  line  of  work  she  was  not  success- 
ful, and  since  her  ability  to  sing  in 
concerts  had  left  her  she  became  very 
poor.  Musicians  of  New  York  sup- 
plied money  to  send  her  home.  She 
died  in  Munich.  Among  the  roles  she 
sang  were  Lucia,  Astrofiammente,  Isa- 
bella, Martha,  Dinorah,  Ophelia,  Gilda 
and  Marguerite  de  Valois.  She  had 
a  voice  of  three  octaves  range  and 
sang  easily  and  brilliantly. 

Musin  (mu-zan),  Ovide.    1854- 

VioHnist  and  teacher;  born  at 
Nandrin,  near  Liege,  Belgium.  When 
only  seven  years  old  he  entered  the 
Liege  Conservatory,  where  he  studied 
under  Heyneberg,  and  later  under 
Henri  Leonard,  and  at  the  age  ol 
eleven  took  the  first  prize  for  violin- 
playing.  When  Leonard  removed  to 
Paris  Conservatory,  Musin  followed 
him,  and  there  at  the  age  of  fourteen 
took  the  gold  medal  offered  for  solo 
and  quartet  playing  on  the  violin.  In 
1869  he  made  his  debut,  and  after 
touring  France,  visited  Holland  in 
1875.  He  made  a  prolonged  tour 
under  Jarreth,  and  under  Mapleson 
played  in  London  from  1877  to  1882. 
In  1888  he  played  Leopold  Damrosch's 
Concertstiicke  at  Princess  Hall,  Lon- 
don, under  the  conductorship  of  Wal- 
ter Damrosch.  He  made  a  tour  of  the 
world,    from    which    he    returned    to 

Liege  in  1897.  He  succeeded  Cesar 
Thomson  as  professor  of  advanced 
violin  class  at  the  Conservatory,  and 
now  resides  in  Brussels,  spending  six 
months  of  every  year  in  New  York, 
where  he  prepares  pupils  for  entrance 
into  Liege  Conservatory.  He  is  an 
exceedingly  successful  teacher. 

Musiol     (moo'-zi-6l),     Robert     Paul 
Johann.    1846- 

Composer  and  writer  on  musical 
subjects;  born  at  Breslau.  After 
studying  at  the  Seminary  at  Lieben- 
thal,  Silesia,  he  became  teacher  and 
cantor  at  Rohrsdorf,  near  Fraustadt, 
Posen,  in  1873,  and  was  pensioned  in 
1891.  _He  wrote  for  various  musical 
periodicals  and  published  Catechismus 
der  Musikgeschichte;  Musikalisches 
Frendworterbuch;  Wilhelm  Forster 
and  Theodor  Korner,  und  seine 
Beziehung  zur  Musik.  He  was  editor 
of  Tonger's  Conversations-Lexikon 
der  Tonkunst  and  Musikerlexikon,  and 
also  to  the  tenth  edition  of  Musika- 
lisches Conversations-Lexikon  by 
Schuberth.  As  a  composer  he  has 
written  songs,  male  part-songs  and 
pieces  for  piano  and  organ. 

Musard      (mii-sar),     Philippe.      1793- 

Composer  of  dance-music;  born  in 
Paris,  where  he  took  private  lessons 
under  Reicha.  For  some  time  a  vio- 
linist and  conductor;  he  came  promi- 
nently before  the  public  when 
Dufresne  introduced  cornet-a-pistons 
at  a  series  of  concerts  and  bals  mas- 
ques held  in  the  bazar  of  the  Rue  St. 
Honore,  on  which  occasion  Musard 
was  conductor  and  writer  of  some  of 
the  cornet  solos.  In  1835  and  1836  he 
conducted  the  masque  balls  of  the 
Opera.  In  1837  he  moved  to  the  new 
concert  hall  in  the  Rue  Vivienne,  in 
which  situation  he  had  to  compete 
with  the  great  Johann  Strauss  of 
Vienna.  During  this  time  he  con- 
ducted the  Concert  Spirituel  at  which 
only  the  music  of  Handel  was  played. 
In  1840  be  went  to  London  as  leader 
of  the  Promenade  concerts  at  Drury 
Lane,  and  in  1841  he  conducted 
another  series  of  Promenade  concerts 
at  the  Lyceum.  Until  1852  he  was 
considered  the  finest  conductor  and 
composer  of  dance-music  in  France. 
He  lived  near  Paris  until  his  death  in 
1859.  His  music  was  well  written  and 
often  contained  manj'  charming  and 
novel  effects.     He  was  known  as  the 



Quadrille  King,  and  was  also  famous 
as  a  writer  of  galop.  Among  his 
writings  are  Les  Cloches  Argentines; 
Les  fitudiants  de  Paris;  Les  Echos; 
Vive  la  Danse;  Les  Gondoliers  Veni- 
tiens;  over  a  hundred  and  fifty  quad- 
rilles, some  original,  some  on  themes 
from  operas;  many  waltzes;  three 
quartets  and  Xouvelle  methode  de 
composition  musicale,  which  he  dedi- 
cated to  the  noted  master  and  theor- 
ist, Anton  Reicha. 

Muzio  (moo'-tsi-6),  Emanuele.  1825- 
Singing-teacher  and  writer  of 
operas;  born  at  Zibello,  Parma.  He 
was  a  choir-boy  of  the  Cathedral  of 
Busseto,  studied  singing  under  Pro- 
vesi,  piano  of  Margherita  Barezzi,  and 
composition  with  Verdi,  of  whose 
operas  he  arranged  the  piano  scores. 
In  1852  he  conducted  the  Italian 
Opera  in  Brussels,  and  in  1858  he 
conducted  at  Her  Majesty's  in  Lon- 
don, and  later  in  New  York  at  the 
Academy  of  Music.  Later  he  con- 
ducted at  Venice,  Barcelona  and 
Cairo,  and  in  1876  at  the  Italian 
Theatre  in  Paris.  He  settled  in  Paris 
in  1875  and  began  to  teach  singing. 
Among  his  pupils  have  been  Adelina 
and  Carlotta  Patti  and  Clara  Louise 
Kellogg.  His  operas  are  Giovanni  la 
pazza;   Claudia;  Le  due  Regine;  and 


La^  Sorrentina.     Besides  these  he  has 
written  many  songs  and  piano-pieces. 

Mysliweczek     (me-sle'-va-chek),     Jo- 
seph.    1737-1781. 

Writer  of  operas;  called  by  Ital- 
ians, II  Boemo;  born  near  Prague. 
He  went  to  Prague,  where  he  studied 
music  under  the  organist,  Segert,  then 
went  to  Venice  to  study  under  Pes- 
cetti.  From  Venice  he  went  to  Parma, 
then  to  Naples,  where  his  opera, 
II  Bellerofonte,  performed  in  1764, 
brought  him  immediate  recognition. 
During  the  nine  years  that  followed 
he  produced  nine  other  operas  in 
Naples,  where  he  was  a  great  favorite, 
particularly  after  his  Olimpiade,  given 
in  1778.  In  1772  Mozart  met  him 
in  Bologna  and  in  1777  in  Munich,  and 
is  said  to  have  greatly  admired  his 
piano  sonatas.  Gabrielli,  the  famous 
singer,  considered  his  songs  especially 
suited  to  her  voice,  and  sang  them 
everj'where.  He  is  said  to  have  been 
attached  to  the  Court  at  Munich  from 
1777  to  1778  and  afterward  he  returned 
to  Italy,  where  he  died  in  Rome  in 
great  poverty,  owing  to  his  improvi- 
dent habits.  He  wrote  about  thirty- 
operas,  among  them  Demetrio,  Ezio 
et  Demofoonte,  Erifile;  Ipermnestra; 
and  Attaserse;  and  the  oratorio, 
Abramo  ed  Isacco. 


Nachbaur  (nakh'-bowr),  Franz.    1835- 


Born  at  Gressen  Castle,  near  Fried- 
richshafen,  Wiirtemberg.  While  a 
pupil  at  the  Polytechnic  School  of 
Stuttgart  he  attracted  the  attention 
of  Pischek  by  his  singing  in  the 
Gesang\'erein.  Acting  under  Pischek's 
advice,  he  devoted  himeslf  to  voice 
culture  and  became  a  famous  tenor, 
winning  great  renown  in  opera  until 
his  retirement  in  1890.  He  created 
the  part  of  Walther  in  Die  Meister- 
singer,  and  of  Froh  in  Das  Rheingold. 
He  appeared  as  Lohengrin  in  Ger- 
many, Italy  and  England.  Other 
favorite  roles  were  Raoul,  Prophet, 
and  Arnold.    He  died  in  Munich. 

Nachez  (na'-ches),  Tivadar.    1859- 

Violin  virtuoso  and  composer,  noted 
for  his  brilliant  playing  and  splendid 

tone.  Born  in  Budapest  ana  given 
his  first  instruction  by  Sabathiel,  who 
•was  leader  of  the  Hungarian  Opera. 
In  1874  he  won  a  scholarship,  and  for 
three  years  was  a  pupil  of  Joachim's 
in  Berlin,  and  then  finished  his  studies 
under  Leonard  in  Paris  in  1878.  After 
several  successful  tours  on  the  Con- 
tinent he  settled  iti  London  in  1889. 
His  compositions  include  concertos; 
two  Hungarian  rhapsodies;  four  Hun- 
garian dances;  two  romances;  a 
requiem  mass;  arrangements;  songs; 
orchestra  and  violin  pieces. 

Nadaud  (na-do),  Gustav.    1820-1893. 

Born  at  Roubaix,  France;  entered 
upon  a  business  career,  but  some 
songs  which  he  had  written  met  witn 
such  success  that  he  gave  his  time 
henceforth  to  writing  and  publishing 
both   words   and  music   of   chansons. 



Beside  fifteen  volumes  of  song-poems 
he  wrote  three  operettas,  Le  Doc- 
teur  Vieuxtemps;  La  Voliere;  and 
Porte  et  fentre.  Nadaud  died  in  Paris. 
In  1861  the  cross  of  the  Legion  of 
Honor  was  conferred  upon  him  and 
since  his  death  a  monument  has  been 
erected  to  him  in  Roubaix. 

Nadermann    (na'-der-man),    Frangois 

Joseph.    1773-1835. 

Harpist  and  composer;  son  of  a 
harp  manufacturer.  Born  in  Paris, 
where,  in  1816,  he  was  appointed  Court 
harpist,  and  nine  years  after  became 
professor  of  the  harp  at  the  Paris 
Conservatory.  In  1798  he  made  a 
concert  tour  in  Germany,  meeting 
with  great  success.  His  best  known 
compositions  were  for  the  harp,  includ- 
ing trios,  duos,  sonatas,  fastasias,  etc. 
Other  of  his  works  were  quartets  for 
harp,  violin,  piano  and  violoncello, 
trios  for  harp  and  various  instruments; 
and  duos  for  harp  and  violin  or  flute. 
When  his  father  died  he,  with  his 
brother  Henry,  succeeded  to  the  man- 
agement of  the  harp  factory. 

Nagel  (na'-gel),  Wilibald.     1863- 

Author  and  teacher;  born  at  Miil- 
heim-on-the-Ruhr;  the  son  of  Sieg- 
fried Nagel,  a  singer.  His  musical 
education  he  received  in  Berlin  under 
Erlich,  Treibs,  Spitta  and  Bellermann. 
He  became  a  teacher  of  musical  his- 
tory at  Zurich,  and  since  1898  has 
taught_  the  science  of  music  in  the 
Technical  High  School  of  Darmstadt, 
and  has  been  conductor  of  the  Aca- 
demical Gesangverein.  Two  of  Nagel's 
most  important  works  are  Geschichte 
der  Musik  in  England,  and  Annalen 
der  Engleschen  Hofmusik,  which  he 
wrote  after  many  researches  and  long 
study  of  English  national  music.  A 
life  of  Brahms  and  a  study  of  Bee- 
thoven's sonatas  are  other  of  his  pub- 
lished works. 

Nageli     (na'-gel-e),     Johann     Georg. 

Composer,  publisher  and  writer; 
best  known  for  his  editions  of  classi- 
cal works  of  Handel  and  Bach,  and  of 
Beethoven's  three  grand  solo  sonatas. 
He  will  always  be  remembered  for 
his  audacity  in  interpolating  four  bars 
into  the  first  movement  of  one  of 
Beethoven's  sonatas.  Nageli  was  born 
near_  Zurich.  In  1792,  established  the 
publishing  business  in  Zurich  and 
issued  the  editions  mentioned.  In 
}803     he     published     the     periodical, 


Repertoire  des  Clavecinistes,  in  which 
new  works  of  Clementi,  Beethoven, 
Cramer  and  others  appeared.  He 
was  the  founder  and  president  of  the 
Swiss  Association  for  the  Culture  of 
Music,  and  for  many  years  was  a 
teacher  of  singing.  Nageli  was  a 
believer  and  follower  of  the  Pesta- 
lozzian  method  of  instruction.  In 
1824  he  traveled  through  Germany, 
lecturing  on  musical  subjects.  His 
compositions  are  mostly  vocal  cho- 
ruses and  songs.  His  Lied  vom 
Rhein,  and  Life  let  us  Cherish  are 
among  the  best.     He  died  at  Zurich. 

Nagiller  (na'-gil-ler),  Matthaus.    1815- 

Born  at  Miinster,  Tyrol;  received 
his  first  musical  instruction  at  Schwaz, 
from  the  Choirmaster  Pichler,  and 
continued  his  studies  under  Martin 
Goller  at  Innsbruck  and  then  at  the 
Vienna  Conservatory  under  Preyer. 
In  1842  he  went  to  Paris.  In  1846 
he  introduced  some  of  his  own  com- 
positions in  Cologne,  Munich  and 
Berlin.  In  1865  he  went  to  Botzen 
as  director  of  music  of  that  city,  and 
the  next  year  to  Innsbruck,  where 
he  became  conductor  of  the  Musik- 
verein.  His  works  include  masses; 
oflfertories;  choruses;  and  songs.  Na- 
giller died  at  Innsbruck. 

Nanini  (na-ne'-ne),  Giovanni  Bernan- 

Neither  the  date  of  birth  nor  death 
of  Bernandino  Nanini  is  positively 
known.  He  was  the  younger  brother 
of  Giovanni  Maria  Nanini  and  it  is 
supposed  his  death  took  place  between 
the  years  1612  and  1618.  He  was  born 
in  Vallerano  and  was  a  pupil  of  his 
brother.  He  was  chapelmaster  at  St. 
Luigi  de  Francesi  and  then  at 
St.  Lorenzo  in  Damaso  and  assistant 
teacher  in  his  brother's  school  of 
music  in  Rome.  He  was  one  of  the 
first  composers  to  put  an  organ 
accompaniment  to  church-music.  His 
works  include  a  volume  of  madrigals; 
several  psalms;  motets;  and  a  Salve 
Regina.  They  have  been  preserved 
in  collections,  one  of  which  is  the 
Satini  collection  in  the  Palace  at 

Nanini,  Giovanni  Maria.    1547-1607. 

Composer  and  teacher.  Authorities 
differ  as  to  the  date  of  Nanini's  birth, 
some  placing  him  as  a  contemporary 
of  Palestrina  and  giving  the  date  1540, 
but  more  recent  research  leads  to  the 



belief  that  it  took  place  some  time 
between  1545  and  1550.  He  was  a 
native  of  Tivoli;  a  student  at  Rome, 
where  he  afterwards  held  positions  as 
a  tenor  singer  in  the  Papal  Chapel 
and  as  maestro  at  St.  Maria  Maggiore. 
He  was  the  founder  of  a  public  music 
school  in  Rome.  This  school  was  a 
great  success,  and  among  his  pupils 
were  Felice,  and  Giovanni  Anerio  and 
Gregorio  Allegri,  both  composers  of 
note.  Nanini  was  one  of  the  greatest 
composers  of  the  Roman  school,  and 
his  Hodie  nobis  ccelorum  Rex,  a 
motet  for  six  voices,  is  still  sung 
every  Christmas  by  the  choir  of  the 
Papal  Chapel.  Many  of  his  works  are 
still  preserved  in  manuscript  in  vari- 
ous collections  in  Rome.  Among  his 
published  works  are  a  volume  of  Mot- 
teti;  a  number  of  madrigals  and  other 
pieces  included  in  'collections  pub- 
lished in  Italy  and  Antwerp.  Nanini 
died  in  1607  and  was  buried  in  the 
Church  of  St.  Luigi  de'Francesi. 

Napoleon,  Arthur.     1843- 

Pianist,  conductor  and  composer; 
born  in  Oporto,  Portugal.  His  father 
was  an  Italian  musicmaster  and  his 
mother  a  native  of  Portugal.  His  father 
very  early  began  to  instruct  him  on  the 
piano,  and  when  he  was  six  years 
old  he  appeared  in  public  as  a  pianist 
at  the  Philharmonic  of  Oporto.  He 
played  in  Paris,  London  and  Berlin, 
and  twice  before  royalty.  In  Man- 
chester, at  the  age  of  eleven  years,  he 
began  his  studies  with  Halle.  In  1856 
he  again  took  up  his  concert  tours 
through  Germany  and  Poland,  and  in 
England  with  Sivori  and  Piatti,  and 
finally  to  Brazil,  through  South  Amer- 
ica and  back  to  Portugal.  In  1862 
appeared  again  in  London.  In  1865  he 
opened  the  fete  at  the  Exhibition  at 
Oporto  and  the  year  following  made 
his  last  tour,  a  most  successful  one, 
during  which  he  played  before  Queen 
Isabella.  Napoleon  has  been  success- 
ful also  as  a  composer;  among  his 
works  are  piano  and  orchestra  compo- 
sitions. In  1868  he  gave  up  his  musi- 
cal career  as  a  concert  pianist,  and  has 
established  a  successful  music  and 
piano  business  at  Rio  Janeiro,  though 
he  has  upon  several  occasions  con- 
ducted musical  festivals. 

Napravnik      (na-praf'-nek),      Eduard. 


Composer  and  distinguished  con- 
ductor; born  at  Beisht,  Bohemia,  but 

generally  classed  with  Russian  musi- 
cians. He  received  the  foundation  for 
his  musical  studies  from  Pugonny  and 
in  1852  played  for  the  village  church. 
When  he  was  fifteen  years  old  his 
father  died  and  he  had  to  support 
himself  and  finish  his  musical  educa- 
tion without  further  instruction.  He 
had  had  one  year  at  the  Prague  Organ 
School.  From  1856  to  1861  he  was 
a  teacher  at  Maj'dl  Music  Institute 
of  Prague  and  studied  organ  under 
Kitel.  He  next  went  to  St.  Peters- 
burg, where  he  became  private  chap- 
elmaster  to  Prince  Yussupow.  In 
1863  he  was  appointed  assistant,  then 
second  conductor  at  the  Imperial  Rus- 
sian Theatre,  and  in  1869  succeeded 
Liadov  as  chief  master.  Nepravnik 
continued  the  work  Liadov  had  begun, 
that  of  producing  purely  Russian  com- 
positions at  the  Royal  Theatre.  He 
has  succeeded  so  well  as  an  organizer, 
diplomatic  manager  and  accomplished 
director  that  he  has  placed  the  Impe- 
rial Russian  Opera  among  the  finest 
in  the  world.  While  best  known  as 
a  conductor,  his  compositions  are  of 
value  and  have  been  well  received. 
They  include  several  operas.  The 
Inhabitants  of  Nishnij  Novgorod, 
Harold,  Dubroffsky,  and  Francesca  da 
Rimini;  a  symphonic  poem.  The 
Demon;  Bohemian  and  Russian  Songs; 
a  Russian  Fantasia  for  piano;  three 
symphonies;  an  overture,  Vlasta;  and 

Nardini    (nar-de'-ne),    Pietro.      1722- 

Born  at  Fibiana,  in  Tuscany;  he 
received  his  early  education  in  violin- 
playing  in  Leghorn.  Later  became  the 
pupil  of  the  great  violinist,  Tartini, 
at  Padua.  From  1753  to  1767  he  was 
solo  violinist  at  the  Court  at  Stutt- 
gart. During  this  engagement  he 
made  several  concert  tours,  visiting 
Berlin.  He  then  returned  to  Italy, 
for  a  short  time  resided  in  Leghorn, 
and  from  there  he  went  to  Padua  to 
care  for  his  old  master, Tartini,  remain- 
ing with  him  until  his  death,  in  1770. 
After  the  death  of  Tartini  he  accepted 
the  position  of  director  of  music 
at  the  Court  of  the  Grand  Duke 
Leopold  II..  of  Tuscany,  and  held  this 
post  until  his  death,  in  1793.  Leopold 
Mozart  and  Schubart  both  wrote  in 
highest  terms  of  Nardini's  playing. 
From  Tartini  he  learned  great  tender- 
ness of  expression  rather  than  tech- 
nical skill.     His  power  of  moving  his 



audience  was  remarkable.  His  com- 
positions show  him  to  have  been  a 
thorough  musician  and  are  marked  by 
grace  and  sweet  sentimentality,  though 
they  lack  the  depth  of  feeling  and 
imity  of  his  master.  To  Nardini  is 
given  credit  for  the  development  of 
the  sonata  in  its  present  form.  His 
compositions  include  six  violin  con- 
certos; six  sonatas  for  violin  and  bass; 
six  flute  trios;  six  violin  solos;  six 
string  quartets;  six  violin  duets.  A 
number  of  his  sonatas  have  been  edi- 
ted by  Alard  and  F.  David. 

Nates  (narz),  James.    1715-1783. 

English  organist  and  composer; 
born  in  Stanwell,  Middlesex,  in  1715. 
Pupil  of  Gates,  Dr.  Pepusch  and  Dr. 
Croft,  and  succeeded  Gates  as  chor- 
ister at  the  Chapel  Royal.  He  was 
assistant  organist  of  St.  George's 
Chapel,  Windsor,  then  succeeded  Sal- 
isbury at  York  Minster,  and  in  1756 
became  organist  and  composer  at 
Chapel  Royal;  the  same  year  he 
received  his  degree  of  Doctor  of 
Music  from  Cambridge.  In  1757  he 
received  the  appointment  of  master 
of  the  children  of  the  Chapel  Royal. 
Nares  died  in  1783  in  London  and 
was  buried  in  St.  Margaret's,  West- 
minster. A  number  of  his  works  were 
of  an  instructive  nature,  Harpsichord 
Lessons,  a  treatise  on  singing,  etc. 
Other  compositions  were  for  organ; 
a  dramatic  ode,  The  Royal  Pastoral; 
some  catches  and  glees.  His  service 
in  F  and  several  of  his  anthems  are 
still  used  in  many  cathedrals. 

Nathan,  Isaac.     1791-1864. 

Born  of  Jewish  parentage  at  Can- 
terbury, England,  and  educated  at 
Cambridge  for  the  priesthood.  Be- 
came the  pupil  of  Domenico  Corri, 
an  Italian  teacher  in  singing;  devel- 
oped a  fine  musical  taste,  and  decided 
to  follow  the  life  of  a  musician.  In 
1812  he  met  Byron;  became  very  inti- 
mate with  the  poet,  and  from  1815  to 
1822  produced  the  songs  he  had  com- 
posed to  Lord  Byron's  poems,  which  he 
called  Hebrew  Alelodies.  Nathan  was 
a  much  esteemed  singing  master  in 
London,  and  appeared  there  at  Covent 
Garden  in  the  opera,  Guy  Mannering. 
He  early  composed  a  number  of  songs, 
among  them  Infant  Love,  and  The 
Sorrows  of  Absence;  and  wrote  part 
of  the  music  for  the  comedy,  Sweet- 
hearts and  Wives;  a  comic  opera, 
Alcaid;    the    Illustrious    Stranger,    an 


operatic  farce;  and  Merry  Freaks  in 
Troublous  Times,  produced  in  Sidney, 
Australia,  where  he  went  in  1841.  He 
has  also  published  an  essay  on  the 
History  and  Theory  of  Music,  and  on 
the  Capabilities  and  Management  of 
the  Human  Voice,  and  the  Life  of 
Madame  Malibran  de  Beriot.  Nathan's 
death  in  Sidney  was  the  result  of  an 

Nau    (na'-oo),   Maria   Dolores  Bene- 
dicta  Josefine.    1818- 

Noted  soprano  singer,  of  Spanish 
parentage;  born  in  New  York  City. 
She  was  a  pupil  at  the  Paris  Con- 
servatory, where  she  developed  a  fine 
soprano  voice,  and  in  a  competition 
among  pupils,  in  1834,  won  the  first 
prize.  Two  years  later  she  made  a 
successful  debut  at  the  Paris  Opera 
as  Page  in  the  Huguenots.  She  sang 
minor  roles  at  the  Opera  until  1842, 
and  then  went  to  Brussels  and  Lon- 
don, where  she  was  very  popular,  and 
returned  for  a  four  years'  engagement 
at  the  Opera  in  Paris.  In  1848  she 
went  to  London,  then  to  the  United 
States,  winning  great  renown;  back  to 
London  at  the  Princess  Theatre,  and 
was  in  Paris  from  1851  to  1853.  In 
1854  she  came  again  to  the  United 
States,  where  she  was  most  enthusi- 
astically welcomed.  _  In  1854  Mile. 
Nau  returned  to  Paris,  and  two  years 
later  retired  from  the  stage. 

Naudin    (na'-oo-den),    Emilio.      1823- 

Opera-singer;  born  at  Parma;  pupil 
of  Panizza  of  Milan.  First  appeared 
at  Cremona,  then  in  theatres  of  Italy, 
Vienna  and  St.  Petersburg.  He  sang 
at  various  times  at  Drury  Lane,  Lon- 
don; in  several  cities  of  Spain,  and  for 
ten  years  in  the  Theatre  Italien  of 
Paris.  Among  his  many  operatic  roles 
were  Don  Ottavio,  Fra  Diavolo,Raoul, 
Carlo,  Don  Carlos,  Henrique,  and 
Eleazar.     He  died  in  Boulogne. 

Naumann    (now-man),    Emil.      1827- 

Distinguished  as  an  author  of  books 
on  musical  subjects  and  as  a  com- 
poser. Born  in  Berlin  in  1827,  the 
grandson  of  Johann  Gottlieb  Naumann. 
He  received  his  first  instruction  at 
Bonn,  from  Johanna  Matthieu  and 
Franz  Anton  Ries.  He  then  went  to 
Frankfort  and  became  the  pupil  of 
Schnyder  von  Wartensee  and  of 
Moser.  At  the  Leipsic  Conservatory 
he    studied    under    Mendelssohn    and 



Hauptmann.  In  1856,  as  a  result  of 
his  first  attempt  at  musical  literature, 
a  study  of  church-music,  he  received 
the  appointment  in  Berlin  of  Court 
director  of  sacred  music.  Three  years 
later  he  was  made  Royal  professor. 
He  settled  in  Dresden  in  1873,  founded 
there  a  singing  society,  lectured  at 
the  Conservatory  on  music  history 
and  carried  on  his  work  as  author  and 
composer.  In  1880  he  succeeded  W. 
Rust  as  organist  at  St.  Thomas',  Leip- 
sic.  He  died  in  Dresden  in  1888. 
Among  his  books  is  his  well-known 
History  of  Music,  translated  into  Eng- 
lish by  F.  Praeger.  This  is  an  exhaus- 
tive and  valuable  work.  Other  notable 
works  were  his  Die  moderne  musika- 
lische  Zopf,  and  Die  Tonkunst  in  der 
Culturgeschichte.  Dr.  Naumann  was 
the  composer  of  a  solemn  mass, 
psalrns,  other  church-music;  sym- 
phonies; piano  music;  and  songs. 

Naumann,  Johann  Gottlieb.  1741-1801. 
Dramatic  composer,  teacher  and 
musician  to  royalty.  Born  at  Blase- 
witz,  near  Dresden,  the  son  of  a 
peasant;  educated  at  the  Kreuzschule 
of  Dresden,  and  expected  to  become 
a  schoolmaster.  His  knowledge  of 
music  he  gained  by  his  own  efforts, 
until  Weestroem,  a  Swedish  musician, 
discovered  his  musical  ability  and 
took  him  on  a  tour  to  Hamburg,  then 
to  Padua.  Weestroem's  object  in  tak- 
ing young  Naumann  was  evidently  a 
selfish  one,  for,  while  he  was  studying 
in  Padua  with  the  great  teacher,  Tar- 
tini,  he  gave  his  boy  companion  none 
of  the  benefit  of  that  instruction,  and 
in  fact  treated  him  so  badly  that  Nau- 
mann left  him.  Tartini  then  gave 
Naumann  lessons,  and  another  musi- 
cian aided  him  financially,  so  he  could 
continue  his  musical  studies.  In  1761 
he  studied  dramatic  music  in  Naples. 
In  Venice  he  produced  his  first  opera, 
San  Samuele,  and  then  returned  to 
Dresden,  where,  in  1763,  he  received 
the  appointment  of  Court  composer  of 
sacred  music  to  the  Elector  of  Saxony. 
He  again  went  to  Italy,  where  he  com- 
posed several  dramatic  works,  some 
of  which  were  produced  in  Italy, 
others  in  his  own  country.  In  1774 
he  received  an  invitation  to  Berlin 
from  Frederick  the  Great,  which  he 
refused,  and  as  a  reward  received  the 
title  of  chapelmaster.  Ten  years 
later  was  made  chief  musicmaster, 
because  he  refused  a  flattering 
ofiFer  at  Cooenhagen.   Naumann  wrote 


equally  well  for  church  and  stage. 
His  Amphion  Protisilao,  Solimano  La 
Drama  Soldata,  stage  productions, 
very  popular  in  their  day;  Cora,  an 
opera  written  by  him  in  1782,  was 
recently  performed  at  Stockholm.  His 
mass  in  A  flat  major  and  one  in  A 
minor,  and  his  grand  mass.  Our 
Father,  are  still  used  in  the  Dresden 
Catholic  Court  Church. 

Naumann,   Karl   Ernst.     1832- 

Grandson  of  Johann  Gottlieb  Nau- 
mann, the  composer,  and  son  of  Karl 
Friedrich  Naumann,  a  mineralogist; 
born  in  Freiburg,  Saxony.  He  studied 
with  Hauptmann,  Richter,  Wenzel 
and  Langer  at  Leipsic  and  johann 
Schneider  at  Dresden.  In  1860  he 
became  musical  director  of  the  Jena 
University  and  city  organist  and  con- 
ductor of  the  Academy  concerts.  In 
1877  he  was  made  professor.  He  pub- 
lished^  an  excellent  treatise  on  music 
at  Leipsic  in  1858.  His  compositions 
include  a  sonata  for  viola;  a  quartet 
for  strings;  a  trio  for  piano,  violin  and 
viola;  and  a  serenade  for  various 
instruments.  His  chamber-music  has 
been  most  successful,  in  it,  and  in  his 
sonata  and  serenade,  he  shows  his  per- 
fect mastery  of  art  forms  and  genuine 
artistic  talent. 

Navratil  (na-vra'-tel),  Carl.     1867- 

Born  at  Prague.  Is  the  composer 
of  many  valuable  works,  among  them 
two  operas,  Hermann,  and  Salammbo; 
a  symphony  in  G  minor;  several  sym- 
phonic poems,  John  Hus,  Ziska,  Zalov, 
Neklan,  and  Der  Weisse  Berg;  con- 
certos for  violin  and  piano  with 
orchestra;  trios  for  piano  and  strings; 
quartets  for  piano  and  strings;  a 
sonata  for  violin  and  piano;  a  string 
quartet  in  D  minor;  and  many  songs. 
Navratil's  instructor  in  theory  was 
Guido  Adler,  and  Ondricek  was  his 
violin  teacher.  He  is  the  author  of 
a  biography  of  Smetana,  the  Bohe- 
mian composer  and  violinist. 

Naylor,  John.    1838-1897. 

English  organist  and  composer; 
born  at  Stanningley,  near  Leeds,  in 
1838.  He  was  a  pupil  of  R.  S.  Bur- 
ton; graduated  from  Oxford  in  1863 
as  Bachelor  of  Alusic,  and  in  1872 
took  the  degree  of  Doctor  of  Music. 
He  was  a  boy  chorister  in  Leeds,  in 
1856,  organist  at  Scarborough  parish 
church  in  1873,  organist  of  All  Saints' 
Church  of  Scarborough,  and  in  1883 




he  went  to  York  Minster  as  organist 
and  choirmaster,  and  was  conductor 
of  the  York  Musical  Society  for  many 
years.  His  works  include  anthems, 
services;  and  cantatas  with  organ 
accompaniment,  which  were  given  in 
York  Minster  by  a  large  chorus  with 
great  success.  They  are  Jeremiah; 
The  Brazen  Serpent;  Meribah  and 
Manna.  He  died  in  1897  while  on  a 
voyage  to  Australia. 

Neate  (net),  Charles.    1784-1877. 

EngHsh  pianist  and  composer.  A 
member  of  the  Royal  Society  of 
Musicians,  1806;  one  of  the  original 
members  of  the  Philharmonic  Society 
in  1813,  at  whose  concerts  he  was 
often  a  performer  and  occasionally 
conductor,  and  was  first  to  introduce 
to  England  Beethoven's  piano  con- 
certos in  C  minor  and  E  flat,  Weber's 
Concertstiick,  and  Rummel's  concerto 
in  E  and  septour  in  D  minor.  Born  in 
London  and  received  his  early  instruc- 
tion on  the  piano  and  violoncello  from 
William  Sharp  and  John  Field.  He 
later  studied  composition  under  Woelfl. 
In  1815  he  visited  Vienna,  met  Bee- 
thoven and  profited  by  his  advice,  and 
then  went  to  Munich  for  study  under 
Winter.  Neate  was  esteemed  as  a 
pianist  and  teacher  in  England,  though 
his  compositions  never  met  with  any 
great  success,  as  they  lacked  fancy 
and  originality.  They  include  sonatas, 
fantasias,  trios,  etc.  He  published  an 
essay  on  Fingermg  and  General 
Observations  on  Piano  Playing  in  1855. 
Neate  retired  from  his  profession  sev- 
eral years  before  his  death,  which  took 
place  at  Brighton. 

Nedbal  (ned'-bal),  Oskar.     1874- 

Born  at  Tabor;  a  pupil  of  Dvorak  at 
the  Prague  Conservatory.  Nedbal  is 
perhaps  best  known  as  viola  player 
of  the  famous  Bohemian  Quartet, 
from  its  organization  in  1891  until 
1906,  when  he  withdrew,  at  the  same 
time  resigning  the  position  of  con- 
ductor of  the  Philharmonic  Society  of 
Prague.  His  playing  is  of  rare  excel- 
lence and  his  compositions  have  been 
successful.  They  include  a  scherzo- 
caprice  for  orchestra;  sonata  for  piano 
and  violin;  and  other  small  pieces. 

Neeb  (nap),  Heinrich.    1807-1878. 

Born  at  Lich,  Hesse,  in  1807.  He 
was  a  dramatic  composer,  teacher  and 
conductor  of  singing  societies  at 
Frankfort,  among  them  Germania, 
Neeb's    Quartet,   Neeb's   Mannerchor, 


and  Teutonia,  which  is  still  in  exist- 
ence. His  compositions  comprise  three 
operas;  several  popular  ballads;  a  can- 
tata;  songs;  and  string  quartets. 

Neefe      (na'-fe).      Christian    Gottlob. 


Born  at  Chemnitz,  Saxony;  edu- 
cated to  be  a  lawyer,  but  .gave  up  the 
study  of  law  and  devoted  himself  to 
music.  He  was  one  of  Beethoven's 
teachers.  He  studied  with  J.  A.  Hil- 
ler,  and  in  1777  succeeded  Hiller  as 
conductor  of  the  Seyler  Society,  a 
traveling  orchestra.  Later  he  was 
conductor  of  the  Grossman-Hellmuth 
Society  of  Bonn,  director  of  sacred 
and  secular  music  at  the  court,  and 
then  accompanist  and  stage  director 
of  the  Court  Theatre.  War  inter- 
rupted his  career  and  he  was  obliged 
to  turn  to  something  other  than  music 
for  support.  He  died  in  Dessau,  in 
1798,  where  he  had  finally  obtained 
the  position  of  conductor  of  a  theatre. 
Neefe  wrote  eight  works  for  the 
stage,  vaudevilles  and  operas;  an  ode; 
a  Paternoster;  a  double  concerto  for 
piano,  violin  and  orchestra;  piano 
sonatas;  variations;  fantasias;  songs 
and  children's  songs;  and  arranged 
and  adapted  many  operas.  He  also 
contributed  to  musical  periodicals  of 
the  time  and  left  his  autobiography. 

Neidlinger  (nlt'-ling-er),  William  Har- 
old.   1863- 

American  composer;  born  in  Brook- 
lyn. He  studied  under  Dudley  Buck 
and  Miiller.  He  spent  some  time  in 
Paris  teaching,  after  which  he  taught 
in  Chicago.  His  great  work  is  as  a 
composer  and  he  has  built  up  song- 
form  both  in  its  instrumental  and  vocal 
application.  His  works  include  a 
mass  and  other  church-music;  mixed 
and  male  choruses;  many  delightful 
songs  which  are  very  popular;  and 
many  valuable  books  of  music  for 

Neithardt    (nlt'-hart),    August    Hein- 
rich.    1793-1861. 

Choirmaster,  bandmaster  and  com- 
poser. Born  at  Schleiz  in  1793;  was 
a  pupil  of  Brunow  and  Ebhardt.  After 
serving  as  a  volunteer  in  the  wars  of 
1813-1815  he  was  made  bandmaster  of 
the  Garde-Schiitzen  Battalion  and  held 
this  position  until  1822,  composing 
and  arranging  a  great  number  of 
military  pieces  for  this  band;  he  then 
became  leader  of  the  band  of  the 
Kaiser  Franz  Grenadiers.     In  1843  he 




was  commissioned  to  construct  a  reg- 
ular choir  for  the  Berlin  Cathedral, 
and  in  1845  was  made  director.  This 
became  the  famous  Domchor,  for 
which  Mendelssohn  composed  many 
psalms  and  motets.  After  Neithardt 
visited  St.  Petersburg  and  Rome  for 
study  he  raised  his  choir  to  such  a 
degree  of  excellence  that  it  created 
much  wonder  when  he  appeared  with 
it  in  London  in  1850.  His  composi- 
tions, aside  from  marches  and  other 
military  music,  are  Julietta,  an  opera; 
sonatas,  variations,  and  waltzes  for 
piano;  duets,  trios,  and  quartets  for 
horn;  quartets  for  men's  voices;  and 
many  songs. 

Neitzel  (nit-tsel),  Otto.    1852- 

Pianist,  musical  critic  and  teacher. 
Born  at  Falkenburg,  Pomerania,  in 
1852.  He  attended  the  Joachim  Gym- 
nasium, became  a  student  at  KuUak's 
Academy,  Berlin,  and  later  at  the 
University,  where,  in  1875,  he  was 
given  the  degree  of  Doctor  of  Phi- 
losophy. He  has  made  a  concert  tour 
as  pianist  with  Pauline  Lucca  and 
Sarasate;  has  been  conductor  of  a  mu- 
sical society  and  of  the  City  Theatre 
of  Strasburg;  a  teacher  in  the  Moscow 
Conservatory  and  later  in  the  Cologne 
Conservatory,  and  critic  of  the  K61- 
nische  Zeitung.  Neitzel  has  written 
three  fairly  successful  operas,  Angela; 
Der  alte  Dessauer;  and  Dido,  for 
which  he  wrote  both  text  and  music. 

Neruda  (na-roo'-da),  Franz.    1843- 

Member  of  the  distinguished  Ne- 
ruda family;  born  at  Briinn  in  1843. 
He  became  a  violoncellist  and  com- 
poser. Neruda  has  held  several 
important  positions,  such  as  member 
of  the  Royal  Orchestra  at  Copen- 
hagen, director  of  a  musical  society 
there  and  another  in  Stockholm.  His 
work  as  a  composer  is  deservedly 
popular,  and  includes  a  concerto  for 
violoncello;  string  quartet;  chamber 
and  orchestral  music. 

Neruda,  Wilma  Maria  Francisa.  1839- 

Violinist;  daughter  of  Josef  Neruda, 
the  organist,  and  member  of  the  dis- 
tinguished Neruda  family;  born  at 
Briinn  in  1839.  She  very  early  began 
to  play  the  violin,  and  was  a  pupil  of 
her  father  and  then  of  Jansa.  At  the 
age  of  seven  years  she  appeared  in 
public  in  Vienna  with  her  sister  Ama- 
lie,  a  pianist,  and  three  years  later 
played  at  the  Princess  Theatre  and  at 
a   Philharmonic    concert   in    London. 


After  several  year's  travel  she  played 
at  the  Pasdeloup  concerts  in  Paris, 
and  during  that  year,  1864,  she  was 
married  to  Ludwig  Normann,  a  Swe- 
dish musician.  In  1869  she  was  made 
a  professor  of  the  violin  at  the  Royal 
Music  Academy  of  Stockholm.  She 
again  went  to  London,  and  for  many 
years  played  every  winter  and  spring 
season  at  the  Popular,  Philharmonic 
and  Manchester  concerts  and  at 
Halle's  recitals.  After  the  death  of 
Ludwig  Normann  she  married  Sir 
Charles  Halle  in  1888;  with  him  made 
a  grand  tour  of  Australia,  and  was 
associated  with  him  on  the  concert 
stage  until  his  death  in  1895.  Her 
many  admirers,  among  them  the  then 
Prince  of  _  Wales,  now  King  of 
England,  King  of  Sweden,  King  of 
Denmark,  eminent  musicians  and 
statesmen,  presented  her  a  testi- 
monial, the  title  deeds  of  a  palazzo 
at  Asolo,  near  Venice.  Queen  Alex- 
andria has  conferred  on  her  the 
title  of  Violinist  to  the  Queen. 
Since  1898  she  has  resided  in  Ber- 
lin, but  has  made  many  tours 
through  Europe,  annual  appearances 
in  London,  and  in  1899  toured  Amer- 
ica. Lady  Halle  is  equally  great  as  a 
soloist  or  quartet  player,  and  has 
always  been  greeted  with  the  greatest 
enthusiasm  wherever  she  has  ap- 
peared. By  some  critics  she  has  been 
considered  the  equal  of  Joachim. 

Nessler  (nes'-ler),  Victor  Ernst.   1841- 

Dramatic  composer;  born  at  Bal- 
denheim,  Alsace.  Nessler  studied  the- 
ology at  Strasburg,  but  soon  gave 
up  all  thought  of  the  church  when  his 
opera,  Fleurette,  met  with  success. 
He  had  had  some  musical  training 
under  Theophil  Stern  and  now  con- 
tinued his  musical  studies  at  Leipsic, 
where  he  became  chorusmaster  at  the 
Stadttheater  and  director  of  a  vocal 
society.  Nessler  met  with  success  as 
a  conductor,  and  his  compositions 
were  melodious  and  showed  knowl- 
edge of  stage  technique,  but  lacked 
depth  and  originality,  though  they 
appealed  strongly  to  the  popular  taste. 
Some  of  his  operas  were  Die  Hoch- 
zeitsreise  Dornroschen's  Brautfahrt; 
Nacht-Wachte  und  Student;  Am  Alex- 
andertag;  Der  Rattenfanger  von  Ham- 
elin;  Der  Trompeter  von  Sakkingen. 
The  last  two  were  immensely  popular 
in  Germany,  but  when  Der  Ratten- 
fanger von  Hamelin  was  produced  in 




English  in  London  it  proved  a  com- 
plete failure.  Nessler  also  composed 
songs,  ballads,  and  choruses,  which 
have  become  widely  known.  He  died 
in  Strasburg. 

*  Nesvera  (nesh-va'-ra),  Joseph.  1842- 
Composer;  born  in  Proskoles,  Bo- 
hemia. He  was  educated  to  be  a 
schoolmaster,  but,  finding  his  talent 
for  music,  gave  himself  up  to  the  study 
of  that  art,  and  soon  became  choir- 
master in  a  church  of  Prague.  He 
held  the  position  of  director  of  music 
in  the  Episcopal  Church  at  Konig- 
gratz  in  1878,  and  later  became  chap- 
elmaster  of  Olmiitz  Cathedral.  He 
has  written  a  number  of  masses  and 
other  sacred  orchestral  works,  which 
have  been  well  received.  Among  his 
three  operas,  Perdita,  Waldelust,  and 
Der  Bergmonch,  Perdita  won  for  him 
the  greatest  triumph  when  produced 
at  Prague  in  1897.  He  has  also  com- 
posed piano  and  violin  music;  a  sym- 
phony in  G  minor;  a  string  septet; 
and  a  violin  concerto. 

Netzer   (net-tser),  Josef.     1808-1864. 

Dramatic  composer,  teacher  and 
conductor.  Netzer  was  born  in  Tyrol, 
was  a  pupil  of  Goller  at  Innsbruck, 
and  then  of  Gansbacher  and  Sechter 
in  Vienna,  where  he  became  a  popu- 
lar teacher  of  piano.  Among  his 
successful  operas  are  Mara;  Die  Bel- 
angerung  von  Gothenburg;  and  Die 
selteue  Hochzeit.  He  also  wrote  a 
number  of  overtures,  symphonies,  and 
string  quartets,  and  many  songs.  Net- 
zer was  conductor  of  the  Euterpe 
concerts  in  1844  and  1845,  was  assist- 
ant director  of  music  at  the  Stadtthea- 
ter  at  Leipsic  and  director  at  the 
Theatre  an  der  Wien,  in  Vienna. 

Neubauer     (na'-oo-bow-er),     Franz 

Christian.    1760-1795. 

Violinist  and  composer;  born  at 
Horzin,  Bohemia,  in  1760.  He  was 
the  violin  pupil  of  a  village  school- 
master. While  still  a  youth  he  went 
to  Prague,  and  then  to  Vienna,  where 
he  produced  the  operetta,  Ferdinand 
and  Yariko,  and  met  eminent  musi- 
cians, among  them  Mozart  and  Haydn. 
He  gave  concerts  in  many  cities  of 
Germany;  in  1789  he  became  chapel- 
master  to  Prince  Weilburg,  and  re- 
mained until  the  disbanding  of  the 
orchestra,  then  went  to  Minden,  and 
later  was  made  Court  composer  and 
director  at  Biickeburg.  His  pub- 
lished compositions   comprise   twelve 


symphonies,  ten  string  quartets;  con- 
certos for  piano,  for  flute  and  for 
cello;  cantatas;  sonatas;  songs,  and 
the  operetta  before  mentioned.  Neu- 
bauer led  a  wandering,  irregular  life, 
ruining  his  health  so  that  he  died  at 
Biickeburg  when  thirty-five  years  old. 

Neuendorff  (noi'-en-dorf),  Adolf.  1843- 
Born    in    Hamburg,     but     received 

most  of  his  education  and  lived  nearly 
all  his  life  in  America,  as  he  came 
with  his  father  to  New  York  in  1855, 
already  a  fair  pianist.  From  Joseph 
Weinlich  and  G.  Matzka  he  received 
violin  instruction,  and  when  sixteen 
made  his  debut  as  pianist  and  then 
as  first  violinist  in  the  old  Stadtthea- 
tre  of  New  York.  After  a  tour  as 
violinist  through  South  America  he 
took  up  the  study  of  theory  and  com- 
position with  Carl  Anschiitz.  He 
went  to  Milwaukee  where  he  was 
made  conductor  of  the  German  Thea- 
tre; for  three  years  he  conducted 
German  Opera  in  New  York;  from 
1867  to  1871  was  conductor  of  the 
Stadttheatre;  he  brought  an  opera 
company  from  Europe  and  gave  the 
first  performance  of  Lohengrin  in 
America.  He  was  also  conductor  of 
the  Juch  English  Opera  Company  and 
of  the  English  Grand  Opera  in  New 
York.  After  his  contract  with  the 
Stadttheatre  expired  he  went  back  to 
his  native  land.  When  he  returned  to 
New  York  he  brought  with  him  Theo- 
dor  Wachtel  and  they,  with  Carl  Rosa, 
conducted  Italian  Opera  at  the  New 
York  Academy  of  Music  for  a  sea- 
son. He  was  the  founder  of  the 
Germania  Theatre  of  New  York  and 
its  manager  for  two  years,  and  then 
with  Wachtel  and  Mme.  Poppenheim 
gave  a  season  of  German  Opera  at 
the  Academy,  and  in  1877  The  Flying 
Dutchman,  Tannhauser  and  Die  Wal- 
kiire.  The  next  year  he  became  con- 
ductor of  the  New  York  Philharmonic 
Society,  and  from  1884  to  1889  was  a 
concert  director  in  Boston.  He  after- 
wards gave  concert  tours  over  the 
United  States,  and  when  Josef  Hoff- 
man made  his  first  American  tour, 
Neuendorff  conducted  his  concerts. 
He  went  to  Vienna  in  1893,  when  his 
wife,  Georgine  V.  Januschowsky,  was 
prima  donna  at  the  Imperial  Opera. 
Upon  his  return  to  New  York  in 
1896  he  became  director  of  music  at 
the  Temple  Emanu-El,  and  in  1897 
succeeded  Seidl  as  conductor  of  the 




Metropolitan  Permanent  Orchestra. 
His  compositions  are  four  comic 
operas,  The  Rat  Charmer  of  Hame- 
lin,  Don  Quixote,  Prince  Woodruff 
and  The  Minstrel;  two  symphonies; 
several  overtures;  cantatas;  male 
quartets  and  many  songs. 

Neukomm  (noi'-kom),  Sigismund. 

A  most  prolific  composer,  whose 
works  are  said  to  number  over  one 
thousand  and  include  oratorios, 
masses,  morning  and  evening  serv- 
ices, psalms,  operas,  symphonies, 
military  marches,  concertos,  French, 
English,  Italian  and  German  songs. 
He  was  born  at  Salzburg  in  1778; 
was  a  pupil  of  Weissauer  and  of 
Michael  Haydn  and  when  fifteen  years 
old  was  University  organist.  In  1798 
he  went  to  Vienna  and  there  studied 
with  Joseph  Haydn  who  became  his 
friend  and  almost  guardian.  He  be- 
came a  rnember  of  the  Stockholm 
Academy  in  1807  and  then  conductor 
of  derman  Opera  in  St.  Petersburg. 
He  returned  to  Vienna  to  be  with 
Haydn  during  his  last  illness,  and 
then  went  to  Paris  as  pianist  to 
Talleyrand.  It  >yas  in  Paris  that  he 
composed  a  requiem  for  Louis  XVI., 
for  which  in  1815  Louis  XVIII.  made 
him  Chevalier  of  the  Legion  of  Honor. 
He  remained  in  Talleyrand's  service 
until  1826,  after  which  he  traveled  for 
many  years  in  Italy,  Holland,  Bel- 
gium, England  and  Scotland,  with 
Talleyrand  on  his  embassy  to  Eng- 
land in  1830;  was  in  Germany  in  1832, 
Italy  1833  and  1834  and  the  year  fol- 
lowing in  southern  France  and  Algiers. 
Ill  health  prevented  an  intended  visit 
to  North  America,  and  the  last  years 
of  his  life  he  spent  in  Paris  and  Lon- 
don, and  died  in  Paris  in  1858.  He 
was  very  popular  in  England  until 
the  advent  of  Mendelssohn  in  1837 
who  eclipsed  him  as  a  rhusician;  but 
though  lacking  real  greatness  as  an 
artist  he  lacked  none  as  a  man,  and 
held  the  friendship  of  Mendelssohn 
as  long  as  he  lived.  He  was  also 
intimate  with  Cherubini,  Cuvier, 
Gretry  and  Moscheles.  Neukomm  was 
an  indefatigable  worker  and  aside 
from  his  large  number  of  composi- 
tion he  contributed  to  several  musi- 
cal periodicals. 

Neuseidler   (noi'-zet-ler),   Hans. 

Hans  Neuseidler  was  one  of  a 
family  of  German  lutenists.     He  was 


born  in  Presburg,  date  unknown,  and 
spent  the  greater  part  of  his  life 
in  Nuremburg.  Aside  from  appearing 
as  lutenist  he  was  a  manufacturer  of 
his  instrument  and  author  of  works 
on  the  subject  of  lute  playing.  He 
also  published  arrangements  of  pre- 
ludes, motets,  fantasias,  songs  and 
dances  for  the  lute.  His  work  on  lute 
playing  is  important  for  the  history 
of  harmony.  Hans  Neuseidler  died 
in  Nuremberg  in  1563. 

Neuseidler,  Melchior. 

Lutenist.  Dates  of  birth  and  death 
are  not  positively  known.  He  is 
thought  to  have  been  the  son  of  Hans 
Neuseidler;  born  in  Augsburg,  where 
he  lived  much  of  his  life.  He  lived 
at  some  time  in  Italy,  where  he  pub- 
lished two  books  of  pieces  for  the 
lute  in  Italian  tablature.  In  Augs- 
burg he  was  with  the  family  of  Anton 
Fugger  and  probably  held  some  city 
position  as  musician  for  small  fes- 
tivities. In  1574  he  published  a  book 
of  secular  songs  and  mt)tets  written 
by  composers  of  his  time;  this  he 
called  Teutsch  Lautenbuch.  The  date 
of  his  death  is  usually  given  as  1590. 

Nevada  (na-va'-da),  Emma.     1862- 

Born  in  Nevada  City,  California. 
Her  father,  William  Wallace  Wixon, 
was  a  physician  of  Nevada  City. 
When  but  three  years  old  she  sang 
in  public.  Her  mother  died  when 
she  was  a  child  and  she  was  educated 
at  a  seminary  in  Oakland,  Cal.,  and 
in  company  of  several  other  young 
women  went  to  Berlin,  where  she 
was  advised  to  seek  Madame  Mar- 
chesi  at  Vienna.  Under  her  instruc- 
tion she  further  developed  an  already 
sweet  and  pure  soprano  voice  and  in 
1880  made  her  debut  at  the  Majestic 
Theatre,  London,  in  the  Italian  Opera, 
La  Sonnambula.  She  now  assumed  the 
stage  name  of  Emma  Nevada.  Al- 
though her  voice  has  by  many  been 
considered  too  light  for  grand  opera 
she  was  engaged  at  once  to  sing  in 
Italy  and  later  at  the  Opera  Comique 
in  Paris,  in  1883  as  Zora  in  Perle  du 
Bresil,  and  then  as  Mignon,  perhaps 
her  most  successful  role,  and  appeared 
in  1884  at  the  Norwich  Festival,  Eng- 
land. In  1885  she  sang  in  Italian 
Opera  in  New  York,  San  Francisco 
and  other  American  cities  on  alter- 
nate nights  with  Mme.  Patti.  She 
was  most  warmly  welcomed  in  her 
own  country.     In  October,  1885,  she 




was  married  in  Paris  to  Dr.  Raymond 
Palmer,  an  English  physician,  but 
still  continued  her  stage  career,  go- 
ing again  to  America  on  a  concert 
tour,  singing  in  Covent  Garden,  Lon- 
don, then  in  Holland,  Germany,  Rus- 
sia, Italy,  Portugal  and  Spain.  In 
1898  she  again  appeared  in  Paris  at 
the  Opera  Comique,  the  following 
year  in  London  at  the  Philharmonic 
and  at  Crystal  Palace,  and  in  1901  and 
1902  revisited  all  the  principal  cities 
of  America.  Emma  Nevada  is  con- 
sidered one  of  the  most  brilliant 
singers  among  American  sopranos. 
The  great  merits  of  her  voice  lie  in 
her  staccato  effects,  chromatic  runs 
and  notes  in  altissimo.  Her  marvel- 
ous technique  and  beautiful  flute-like 
quality  of  voice  coupled  with  her 
gracious  and  charming  womanly 
traits  have  won  for  her  a  host  of 
admirers  both  here  and  abroad.  She 
has  a  wide  repertory,  having  sung  in 
Mignon,  Faust,  Sonnambula,  Rigo- 
letto,  Traviata,  Hamlet,  Don  Pas- 
quale,  II  Barbiere,  Lakme,  Mirella, 
Perle  du  Bresil  and  other  well-known 

*Nevin,  Arthur.     1871- 

Brother  of  Ethelbert  Nevin;  born  at 
Edgeworth,  Pa.,  in  1871;  educated  at 
Sewickley  Academy  and  Park  Uni- 
versity, Allegheny,  Pa.  He  received 
no  musical  training  until  1891,  when 
he  went  to  Boston  and  entered  the 
Conservatory  of  Music.  In  1895  he 
went  to  Berlin  and  studied  under 
Klindworth  and  Boise.  Although  he 
has  never  enjoyed  the  renown  ac- 
corded his  brother,  he  is  a  composer 
of  much  merit.  Among  his  compo- 
sitions is  a  book  of  four  graceful 
sketches,  two  songs,  Were  I  a  Tone, 
and  In  Dreams,  which  Hughes  de- 
scribes as  emotionally  rich,  and  a 
number  of  piano  and  orchestral 

Nevin,  Ethelbert  Woodbridge.     1862- 

One  of  the  most  popular  American 
composers;  born  at  Vineacre,  near 
Pittsburg,  Pa.;  the  son  of  Robert  P. 
and  Elizabeth  Oliphant  Nevin;  from 
his  father,  who  was  editor  and  pro- 
prietor oi  a  Pittsburg  newspaper  and 
a  contributor  to  many  magazines,  he 
received  most  of  his  early  education. 
Robert  Nevin  encouraged  the  musical 
tendencies  early  evinced  by  his  son 
and   gave   him   every  advantage,   tak- 

ing  him  abroad  for  two  years  of 
travel  and  study  in  Dresden  under 
Bohme,  and  then  sending  him  to 
Boston  for  piano  study  under  B.  J. 
Lang  and  composition  under  Stephen 
A.  Emery.  Nevin  then  gave  lessons 
in  Pittsburg,  earning  money  to  take 
him  abroad  for  further  study.  In  1884 
he  went  to  Berlin  and  for  three  years 
was  the  pupil  of  Karl  Klindworth. 
He  now  began  to  give  most  of  his 
time  to  composition.  In  1887  he  re- 
turned to  America,  taught  and  played 
at  concerts  in  Boston  for  three  years 
and  then  went  to  France  and  Ger- 
many. In  Paris  he  won  much  praise 
as  a  teacher;  from  there  he  went  to 
Berlin  and  devoted  himself  so 
assiduously  to  composition  that  his 
health  was  impaired  and  he  was  com- 
pelled to  take  a  year's  rest  in  Algiers. 
In  1895  he  gave  a  series  of  concerts 
in  America  and  then  took  up  his 
residence  in  Florence,  where  he  com- 
posed some  of  his  best  works;  from 
Florence  he  went  to  Venice,  where  he 
composed  his  Venetian  suite;  after  a 
year  in  Venice  and  another  in  Paris 
he  returned  to  his  own  country.  He 
was  married  in  1888  to  Anne  Paul  of 

His  last  years  were  spent  in  New 
Haven,  Conn.,  where  he  died  in  1901. 
Nevin  wrote  many  piano-pieces  and 
did  a  little  work  for  orchestra,  but 
will  always  be  remembered  by  his 
songs.  In  Florence  he  composed  his 
suite.  May  in  Tuscany,  the  best  num- 
ber of  which  is  the  Rusignuolo.  His 
life  and  the  scenes  about  him  in 
Venice  inspired  his  Venetian  sketches, 
perhaps  the  best  known  being  The 
Gondoliers.  The  Sketch  Book,  known 
to  every  rnusician  and  music  lover  of 
America,  is  a  collection  of  thirteen 
songs  and  piano-pieces.  Among  its 
songs  are  the  popular  I'  the  Wondrous 
Month  o'  May;  Love  Song,  a  piano 
solo;  and  the  serenade,  O  That  We 
Two  Vyere  Maying,  one  of  the  rarest 
lyrics  in  the  English  language.  His 
song.  The  Rosary,  reached  a  phenom- 
enal sale.  His  child  songs  have  a 
peculiar  captivating  charm  and  in- 
clude some  of  Stevenson's  best  child 
poems.  In  Winter  I  get  up  at  Night 
and  Little  Boy  Blue  are  two  of  the 
most  popular.  Water  Scenes,  includ- 
ing Narcissus,  his  most  popular  piano 
work.  Dragon  Fly,  Ophelia  and  Bar- 
carolle, perhaps  made  Nevin  best 
known.  His  book,  In  Arcady.  con- 
tains pastoral  scenes,  and  the  lullaby, 




Sleep  Little  Tulip,  is  a  remarkably 
artistic  work.  He  wrote  a  suite  for 
piano,  En  Passant,  of  which  In 
Dreamland,  a  delicious  reverie,  is  a 
number;  a  pantomime  for  piano  and 
orchestra;  a  libretto  to  Lady  Flor- 
aine's  Dream,  by  Vance  Thompson; 
a  cantata,  and  many  other  songs  and 
piano-pieces.  The  works  of  no  other 
American  composer  have  ever  met 
with  greater  success  nor  have  been 
in  so  great  a  demand. 

Ney,  Jenny  Biirde.     See   Biirde-Xey. 

Niccolini      (nek-ko-le'ne),     Giuseppe. 


Italian  composer  of  a  great  number 
of  dramatic  and  sacred  works,  popu- 
lar in  their  day  but  now  almost  for- 
gotten. Born  in  Piacenza,  the  son  of 
a  musicmaster  who  gave  him  his 
first  instruction.  He  was  a  pupil  at 
the  Conservatory  of  San  Onofrio  of 
Naples  until  1792.  The  next  year  he 
produced  his  first  opera  at  Parma. 
This  he  followed  with  more  than 
fifty  others  which  met  with  success 
when  presented  in  the  principal  cities 
of  Italy.  He  received  in  1819  the 
appointment  of  music-director  at  the 
Piacenza  Cathedral  and  then  com- 
posed mostly  sacred  works  including 
thirty  masses,  two  requiems,  psalms, 
hymns,  litanies,  etc.  Other  of  his 
pieces  are  for  piano  and  strings. 

Nichelmann  (nikh'-el-man),  Christoph. 


Composer  and  author;  born  at 
Freuenbrietzen,  in  Brandenburg.  He 
was  a  pupil  in  St.  Thomas  School, 
Leipsic,  under  Bach,  and  of  Quantz 
in  Berlin.  He  then  lived  for  a  time 
in  Hamburg  and  in  1744  was  ap- 
pointed harpsichord  player  to  the 
Royal  Chapel,  acting  as  accompanist 
for  Frederick  the  Great.  In  1756  he 
left  the  chapel,  dismissed  for  some 
unknown  reason,  and  became  a 
teacher  of  music  in  Berlin.  He  is 
now  best  remembered  for  his  book, 
a  treatise  on  melody,  which  caused 
much  discussion  among  musicians  of 
his  time.  His  compositions  are 
clavier  pieces,  sonatas  and  concertos: 
a  serenade,  songs  for  collections  of 
Lange,  Alarpurg  and  others;  and  a 
serenade.  The  Dream  of  Scipio,  per- 
formed at  Berlin  before  the  King  in 

*Nicholl,   Horace  Wadham.     1848- 

Born  in  Birmingham,  England, 
which   for   many  years   has  been   fa- 


mous  as  a  musical  center.  His  father 
was  a  learned  contrapuntist  of  the 
Albrechtsberger  School  and  gave  to 
his  talented  son  the  solid  principles 
of  harmony  and  musical  rhetoric, 
upon  which  he  has  built  his  great 
works.  Later  he  studied  under  Sam- 
uel Price,  the  organist.  Nicholl  held 
several  positions  as  organist  in  the 
vicinity  of  Birmingham,  at  Dudley, 
then  at  Stoke-on-Trent,  when  he 
crossed  the  ocean  to  become  organist 
of  St.  Paul's  Cathedral  at  Pittsburg. 
Later  he  was  organist  at  the  Third 
Presbyterian  Church.  He  was  also 
a  teacher  in  the  Female  College  and 
gave  recitals  in  Pittsburg,  Indianapo- 
lis and  elsewhere.  He  went  to  live 
in  New  York  in  1878,  where  he  was 
organist  of  St.  Mark's.  He  became 
editor  of  the  organ  department  of 
Freund's  Music  Trades'  Review  and 
his  Church  Articles  were  widely  read. 
He  was  married  to  Cornelia  Mather, 
an  author,  at  Trenton,  in  1889.  From 
1888  to  1895  he  was  with  B.  Boekel- 
man  as  professor  of  harmony  and 
ensemble-playing  at  Miss  Porter's 
School  at  Farmington,  Conn.  He 
contributed  to  the  Musical  Courier 
and  wrote  analyses  of  symphonies 
for  the  American  Musician  and  the 
Art  Journal.  When  Rubinstein  visited 
this  country  in  1872  he  recognized 
Nicholl's  talent  and  advised  him  to 
go  to  Leipsic  where  his  work  would 
be  appreciated.  Anton  Seidl  added 
his  urging  to  that  of  Rubinstein's  and 
Nicholl  has  lived  much  abroad  of  late 
years,  making  Berlin  and  Leipsic  his 
places  of  residence  though  he  spent 
the  3'ear  of  1903  in  London.  He  is 
well  known  by  his  organ  works,  which 
are  distinctly  modern,  among  them 
twelve  symphonic  preludes  and 
fugues,  a  sj'mphonic  poem,  Life,  in 
six  movements.  A  cycle  of  four  ora- 
torios, Adam,  Abraham,  Isaac  and 
Jacob  are  in  manuscript;  a  setting  of 
the  Golden  Legend  and  much  else, 
besides  numerous  piano-pieces,  songs, 
anthems,  and  some  chamber-music 

Nicholls,  Agnes.     1877- 

Concert-singer;  born  at  Chelten- 
ham. Agnes  Nicholls  studied  singing 
and  violin  at  Bedford,  singing  under 
Visetti  at  the  Royal  College  of  Music 
and  private  instruction  under  John 
Acton  of  ^Manchester.  She  possesses 
a  fine  soprano  voice.  She  appeared 
in  opera,  but  has  been  most  success- 
ful   on    the    concert    stage,    and    has 



sung    at     all     the     principal    English 

festivals,    at    the    Cincinnati    Festival, 

and  at  the  Jubilee  concerts  of  Crystal 

Palace   in    1904.      She   is    the   wife   of 

Mr.    Hamilton    Harty,    a    well-known 


Nicholson,  Charles.     1795-1837. 

Nicholson  was  born  at  Liverpool; 
the  son  of  a  flute-player.  He  was 
one  of  the  most  distingfuished  English 
flutists  of  his  time  and  was  noted  for 
his  brilliant  performances.  He  played 
in  the  orchestra  at  Drury  Lane,  then 
at  Covent  Garden  and  as  principal 
flutist  at  the  Philharmonic  and  Festi- 
val concerts.  Nicholson  published 
a  flute  preceptor,  a  number  of  con- 
certos, fantasias  and  solos  for  the  lute. 

Nicode  (ne'-ko-da),  Jean  Louis.   1853- 

Well-known  German  pianist,  teacher 
and  composer.  He  was  born  at 
Jerczeg,  near  Posen,  in  1853.  His 
father  who  had  been  a  skilful  ama- 
teur violinist  went  to  Berlin  after 
losing  his  small  estate  at  Jerczeg. 
Here  he  gave  his  son  his  first  lessons 
in  violin-playing.  The  organist  Hart- 
kass  was  also  his  instructor  and  then 
at  the  New  Academy  he  studied  un- 
der Kullak,  Kiel  and  Wiierst.  After 
graduating  from  the  Academy  he  be- 
came a  most  successful  teacher  and 
established  the  Nicode  concerts  in 
Berlin.  With  Madame  Artot  he  went 
on  a  concert  tour  through  Galicia  and 
Roumania.  In  1878  he  was  made 
professor  of  piano  at  the  Dresden 
Royal  Conservatory  and  remained 
until  1885,  when  he  left  in  order  to 
conduct  the  Philharmonic  concerts. 
For  three  years  he  held  this  position, 
winning  recognition  as  a  conductor, 
and  then  gave  his  time  and  attention 
entirely  to  composition  until  1893, 
when  he  again  resumed  the  duties  of 
conductor  and  later  became  the  first 
director  of  the  Dresden  Neustadt 
Chorgesangverein.  His  two  most  im- 
portant compositions  and  the  two 
which  have  made  for  him  a  name  out- 
side as  well  as  in  his  own  country 
are  the  symphonic  variations,  and  a 
work  for  male  chorus,  soloists,  or- 
chestra and  organ  called  Das  Meer. 
Others  are  his  Carnival  Pictures  and 
Maria  Stuart,  symphonic  poems;  Die 
Jagd  nach  dem  Gliick,  a  scherzo;  a 
Jubilee  March  for  orchestra;  a  choral 
symphony,  Gloria;  a  violin  romanza; 
two  cello  sonatas;  piano  solos  and 
duets;  numerous  songs  and  Italian 
dances.     All  his  work  reaches  a  high 


standard  of  excellence  and  shows  him 
to  be  an  intelligent,  clever  and  im- 
aginative artist,  able  to  appeal  favor- 
ably to  the  sound  judgment  of  the 
trained  musician  and  at  the  same  time 
he  speaks  through  his  art  to  human- 
ity at  large.  His  influence  upon 
music  in  Germany  is  felt  not  only 
through  his  compositions  but  through 
his  teaching  and  his  brilliant  piano 

Nicolai  (ne'-ko-ll),  Carl  Otto  Ehren- 
fried.     1810-1849. 

Successful  composer  of  opera;  born 
at  Konigsberg  in  1810.  He  was  well 
grounded  in  piano  study  at  home,  but 
otherwise  his  education  was  neglected. 
When  sixteen  years  old  he  ran  away 
from  an  unhappy  home  and  found  in 
Justizrath  Adler  of  Stargard  a  friend 
and  guardian.  With  Adler's  assist- 
ance he  finished  his  musical  studies 
at  Berlin  with  Klein  and  Zelter.  When 
Bunsen,  ambassador  at  Rome,  sent 
for  Nicolai  to  take  the  place  of  or- 
ganist at  the  Chapel  of  the  Prussian 
Embassy  he  had  the  opportunity  of 
studying  the  Italian  works  of  the  old 
school,  and  this  study  had  much  in- 
fluence upon  his  compositions.  While 
in  Rome  he  produced  several  operas. 
He  left  Rome  in  1837  for  Vienna, 
where  he  became  singing  master  of  a 
theatre  but  returnd  to  Rome  the  fol- 
lowing year  and  for  three  years  gave 
his  time  to  the  composition  of  a 
series  of  operas.  Nicolai's  mass,  com- 
posed in  1843,  which  was  dedicated 
to  Frederick  William  IV.,  and  in  1844 
a  festival  overture  for  the  Jubilee  of 
the  University  of  Konigsberg  led  to 
his  appointment  as  director  of  the 
famous  Domchor,  where  many  of  his 
successful  sacred  compositions  were 
rendered,  and  later  of  chapelmaster 
at  the  Royal  Opera,  where  he  proved 
himslf  to  be  a  most  able  conductor. 
In  1847  he  gave  a  farewell  concert 
in  Vienna,  at  which  Jenny  Lind  sang. 
His  masterpiece  he  composed  in  1848 
and  it  was  produced  in  1849,  two 
months  before  his  death.  It  was  his 
comic  opera  The  Merry  Wives  of 
Windsor,  an  excellent  imaginative 
composition,  full  of  keen  humor  and 
delightful  romance.  It  was  a  most 
brilliant  success,  given  in  Vienna  and 
London.  Among  his  many  operas 
were  II  Templario;  Enrico  Secondo; 
Odoardo  e  Gildippe;  Rosmonda 
dTnghilterra  and  others  produced  in 
various  cities  of  Italy  and  Germany. 



Nicolai,    Willem    Frederick    Gerard. 


Eminent  Dutch  composer  and  writer 
on  musical  subjects.  For  twenty-five 
years  he  was  the  editor  of  the  Caciha, 
a  musical  periodical  which  exercised 
great  influence  over  the  musicians  of 
his  time  and  country,  helping  them 
to  a  fuller  understanding  of  such 
masters  as  Wagner  and  Liszt.  In 
1852  he  was  appointed  teacher  of 
organ,  piano  and  harmony  at  the 
Royal  Music  School  at  The  Hague, 
and  later  became  director.  His  Ger- 
man songs  which  were  among  his 
first  compositions  brought  him  recog- 
nition, and  he  then  devoted  himself 
to  the  composition  of  cantatas  to 
Dutch  words,  and  set  Schiller's  Lied 
von  der  Glocke  to  music  for  orches- 
tra, chorus  and  solo.s;  composed  an 
oratorio,  Bonifacius;  the  cantata.  The 
Swedish  Nightingale,  written  in  honor 
of  Jenny  Lind;  and  another  cantata, 
Jehovah's  Vengeance,  which  was  pro- 
duced in  Utrecht  in  1892.  Nicolai 
was  born  at  Leyden  and  studied  at 
the  Leipsic  Conservatory  under 
Moscheles,  Rietz,  Hauptmann  and 
Richter,  and  under  Schneider  at 
Dresden,  and  as  we  have  stated,  made 
his  reputation  as  composer,  conduc- 
tor and  author.  He  died  at  The 
Hague  in  1896. 

Nicolini  (ne-ko-le'-ne),  Ernest  Nicho- 
las.    1834-1898. 

Nicolini  was  the  stage  name  of 
Ernest  Nicholas;  a  dramatic  tenor 
born  at  Tours,  France,  in  1834.  He 
was  a  student  at  the  Paris  Conserv'- 
atory,  where  he  won  a  prize  for  his 
performance  in  Comic  Opera  in  1856. 
He  sang  at  the  Opera  Comique  in 
Paris  for  four  years,  and  then  went 
to  Italy,  where  he  adopted  the  name 
of  Nicolini,  and  sang  in  all  the  prin- 
cipal Italian  cities  with  some  success. 
From  1862  to  1870  he  was  again  in 
Paris  and  during  that  time  visited 
London,  singing  at  St.  James'  Hall 
and  in  1871  in  opera  at  Drury  Lane, 
and  the  next  year  at  Covent  Garden. 
He  was  married  in  1886  to  Adelina 
Patti,  with  whom  he  had  toured,  and 
it  is  perhaps  as  her  husband  that  he 
is  best  remembered,  though  for  some 
time  he  was  considered  the  best 
French  tenor  on  the  stage.  His  pop- 
ularity did  not  last  owing  to  his 
peculiar  use  of  tremolo  which  spoiled 
an  otherwise  pleasing  and  powerful 
voice.    He  died  at  Pau. 

Nicolini,    Nicolino    Grimaldi.     About 


Known  as  the  Cavalier  Nicolini,  as 
he  was  decorated  with  the  Order  of 
St.  Mark  in  Venice.  Born  in  Naples 
about  1673.  The  Hbrettos  he  wrote  for 
operas  show  him  to  have  been  a  man 
of  good  education.  He  is  known  to 
have  sung  as  a  boy  soprano,  and 
later  as  a  fine  contralto.  He  appeared 
in  Rome  in  1694  with  the  celebrated 
Pistocchi;  in  Naples  for  one  year  as 
principal  singer  in  the  operas  and  in 
1700  was  in  Rome  again.  He  sang  in 
other  Italian  cities  and  in  1708  went 
to  England,  where  he  met  with  great 
success,  singing  in  Pyrrhus  and 
Demetrius  when  the  fashion  of  pre- 
senting an  opera  partly  in  Italian  and 
partly  in  English  was  the  vogue.  He 
left  England  in  1714  for  Italy,  but 
returned  the  next  winter.  Addison 
wrote  of  him  concerning  his  acting 
that  "  he  gave  new  majesty  to  kings, 
resolution  to  heroes  and  softness  to 
lovers."  He  sang  roles  in  Almahide. 
Hydaspes  of  which  he  edited  the 
libretto,  Rinaldo,  in  which  he  created 
the  principal  part;  Antioco,  Ambleto, 
Lucio  Vero,  Amadigi  and  Clearte.  He 
remained  on  the  stage  until  1726.  The 
date  of  his  death  is  not  known.  That 
he  was  a  remarkable  actor  and  singer 
is  evident  from  the  criticisms  by  such 
men  as  Steele  and  Addison.. 

*  Niecks   (neks),  Friedrich.     1845- 

Born  at  Diisseldorf.  He  received 
his  first  instruction  on  the  violin  from 
Langhans,  Griinewald  and  Auer  and 
appeared  before  the  public  at  the  age 
of  twelve  years.  In  1868  he  became 
a  teacher  and  organist  at  Dumfries, 
Scotland,  and  in  1877  he  went  to 
Leipsic  and  entered  the  University. 
He  had  already  written  articles  for 
the  Monthly  Musical  Record,  and  after 
leaving  the  University  he  became  a 
regular  contributor  to  the  Musical 
Times.  In  1890  he  lectured  at  the 
Ro}'al  Institution  of  Great  Britain  on 
the  development  of  instrumental 
music,  illustrating  by  musical  per- 
formances, and  the  next  year  was 
appointed  Reid  professor  of  music  at 
Edinburgh  University.  He  was  the 
founder  of  a  Musical  Education  So- 
ciety in  1901,  Among  the  instructive 
papers  read  before  musical  societies 
are  the  Flat,  the  Sharp  and  the  Nat- 
ural, and  the  Teaching  of  Musical 
History;  his  Frederick  Chopin  as  Man 
and  Musician,  is  one  of  his  most  im- 




portant  works.  Other  of  his  works 
are  a  Concise  Dictionary  of  Musical 
Terms,  A  History  of  Programme 
Music  from  the  Sixteenth  Century  to 
the  Present  Time,  and  The  Nature 
and  Capacity  of  Modern  Music,  a 
philosophical  treatise. 

Niedermeyer    (ne'-der-mi-er),    Louis. 

Composer;  born  at  Nyon,  Switzer- 
land, in  1802.  He  was  a  pupil  in 
Vienna  under  Forster  and  Moscheles, 
then  went  to  Rome  and  Naples  for 
further  study.  In  Naples  he  _  met 
Rossini;  they  became  staunch  friends 
and  Rossini's  influence  helped  Nieder- 
meyer to  produce  his  one-act  opera, 
La  Casa  nel  bosco  at  the  Theatre 
Italien  in  Paris  in  1828.  This,  how- 
ever, proved  a  failure  and  Nieder- 
meyer left  Paris  to  become  a  music- 
master  in  a  school  in  Brussels.  He 
had  previously  lived  in  Geneva,  and 
won  recognition  as  a  composer  of 
songs,  and  when  the  duties  of  teacher 
became  wearisome  to  him  he  returned 
to  Paris  and  published  a  number  of 
melodies  set  to  poems  by  Victor 
Hugo,  Lamartine  and  fimile  Des- 
champs.  They  met  with  success  and 
Niedermeyer  then  returned  to  opera, 
but  his  second  production  hke  his 
first  failed,  as  did  Robert  Bruce  for 
which  he  adapted  the  libretto  from 
Donna  del  Lago,  when  commissioned 
to  the  task  by  Rossini.  He  made  one 
more  unsuccessful  attempt  in  the 
opera,  La  Fronde,  and  then  turned 
his  attention  to  the  composition  of 
sacred  music.  He  reorganized 
Choron's  Institute  for  church-music 
and,  as  the  ficole  Niederrneyer,  it  has 
become  a  flourishing  institution.  He 
founded  the  La  Maitrise,  a  journal  for 
church-music,  and  published  a  method 
of  accompaniment  for  the  plain-chant, 
and  composed  a  number  of  masses, 
motets  and  hymns  which  were  well 
received.  Some  of  his  melodies.  The 
Light,  Evening,  The  Sea  and  Autumn 
were  popular  and  are  still  well  known. 
He  died  in  Paris. 

Nielsen   (nel'-son),  Alice. 

American  light  opera  singer;  born 
in  Nashville,  Tenn.;  the  daughter  of 
Erasmus  Ivarius  Nielson  a  Dane, 
from  whom  she  inherited  her  musical 
ability,  and  of  Sarah  Nielson,  an  Irish 
woman.  Her  father  died  when  Alice 
was  seven  years  old  and  the  family 
jnoved  to  Kansas  City,  where  she  at- 


tended  school  at  St.  Theresa's  Acad- 
emy, and  studied  music  under  Max 
Desci.  She  first  sang  in  the  choir 
of  St.  Patrick's  Church.  In  1892  she 
left  Kansas  City  with  a  concert  com- 
pany and  while  singing  in  St.  Joseph, 
Mo.,  she  attracted  the  attention  of 
the  manager  of  the  Pike  Opera  Com- 
pany, which  she  joined  and  with  it 
went  to  Oakland,  Cal.  Here  she  made 
her  debut  in  professional  opera  as 
Yum  Yum,  in  The  Mikado.  In  San 
Francisco,  George  Lask,  stage  mana- 
ger of  the  Tivoli  Theatre,  engaged  her 
for  the  Tivoli  Company.  She  at  first 
sang  only  small  parts,  but  finally  be- 
came the  prima  donna.  She  joined 
the  Bostonians  in  1896.  Her  first  part 
with  them  was  Anita  in  The  War 
Time  Wedding,  then  she  took  the  role 
of  Annabel  in  Robin  Hood  and  the 
next  season  rose  to  the  part  of  Maid 
Marian.  She  sang  in  the  Bohemian 
Girl,  and  as  Ninette  in  Prince  Ananias, 
created  Yvonne  in  The  Serenade,  and 
her  success  in  these  roles  was  so  great 
that  she  became  the  star  in  Herbert's 
The  Fortune  Teller,  and  in  1898,  mak- 
ing her  stellar  debut  at  the  Grand 
Opera  House,  Toronto,  Canada,  and 
appeared  later  in  The  Singing  Girl 
and  has  since  starred  in  various  pop- 
ular operas,  among  them  Don  Pas- 
qual.e.  As  an  actress  Alice  Nielson's 
great  charm  lies  in  her  stage  youth- 
fulness,  spontaneity,  and  lack  of  arti- 
ficial striving  for  effect.  She  sings 
easily  and  naturally  and  her  voice,  of 
great  range  and  volume,  is  rich  and 
syrnpathetic,  pure  and  clear,  and  it 
is  little  wonder  she  has  so  captivated 
lovers  of  light  opera. 

Niemann   (ne'-man),  Albert.     1831- 

Famous  German  tenor;  born  at 
Erxleben,  Magdeburg.  At  the  age  of 
seventeen,  in  order  to  support  him- 
self, he  went  on  the  stage  at  Dessau, 
appearing  in  small  parts  and  some- 
times as  a  chorus  singer.  Friedrich 
Schneider,  the  Court  chapelmaster, 
recognized  the  boy's  talent  and  as- 
sisted him  to  gain  a  musical  training. 
Nusch,  the  barytone,  gave  him  les- 
sons and  later  he  went  to  Paris  and 
studied  under  Duprez.  He  won 
further  recognition  by  his  appearances 
in  small  theatres,  and  was  engaged 
at  Berlin  where  he  became  immensely 
and  deservedly  popular  both  as  an 
actor  and  singer,  and  was  considered 
by  many  as  Germany's  greatest  tenor. 
His    voice    was    magnificent    and    his 




appearance  suitable  for  the  imper- 
sonation of  Wagner's  heroes,  in  which 
he  excelled.  Wagner  selected  Nie- 
mann to  play  Siegmund  at  Bayreuth, 
in  1876.  He  came  to  America  in  1886, 
but  his  voice  then  had  begun  to  fail 
and  as  a  singer  he  did  not  fulfil  the 
expectations  of  the  American  public. 
The  next  year  he  formally  retired 
from  the  stage. 

Niemann,    Rudolf    Friedrich.      1838- 

Pianist  and  composer;  born  in  1838 
at  Wesselburen,  Holstein;  son  of  an 
organist  who  gave  him  his  first  musi- 
cal instruction.  Later  he  was  a  pupil 
at  the  Leipsic  Conservatory^  then  at 
the  Conservatory  of  Paris  and  finally 
in  Berlin,  a  pupil  of  von  Biilow  and 
Kiel.  He  toured  Germany,  Russia  and 
England  from  1873  to  1877  as  accom- 
panist to  Wilhelmj  and  so  won  rec- 
ognition as  a  pianist.  He  lived  for 
some  years  in  Hamburg  and  later  in 
Wiesbaden,  Again  he  toured  with 
Wilhelmj  and  taught  in  Wilhelmj's 
violin  school  at  Biebrich.  Niemann's 
compositions  are  mainly  songs  and 
small  piano-pieces;  a  gavotte;  violin 
sonata  and  some  variations  are  his 
best  works. 

Niggli  (nig'-gle),  Arnold.     1843- 

Author  of  works  on  musical  sub- 
jects; born  at  Aarburg,  Switzerland, 
where  his  father  was  principal  of  the 
girls'  school.  He  studied  law  at 
Heidelberg,  Zurich  and  Berlin.  In 
1875  he  was  appointed  secretary  to 
the  city  council  of  Aarau.  He  had 
early  learned  to  play  the  piano  and 
had  given  much  of  his  leisure  time 
to  the  study  of  theory  and  history  of 
music,  and  now  became  a  regular  con- 
tributor to  several  musical  periodicals, 
and  has  been  editor  of  a  Swiss  musi- 
cal magazine.  Sammlung  musika- 
lischer  Vortrage  is  a  collection  of  his 
essays  upon  the  lives  and  work  of 
Chopin,  Schubert,  Faustina  Hasse, 
Gertrud  Elizabeth  Mara,  Paganini  and 
Meyerbeer;  another  is  a  collection  of 
lectures  given  in  Switzerland,  includ- 
ing essays  on  Schumann  and  Haydn; 
a  biography  of  Jensen  and  treatises 
upon  jubilee  work  and  one  upon 
Swiss  music  in  general.  Much  of  his 
work  is  considered  valuable,  especially 
his  criticisms  of  the  masters. 

Nikisch   (nik'-ish),  Arthur.     1855- 

Hungarian  conductor  of  orchestra; 
born  at  Lebeny,  Szent-Miklos,  in  1855. 


His  father  was  head  bookkeeper  for 
Prince  Liechtenstein.  Nikisch  began 
his  musical  study  at  the  age  of  six 
years  when  he  was  a  pupil  of  Franz 
Prochazka  of  Butschowitz,  and  at 
eight  appeared  as  a  pianist  in  public. 
He  entered  the  Vienna  Conservatory 
in  1866  as  a  pupil  of  Dessoff  and 
Hellmesberger.  When  thirteen  years 
old  won  the  gold  medal  for  composi- 
tion, first  prize  for  violin-playing,  and 
second  prize  for  piano-playing.  After 
seven  years'  study  in  the  Conservatory 
he  entered  the  Court  Orchestra  as 
violinist,  and  was  under  such  famous 
masters  as  Wagner,  Liszt,  Rubinstein 
and  Brahms.  Secured  his  first  en- 
gagement as  conductor  at  the  Leipsic 
Theatre,  in  1877,  where  he  remained 
for  ten  years  as  conductor  of  opera 
and  of  the  Tonkiinstler  Versammlung. 
He  was  warmly  welcomed  when  he 
came  to  America  in  1889  to  succeed 
Gericke  as  leader  of  the  Boston  Sym- 
phony Orchestra.  He  remained  in 
this  country  four  years  and  then  re- 
turned to  Europe  to  become  director 
of  Royal  Opera  at  Pesth  and  con- 
ductor of  the  Pesth  Philharmonic 
Society  concerts.  In  1895  he  resigned 
his  positions  in  Pesth  to  take  the 
leadership  of  the  famous  Gewandhaus 
concerts  of  Leipsic.  In  1905  and 
1906,  in  addition  to  his  other  work, 
he  was  director  of  the  Leipsic  Opera. 
He  has  also  been  conducting  the 
Philharmonic  of  Berlin  and  traveling 
with  the  orchestra  in  France,  Russia 
and  Switzerland.  Nikisch  has  visited 
London  many  times  and  wherever  he 
has  been  he  has  met  with  the  greatest 
triumph.  His  name  will  always  be 
closely  associated  with  the  musical 
life  and  development  in  Leipsic  dur- 
ing the  Nineteenth  and  early  Twen- 
tieth Century. 

Nilsson   (nels'-son),  Christine.     1843- 

Christine  Nilsson  was  born  at 
Sjoabal,  near  Wexio,  Sweden;  the 
only  daughter  of  a  poor  farmer.  Her 
younger  brother  played  upon  the  vio- 
lin and  when  Christine  was  a  very 
small  child  she  often  sang  to  her 
brother's  accompaniment,  and  when 
nine  years  old  had  learned  to  play 
his  instrument  and  sang  and  played 
Swedish  melodies  at  village  enter- 
tainments. At  the  age  of  twelve  she 
was  taken  to  country  fairs  to  sing, 
and  when  thirteen  the  opportunity 
came  which  started  her  upon  her 
brilliant  career.     She  was  singing  at 



a  fair  in  Llungby  at  a  ventriloquist's 
booth,  when  Judge  Toernerheljun  was 
attracted  by  her  sweet  voice  and  her 
simple  beauty  and  manner.  He  per- 
suaded her  parents  to  let  him  send 
her  to  Baroness  Leuhusen,  who  gave 
her  her  first  real  instruction.  She 
also  sent  Christine  to  Halmstadt  to 
school.  Later,  in  Stockholm,  she  was 
the  pupil  of  Franz  Berwald  and  in 
less  than  a  year  appeared  as  a  singer 
at  court.  Baroness  Leuhusen  took 
her  to  Paris  and  she  became  a  pupil 
of  Wartel,  and  when  twenty-one  years 
old  made  her  debut  at  the  Lyric 
Theatre  of  Paris  as  Violetta  in  La 
Traviata,  and  afterwards  appeared  as 
Lady  Henrietta,  Elvira  in  Don  Gio- 
vanni, and  other  roles.  She  remained 
at  the  Lyric  for  three  years,  then  went 
to  London,  taking  the  part  of  Violetta 
at  Her  Majesty's  Theatre  and  later 
achieved  immense  success  as  Mar- 
guerite in  Faust.  Many  critics  agree 
that  Nilsson  has  never  been  excelled 
in  this  character.  During  the  same 
season  she  sang  in  oratorio  at  Crystal 
Palace  and  at  the  Birmingham  Fes- 
tival. In  1868  she  sang  in  Italian 
Opera  at  Drury  Lane  and  at  the 
Handel  Festival,  later  in  the  year  at 
Baden-Baden  for  the  first  time  as 
Mignon,  one  of  her  most  popular 
roles,  and  then  returned  to  the  Acad- 
emy at  Paris.  The  following  year  she 
appeared  as  Ophelia  at  Covent  Gar- 
den, and  then  at  Exeter  Hall,  London, 
in  the  Messiah,  Creation,  and  Hymn 
of  Praise. 

Her  first  visit  to  America  she  made 
in  1870.  In  1872  she  was  married  in 
Westminster  Abbey  to  M.  Auguste 
Rouzeaud  of  Paris.  She  revisited 
America  in  1873-1874.  In  1881  she 
retired  from  the  operatic  stage,  but 
continued  in  oratorios  and  concerts 
until  1888,  when  she  gave  up  all  public 
appearances.  With  Brignoli,  Christine 
Nilsson  gave  a  concert  tour  through 
the  United  States  in_  1884,  and  also 
through  Spain,  Russia  and  Sweden 
between  1881  and  1888.  Her  husband 
died  in  1882,  and  five  years  after  his 
death  she  was  married  to  Count  Casa 
di  Miranda.  Mme.  Nilsson's  only  cre- 
ation was  the  part  of  Edith  in  Balfe's 
Talismano,  though  she  gave  new  in- 
terpretations to  well-known  roles. 
Her  voice  was  marvelously  sweet, 
brilliant  and_  even  and  she  possessed 
great  skill  in  vocalization,  and  was 
termed  by  some  enthusiasts  the  new 
Swedish  Nightingale.     In  her  acting 


she  showed  great  individuality,  fine 
intuition,  rare  charm,  and  excellent 
power  of  expression. 

Nisard  (ne-zar),  Theodore.     1812- 

Pen  name  of  Abbe  Theodule  Elea- 
zar  Xavier  Normand,  who  was  born 
in  1812  at  Quaregnon,  near  Mons,  Bel- 
gium. Here  he  received  his  first  in- 
struction in  music.  He  was  later  in 
Cambrai  as  student  and  chorister,  and 
in  Douay  as  a  cellist,  then  entered  the 
priests'  seminary  at  Tournay,  and  in 
1839  became  director  of  the  English 
Gymnasium,  and  in  1842  organist  of 
St.  Germain  in  Paris;  he  held  this 
position  for  only  a  short  time,  as  he 
wished  to  devote  himself  to  litera- 
ture. His  historical  books  are  valu- 
able to  those  interested  in  the 
development  of  music.  Among  the 
most  important  are  a  manual  or  ex- 
planation of  the  organ,  of  plain  chant 
and  the  manner  in  which  it  should 
be  accompanied;  La  Science  et  la 
Pratique  du  Plain  Chant;  fitudes  sur 
les  anciennes  notations  niusicales  de 
I'Europe,  directed  against  Fetis;  re- 
markable articles  in  d'Ortigue's  Dic- 
tionary; history  text,  etc.  of  the  plain 
chant;  and  Du  rhythme  dans  le  plain 
chant;  monographs  on  Odo  de  Clu- 
gny,  Palestrina,  Lully,  Rameau,  Abbe 
Vogler,  and  others. 

Nissen-Saloman  (nis'-sen),  Henriette. 

Born  at  Gothenburg,  Sweden.  She 
early  showed  musical  talent,  and 
when  twenty  years  old  was  in  Paris, 
a  piano  pupil  of  Chopin,  and  a  voice 
pupil  of  Manuel  Garcia.  In  1843  she 
made  her  first  public  appearance  in 
Italian  Opera  in  Paris  as  Adalgisa  in 
Norma,  and  Elvira  in  Don  Juan.  She 
met  with  much  success  and  sang  for 
three  years  in  various  cities  of  Italy, 
Russia,  England,  Norway  and  Swe- 
den. She  appeared  at  most  of  the 
Gewandhaus  concerts  at  Leipsic  for 
two  years,  and  while  in  Berlin  was 
favorably  compared  with  Jenny  Lind. 
She  was  married  to  Saloman,  a  Dan- 
ish musician,  in  1850.  In  1859  she  was 
made  teacher  of  singing  at  the  St. 
Petersburg  Conservatory,  where  she 
remained  the  rest  of  her  life.  She 
has  published  a  method  of  singing  in 
Russian,  German  and  French. 

Nohl    (nol),   Carl   Friedrich   Ludwig. 

Writer  on  musical  subjects,  lec- 
turer and  teacher.     Nohl's  contribu- 




tions  to  musical  literature  are  of  much 
value,  many  have  been  translated  into 
English  and  are  well  known  to 
students  of  music.  Among  the  best 
known  are  his  Mozart's  Letters,  Bee- 
thoven's Letters,  Letters  of  Musi- 
cians, Gluck  and  Wagner,  Life  of 
Beethoven,  Beethoven  According  to 
the  Representations  of  his  Contem- 
poraries, and  Mozart  According  to 
the  Representations  of  his  Contem- 
poraries. He  was  born  at  Iserlohn,  in 
Westphalia,  educated  to  be  a  lawyer, 
and  for  many  years  pursued  his  study 
of  jurisprudence  at  Bonn,  Heidelberg 
and  Berlin,  because  it  was  his  father's 
wish,  but  he  felt  that  his  talents  lay 
in  the  direction  of  music  and  litera- 
ture. He  studied  theory  of  music 
with  Dehn  at  Berlin,  and  later  became 
a  pupil  of  Kiel.  In  1850  he  settled 
at  Heidelberg,  where  in  1860  the 
University  conferred  upon  him  the 
degree  of  Doctor  of  Philosophy.  In 
1865  King  Ludwig  appointed  him  an 
honorary  professor  at  the  University 
in  Munich,  but  in  1872  he  returned  to 
Heidelberg  and_  remained  as  a  teacher 
of  musical  history  and  aesthetics. 
Nohl  died  at  Heidelberg. 

Nordica,  Lillian.    1859- 

Lillian  Norton,  the  daughter  of 
Edwin  and  Amanda  Elvira  Norton, 
was  born  at  Farmington,  Maine,  in 
1859.  The  family  moved  to  Boston 
in  1863j  and  here  she  was  educated  in 
the  public  schools  and  then  entered 
the  New  England  Conservatory  of 
Boston,  studying  singing  under  John 
O'Neill.  She  graduated  in  1875,  and 
sang  in  a  vocal  quartet  in  Dr.  Put- 
nam's church.  She  also  studied  for  a 
short  time  in  New  York  with  Ma- 
dame Maretzek,  and  several  years 
later  with  San  Giovanni  in  Milan. 
Her  first  concert  work  was  with  the 
Handel  and  Haydn  Society  of  Bos- 
ton, and  then  with  the  Thomas 
Orchestra  on  tours  through  America, 
appearing  in  New  York,  Philadelphia, 
Cleveland,  St.  Louis  and  other  large 
cities.  In  New  York  she  took  leading 
parts  in  the  oratorios,  Elijah,  Creation 
and  the  Messiah.  When  nineteen 
years  old  she  went  to  England  with 
Gilmore's  band  as  soprano  soloist, 
appearing  at  Crystal  Palace,  London, 
in  1878. 

After  study  in  Milan  she  made  her 
debut  on  the  operatic  stage  at  Brescia 
as  Violetta  in  Traviata  and  assumed 
the  name  of  Nordica.    Her  next  great 


success  was  in  St.  Petersburg  as 
Philine,  Amalia  and  other  roles,  and 
in  1882  made  her  first  appearance  in 
Paris  as  Marguerite  in  Faust,  and 
there,  after  studying  the  leading  so- 
prano parts  under  Gounod  and 
Thomas,  sang  in  Hamlet.  She  was 
enthusiastically  received  in  Paris.  In 
1882  Nordica  was  married  to  Freder- 
ick Gower,  an  aeronaut,  and  for  a 
time  retired  to  private  life.  During 
the  second  year  of  her  married  life 
her  husband  met  with  a  balloon  acci- 
dent while  crossing  the  English 
Channel  and  he  and  his  balloon  were 
never  found.  In  1885  she  returned  to 
the  stage,  and  then  went  on  a  tour 
under  Colonel  Mapleson  through 
America  and  England,  appearing  as 
Violetta  at  Covent  Garden,  then  at 
the  Philharmonic  and  at  Drury  Lane 
in  the  roles  of  Lucia,  Donna  Elvira 
and  Valentine.  The  Prince  and 
Princess  of  Wales  personally  thanked 
her  at  one  of  her  performances,  and 
she  was  commanded  to  sing  before 
Queen  Victoria,  a  compliment  which 
greatly  pleased  her  fellow  country- 
men. Her  appearance  in  Berlin  dur- 
ing the  same  year  was  an  immense 
success.  For  five  years  she  remained 
in  London,  singing  each  season  at 
Covent  Garden,  and  in  1893  sang  in 
oratorio  at  St.  James'  and  Albert 
Halls  and  at  Crystal  Palace  and  vari- 
ous festivals.  The  next  year  at  Bay- 
reuth  she  assumed  the  role  of  Elsa  in 
Lohengrin,  which  is  perhaps  the 
greatest  she  has  ever  portrayed.  Her 
depth  of  feeling  and  artistic  under- 
standing, added  to  her  beautiful  voice, 
made  her  an  ideal  Elsa.  Her  success 
in  this  part  led  her_  to  devote  her 
attention  to  Wagnerian  roles.  For 
several  seasons  Madame  Nordica  was 
again  in  her  own  country  as  a  mem- 
ber of  the  Abbey  and  Grau  Opera 
Company.  In  England  during  the 
season  of  1898  and  for  several  years 
following  at  Covent  Garden,  she  added 
to  her  already  large  repertory  the 
roles  of  Donna  Anna,  Susanna, 
Isolde,  Briinnhilde  and  others.  As 
Isolde  she  won  great  applause.  Ma- 
dame Nordica  was  married  in  Indian- 
apolis, Indiana,  in  1896  to  Zoltan 
Dome,  a  Hungarian  singer,  but  she 
was  divorced  from  him,  and  in  1905 
married  Captain  Joseph  Raphael  de 
la  Mar.  Madame  Nordica  is  one  of 
the  foremost  singers  of  the  day, 
possessing  a  soprano  voice  of  the 
purest  quality. 



Normann,  Ludwig.    1831-1885. 

Composer  and  teacher;  born  in 
Stockholm.  He  was  a  pupil  of  Lind- 
blad,  and  then  under  the  patronage 
of  his  teacher,  of  King  Oscar  and 
Jenny  Lind,  went  to  Leipsic  Con- 
servatory. He  became  a  teacher  of 
composition  at  the  Royal  Academy  of 
Stockholm  in  1857.  In  1859  he  con- 
ducted the  new  Philharmonic  con- 
certs, two  years  later  was  leader  of 
Stockholm  Opera  and  for  five  years 
was  leader  of  the  Symphonic  con- 
certs and  was  president  of  the  Music 
Academy.  He  married  Wilma  Maria 
Neruda,  the  famous  violinist,  in  1864. 
His  compositions  include  a  quartet 
for  piano  and  strings;  trio  for  same; 
sonata  for  vioHn;  cello  sonata;  many 
piano-pieces  for  two  and  four  hands; 
and  good  arrangements  of  Swedish 
melodies  for  piano.  Normann  died  in 

Norris,  Homer  Albert.    1860- 

Talented  American  musician;  born 
in  Wayne,  Kennebec  County,  Maine. 
He  studied  in  the  New  England  Con- 
servatory of  Music  under  Marston, 
Hale,  Chadwick  and  Emery,  then 
spent  four  j^ears  in  Paris  under 
Dubois,  Godard,  Gigout  and  Guil- 
mant.  Returning  to  Boston  he  took 
up  teaching,  which  he  carries  along 
the  lines  followed  in  the  Paris  Con- 
servatory. He  also  lectures  on  musi- 
cal aesthetics  and  is  now  organist  and 
choirmaster  at  St.  George's  Episcopal 
Church,  New  York.  He  contributes 
theoretical  articles  to  Chicago  Music, 
Philadelphia  fitude  and  Musical  Cou- 
rier, New  York,  and  has  published  the 
works  entitled  Practical  Harmony  on 
a  French  Basis  and  The  Art  of  Coun- 
terpoint. His  principal  works  are  the 
cantatas,  Nain,  and  The  Flight  of  the 
Eagle,  but  his  songs,  about  fifty  in 
number,  are  excellent,  among  them 
possibly  the  best  being  Protestations 
with  its  well-developed  vioHn  obli- 
gato.  His  overture,  Zoroaster,  de- 
serves mention. 

Norris,  Thomas.    1741-1790. 

Singer  and  composer;  born  at  Mere, 
Wiltshire,  in  1741.  He  was  chorister 
in  Salisbury  Cathedral,  sang  at  the 
Worcester  and  Hereford  Festivals  of 
1761  and  1762,  and  at  Drury  Lane.  In 
1765  he  was  organist  of  Christ  Church 
Cathedral,  Oxford,  and  that  year  grad- 
uated from  Oxford  as  Bachelor  of 
Music,      and      then      was     appointed 


organist  of  St.  John's  College.  He 
appeared  at  the  Gloucester  Festival 
in  1766  as  tenor  soloist,  at  the  festivals 
of  the  Three  Choirs  until  1788,  and 
was  one  of  the  principal  soloists  at 
the  Handel  commemoration  festival 
in  1784.  He  became  very  popular  and 
was  engaged  for  many  oratorios  in 
London,  appearing  for  the  last  time 
in  the  Birmingham  Festival  in  1790, 
as  he  died  in  September  of  that  year. 
His  compositions  include  glees;  sym- 
phonies for  strings,  oboes  and  horns; 
several  anthems,  only  one  of  which 
has  been  printed;  and  an  overture  to 
Purcell's  Tempest. 

Noskowsky     (nosh-kof'-shki),     Sigis- 
mund.    1848- 

Gifted  composer;  born  at  Warsaw, 
where  he  became  a  teacher  in  a  blind 
institution  and  invented  a  musical 
notation  for  the  blind.  The  Musical 
Society  of  Warsaw  assisted  him  to  go 
to  Berlin  for  study  with  Kiel  and 
Raif.  In  1876  he  was  made  conduc- 
tor of  the  Bodau  Society  at  Con- 
stance, returned  to  Warsaw  in  1881 
to  fill  the  position  of  director  of  the 
Musical  Society,  and  became  a  pro- 
fessor at  the  Warsaw  Conservatory 
in  1888.  His  works  are  an  opera, 
l^ivia;  an  overture.  Das  Mierauge; 
he  also  composed  symphonies;  ballet- 
music;  string  quartets;  piano-music 
and  chansons  et  danses  cracoviennes, 
and  other  music. 

Notker  (not'-ker).    840-912. 

Distinguished  from  others  of  same 
name  by  title  of  Balbulus  the  Stam- 
merer. He  was  a  St.  Gallen  monk, 
and  to  him  are  musicians  indebted 
for  a  nobler  and  grander  expression 
of  the  Sequences,  of  which  he  wrote 
thirty-five.  They  had  great  influence 
over  French  and  Italian  song.  His 
Media  Vita  in  Morte  Sumus,  a  chant 
which  was  adopted  by  Christian  war- 
riors as  a  battle  song  is  still  in  use 
as  well  as  other  of  his  music  which  is 
sung  at  Pentecost,  Easter  and  Christ- 
mas. A  number  of  his  chants  are 
still  preserved  at  St.  Gall.  Notker  is 
often  confused  with  a  younger  monk 
known  as  Notker  Labeo,  who  was 
celebrated  as  the  writer  of  the  first 
German  manuscript  on  the  theory  of 
music,  though  this  treatise  is  some- 
times accredited  to  Notker  the  elder. 
He  gained  his  renown  as  poet  and 
vocalist.  Notker  died  at  St.  Gall, 




Notot   (nu-to),  Joseph. 

Musician  and  composer;  born  at 
Arras  about  1755.  Xo  exact  dates  in 
the  life  of  Xotot  are  known.  He 
early  showed  decided  musical  talent, 
but  as  his  father  had  another  career 
in  view  for  his  son  he  sent  him  to 
Paris  in  hopes  of  interesting  him  in 
the  study  of  law.  Here  he  met  a 
friend  who  took  him  to  Leclerc,  the 
organist,  who  marveled  at  the  boy's 
ability  as  a  musician,  and  from  that 
day  his  career  was  decided.  He  won 
great  popularity  when  he  returned 
to  Arras.  Xotot  became  eminent  not 
only  as  organist  but  as  a  composer, 
and  won  the  esteem  of  Christian 
Bach  and  critics  of  equal  ability.  He 
was  noted  for  his  manner  of  accom- 
panying from  a  full  score  and  was 
much  sought  after  by  composers  who 
could  gain  from  his  performances  of 
their  scores  the  effect  of  their  works. 
At  the  beginning  of  the  French  Revo- 
lution X'otot  gave  up  his  career  as  a 
musician  and  went  to  England,  where 
he  resided  for  some  time. 

Nottebohm    (no'-te-bom),   Martin. 

Gustav.     1817-1882. 

Celebrated  author,  composer  and 
teacher:  born  in  Westphalia  in  1817 
and  died  at  Gratz  in  1882.  His  most 
important  literary  works  are  Ein 
Skizzenbach  von  Beethoven;  Thema- 
tisches  Verzeichniss  der  im  Drucker- 
schienenen  Werke  von  Beethoven; 
Beethoveniana;  Beethoven's  Studien, 
Neue  Beethoveniana;  Mozartiana; 
Thematisches  Verzeichniss  der  in 
Druck  erschienenen  Werke  Franz 
Schuberts.  These  works  show  great 
depth  of  reasoning  and  trustworthi- 
ness of  form,  and  so  are  of  highest 
value  to  ^  the  student.  X'ottebohm 
studied  piano  and  composition  with 
Dehn  and  Berger,  and  in  1847  coun- 
terpoint with  Sechter.  He  was 
associated  in  Leipsic  in  1840  with  Schu- 
mann, and  with  Mendelssohn,  who 
secured  his  release  from  the  army,  in 
which  he  was  serving  as  a  volunteer, 
and  so  assisted  him  in  his  career  as 
a  musician  and  writer.  He  settled 
in  Vienna  in  1847,  and  became  a  suc- 
cessful teacher  of  piano  and  com- 
position. His  compositions  include 
quartets,  trios  and  solos  for  piano,  and 
variations  on  a  theme  by  Bach. 
Nourrit  (noor-re),  Louis.     1780-1831. 

Opera     singer;     born     in     1780     at 
Montpelier,     and     was     educated     in 

music  at  the  Paris  Conservatory.  His 
success  as  a  singer  was  fair,  and  only 
a  part  of  his  time  was  given  to  his 
profession.  He  lacked  ambition  and 
was  satisfied  to  take  parts  in  operas 
created  by  others.  He  retired  from 
the  stage  in  1826  and  lived  the  re- 
mainder of  his  life  at  Brunoy.  His 
son  Adolph  succeeded  his  father  as 
tenor  and  became  famous  as  creator 
of  new  operatic  roles,  and  as  a  writer 
of  words  for  songs  and  for  librettos. 

Novacek  (no-va-tchek),  Ottaker.   1866- 


Violinist,  and  composer  of  a  num- 
ber of  Bulgarian  dances  for  violin 
and  piano,  of  several  songs  for  which 
he  used  Tolstoi's  words;  string  quar- 
tets; a  piano  concerto;  caprices  for 
piano  and  for  violin;  and  three  string 
quartets.  Born  in  Hungary  in  1866; 
studied  in  Vienna  under  Dont,  then 
at  the  Conservatory  of  Leipsic.  He 
appeared  at  the  Gewandhaus  concerts 
in  Leipsic,  and  then  came  to  America, 
where  he  remained  the  rest  of  his 
life.  He  was  a  member  of  the  Boston 
Symphony  Orchestra  in  1889,  under 
Xikisch.  During  the  year  1892-1893 
he  played  the  viola  in  the  Damrosch 
Orchestra  of  N^ew  York.  Ill  health 
compelled  him  to  give  up  his  public 
performances  and  he  devoted  himself 
to  composition. 

*  Novak  (no-vak),  Vitezslav.    1870- 

Cqmposer;  born  at  Kamenitz,  Bo- 
hemia. Novak  ^  is  one  of  the 
Bohemian  musicians  who  have  done 
much  to  revive  in  their  country  the 
old  standard  of  music  and  musical 
taste.  He  studied  at  the  University 
and  at  the  Conserv^atory  at  Prague,  and 
has  since  lived  there  as  a  teacher 
and  state  examiner.  His  composi- 
tions include  numerous  songs, 
choruses,  chamber-music,  piano  trios, 
string  quartets.  On  the  Lofty  Tatra, 
a  symphonic  poem;  another.  Eternal 
Longing,  a  serenade;  four  ballads  and 
a  piano  sonata,  the  Eroica.  His  first 
works,  like  those  of  many  another  of 
his  country,  were  influenced  by  the 
German  Romantic  School,  but  his 
later  compositions  have  been  more 
truly  Bohemian  and  show  the  na- 
tional element  which  has  interested 
his  fellow  musicians. 

Novello  (no-vel'-lo),  CUu-a  Anastasia. 


A  distinguished  oratorio  singer; 
fourth   daughter   of  Vincent   Novello, 



the  composer,  and  born  in  London  in 
1818.  In  1843  she  became  the  wife  of 
Count  Giglincci;  in  1860  she  retired 
from  the  stage.  Her  first  instruc- 
tion was  received  in  York,  where 
she  learned  singing  and  piano-play- 
ing; in  1829  she  was  a  pupil  at  the 
Conservatory  in  Paris.  When  fifteen 
years  old  she  appeared  at  Windsor 
and  was  immediately  engaged  for  the 
Ancient  and  Philharmonic  concerts 
and  Worcester  Festival.  Mendels- 
sohn was  attracted  by  her  singing, 
and  upon  his  invitation  she  went  to 
Leipsic  and  sang  at  the  Gewandhaus 
concerts,  then  in  Berlin,  Vienna,  St. 
Petersburg  and  Diisseldorf.  She 
studied  for  the  stage  in  1859  at  Milan 
and  appeared  in  opera  at  Padua  in 
1841  in  Rossini's  Semiramide,  and 
afterwards  at  Rome,  Milan,  Bologna 
and  Modena,  and  in  1843  at  Drury 
Lane,  London,  in  opera.  Her  last 
public  appearances  were  in  a  per- 
formance of  the  Messiah  at  Crystal 
Palace  and  a  benefit  concert  at  St, 
James'  Hall.  She  then  went  to  Italy 
to  live.  She  is  considered  the  greatest 
oratorio  singer  England  has  ever  pro- 

Novello,  Joseph  Alfred.    1810-1896. 

Eldest  son  of  Vincent  Novello. 
Best  known  as  a  music  publisher  and 
manager  of  the  firm,  Novello  &  Co., 
established  by  his  father  in  1812, 
which  business  Joseph  Novello  en- 
tered at  the  age  of  nineteen.  He  was 
the  first  to  introduce  the  printing  of 
separate  vocal  parts  for  choir  use,  and 
published  classical  music  at  such 
prices  as  to  make  it  popular  in  Eng- 
land. He  was  a  bass-singer,  and 
appeared  in  oratorios  and  concerts, 
and  was  an  organist  and  choirmaster 
at  Lincoln's  Inn  Chapel.  In  1856  he 
retired  from  business  and  lived  the 
remainder  of  his  life  in  Italy.  He  died 
in  Genoa. 

Novello,  Vincent.     1781-1861. 

Born  in  London  in  1781;  son  of 
Giuseppe  Novello,  an  Italian,  and  of 
an  English  woman.  His  first  instruc- 
tion in  music  was  from  a  friend, 
Quellici,  an  Italian  composer.  With 
his  brother  Francis  he  later  attended 
school  at  Huitmille,  near  Boulogne, 
and  remained  until  France  declared 
war  against  England  in  1793,  when  he 
returned  to  London.  Though  but 
twelve  years  old  he  was  made  choris- 
ter at  the  Sardinian  Chapel,  Lincoln's 


Inn  Fields,  under  the  organist,  Sam- 
uel Webbe.  Later  he  assisted  Webbe 
and  also  Dauby,  the  organist  of  the 
Spanish  Chapel  in  Manchester  Square. 
In  1797  he  became  organist  of  the 
Portuguese  Chapel,  Grosvenor  Square. 
His  organ  performances  here  won 
him  much  commendation.  George 
IV.  was  so  attracted  by  his  skill  that 
he  offered  Novello  a  like  position  at 
Brighton  Pavilion.  Novello  declined 
the  offer,  as  his  duties  as  conductor 
of  musical  societies  and  as  teacher 
made  his  residence  in  London  neces- 

In  1811  he  founded  the  well-known 
music  publishing  house  of  Novello, 
Ewer  &  Company,  of  London,  after- 
wards carried  on  by  his  son,  Joseph 
Alfred.  He  also  acted  as  pianist  and 
conductor  for  the  Italian  Opera  Com- 
pany at  the  Pantheon  during  1812, 
and  the  next  year  became  one  of  the 
thirty  original  members  of  the  Phil- 
harmonic Society,  and  frequently  con- 
ducted their  concerts.  At  the  Fes- 
tival at  Westminster  Abbey  in  1834 
he  played  the  organ  in  The  Creation. 
During  his  last  years  in  London  he 
was  organist  of  the  Roman  Catholic 
Chapel  in  Moorfields;  helped  establish 
the  Classical  Harmonist  and  Choral 
Harmonists  Societies,  and  acted'  for 
some  time  as  conductor  of  both.  For 
many  years  he  had  taught  classes  in 
piano-playing  in  Campbell's  School, 
Brunswick  Square,  and  in  Hilbert's  at 
Clapton,  and  also  had  a  number  of 
private  pupils.  As  a  composer  he 
showed  considerable  musical  knowl- 
edge and  technical  skill,  but  his  work 
is  not  spontaneous  and  is  that  of  the 
teacher  rather  than  the  artist.  His 
cantata,  Rosalba,  was  written  for  the 
Philharmonic  Society.  A  glee.  Old 
May  Morning,  gained  for  him  a  prize 
at  Manchester  in  1832,  and  his  In- 
fant's Prayer,  a  recitative  and  air, 
became  very  popular  in  boy  choirs. 
He  also  composed  a  number  of 
masses,  motets  and  sacred  pieces  to 
Latin  words.  He  is  best  known  as 
an  editor  and  arranger  of  music.  He 
published  a  collection  of  Italian  com- 
positions, which  he  was  allowed  to 
copy  from  manuscript;  eighteen  of 
Mozart's  and  sixteen  of  Haydn's 
masses;  Purcell's  Sacred  Music;  Con- 
vent Music;  Croft's,  Green's  and 
Boyce's  anthems;  Beethoven's  and 
Hummel's  masses.  Novello  had  a  fine 
literary  taste,  and  such  poets  and 
writers  as  Shelley,  Keats,  Mary  Lamb 




and  Leigh  Hunt  were  among  the 
many  famous  friends  who  frequented 
the  Xovello  home.  He  was  married 
in  1808  to  Mary  Sabilla  Hehl,  of  Ger- 
man-English parentage,  and  to  them 
were  born  eleven  children,  several  of 
whom  became  more  or  less  eminent 
as  writers  or  musicians.  In  1848  Mrs. 
Novello  went  to  Rome  to  benefit  her 
health,  and  later  to  Xice,  where  in 
1849  Novello  joined  her  and  remained 
the  rest  of  his  life.  He  died  in  1861. 
A  window  in  memory  of  him  was 
placed  in  the  north  transept  of  West- 
minster Abbey  in  1863. 

Noverre  (no-var),  Jean  Georges.  1727- 


Authority  on  dancing  and  reformer 
of  the  French  ballet;  born  in  Paris; 
was  a  pupil  of  the  celebrated  dancer, 
Dupre.  He  was  well  received  in  Ber- 
lin and  London,  where  some  of  his 
ballets  met  with  success,  but  failed 
for  many  years  to  gain  the  position 
in  Paris  for  which  he  hoped.  He 
filled  a  position  at  the  theatre  of 
Lyons,  producing  three  ballets,  found 
a  patron  in  the  Duke  of  Wiirtemberg, 
and  then  was  called  to  Vienna  bj- 
Empress  Maria  Theresa  as  director  of 
Court  festivities  and  dancing-master 
of  the  Imperial  family.  At  last,  in 
1775,  he  gained  the  long  sought  for 
position,  that  of  chief-master  of  the 
ballet  at  the  Academy  in  Paris, 
through  the  influence  of  Marie  An- 
toinette, then  Queen  of  France,  who 
had   once   been   his   pupil.     He  com- 


posed  many  ballets,  and  wrote  a  num- 
ber of  books  on  the  subject  of  the 
ballet,  and  through  them  he  influenced 
the  costume  of  dances,  compelled 
composers  to  conform  their  music  to 
the  situations  in  the  drama,  and  made 
pantomime  appeal  to  the  intellect  as 
well  as  the  eye  by  introducing  dra- 
matic action.  Perhaps  the  most  im- 
portant of  his  publications  is  An 
Analysis  of  the  Imitative  Arts  in 
General  and  of  the  Dance  in  Particu- 
lar; others  are  Lettres  sur  la  Danse 
and  Les  Ballets  et  Les  Arts. 

Nowakowski     (no-va-kof'-shH),     Jo- 
seph.    1805-1865. 

Distingruished  pianist  and  composer 
of  Poland;  born  at  Muiszck  in  1805. 
He  was  educated  in  the  monastery  at 
Wonchak  and  then  in  the  Warsaw 
Conservatory,  studj'ing  under  Eisner 
and  Wiirfel.  He  made  long  concert 
tours  through  Germany,  France  and 
Italy  and  visited  Paris  at  various 
times.  He  was  a  professor  at  the 
Alexander  Institute,  Warsaw.  Over 
fifty  of  his  compositions  were  pub- 
lished and  he  was  considered  by 
many  to  be  the  best  composer  in 
Poland  at  his  time.  His  works  are 
varied,  including  symphonies  and 
overtures  for  orchestra,  masses  and 
other  church-music,  quintets  for  piano 
and  strings,  quartet  for  strings,  polo- 
naises, fantaisies,  nocturnes,  ron- 
deaux  and  etudes  for  piano,  and  many 
songs.  Nowakowski  died  in  Warsaw 
in  1865. 


Oakeley  (ok'-K),  Sir  Herbert  Stanley. 


English  organist,  composer,  pro- 
fessor and  conductor;  born  at 
Ealing,  Middlesex.  After  going  to 
Rugby,  and  Christ  Church,  Oxford, 
where  he  studied  harmony  under 
Elvey,  and  from  which  he  graduated 
Bachelor  of  Arts  in  1853,  and  Master 
of  Arts  in  1856,  he  went  to  German}'. 
At  Leipsic  he  entered  the  classes  of 
Moscheles,  Papperitz  and  Plaidy  at 
the  Conservatory;  at  Dresden  he  took 
organ  lessons  from  Schneider  and 
ended  by  studying  the  piano  under 
Breindenstein  at  Bonn.  He  was  pro- 
fessor  of   music    at    Edinburgh   Uni- 

versity from  1865  to  1891,  becoming 
Professor  Emeritus  the  following 
year.  He  did  great  service  for  Scot- 
land's music,  raising  the  standard  of 
classical  music,  bringing  the  Reid 
concerts,  which  have  become  a  yearly 
three  days'  festival,  from  a  languish- 
ing condition  to  a  very  flourishing 
state  of  excellence,  and  spreading  the 
love  of  organ  and  orchestral  music 
by  his  organ  recitals  and  the  concerts 
of  the  University  Music  Society.  His 
good  work  brought  him  many  honors. 
In  1871  he  was  made  Doctor  of 
Music  by  the  Archbishop  of  Canter- 
bury and  by  Cambridge.  He  was 
knighted  at  the  unveihng  of  a  monu- 




ment  to  the  late  Prince  Consort  at 
Edinburgh  in  1876;  became  Doctor 
of  Music  of  Oxford  in  1879.  Many 
other  honorary  degrees  were  con- 
ferred on  him.  He  was  a  good  pianist 
and  improvised  on  the  organ.  He 
composed  a  great  many  pieces, 
among  them  the  instrumental  works 
Edinburgh,  and  Liverpool  Festival 
March;  a  Funeral  March;  Suite  in 
Olden  Style;  a  piano  sonata;  Romance 
and  Rondo  capriccioso;  and  preludes 
and  fugues  for  the  organ.  In  vocal 
compositions  he  has  written  the  can- 
tata, Jubilee  Lyric,  for  the  Chelten- 
ham Festival  of  1887;  Edina,  and 
other  hymns;  Service  in  E  flat;  Na- 
tional Scottish  Melodies;  choral 
songs;  students'  songs,  among  them 
an  Alma  Mater;  part-songs;  and 
songs  set  to  German  and  English 
words,  notably  the  Bugle  Song,  and 
some  others,  from  The  Princess,  by 

Oberthiir  (6'-ber-tur),  Charles.    1819- 

German  harpist  and  composer;  born 
at  Munich.  He  studied  with  Elsie 
Brauchle  and  G.  V.  Roder,  and  after 
playing  in  the  theatre  in  Zurich  from 
1837  to  1839  he  made  a  tour  of 
Switzerland;  was  then  solo  harpist 
at  the  Wiesbaden  Court  Theatre  until 
1842,  when  he  went  to  live  at  Mann- 
heim. From  there  he  went  to  London, 
in  1844,  which  he  made  his  per- 
manent home.  For  a  short  time  after 
his  arrival  he  played  at  the  Italian 
Opera  House,  but  afterwards  spent 
his  time  in  teaching  and  composing, 
sometimes  appearing  in  concerts  in 
England  and  on  the  Continent.  He 
was  highly  esteemed  as  a  teacher  as 
well  as  an  executant  and  composer. 
Among  his  works  are  the  operas, 
Floris  von  Namur,  given  at  Wies- 
baden, and  The  Spirit  of  the  Hartz 
Mountains;  two  overtures,  Macbeth, 
and  Riibezhl;  a  grand  mass,  St.  Philip 
di  Neri;  a  legend  for  harp  and  orches- 
tra, called  Lorely;  two  trios  for  harp, 
violin  and  cello  in  F  and  C;  a  harp 
quartet;  a  nocturne  for  three  harps; 
for  the  harp  a  concertino;  an  Elegie; 
Pensees  musicales;  Miranda;  The 
Sylph,  etc.;  the  cantatas,  The  Pilgrim 
Queen,  the  Red  Cross  Knight,  and 
Lady  Jane  Grey,  beside  some  piano- 
music  and  part-songs.  He  died  in 

Obrecht,  Jacob.     See  Hobrecht,  Jacob. 

O'CaroIan,  Turlogh.    1670-1738. 

The   last   of   the   bards,   sometimes 
called    Turlough    Carolan;    was    born 
at     Newton,     West     Meath     County. 
While  still  young  he  was  made  blind 
by  smallpox.     He  learned  to  play  the 
harp,   using   it  chiefly   to   aid   him   in 
composing.      He    married    Miss    Mac- 
Guire    of    Tempo,    and    settled    on    a 
farm.     In  1692  he  became  a  wander- 
ing bard.     His  fine  voice,  genial  dis- 
position    and    genius     at     composing 
songs  made  him  welcome  everywhere. 
His  compositions  were  chiefly  in  cele- 
bration of  his  hosts  and  the  ladies  of 
the  families  who  entertained  him  and 
his    companions,    but    he    also    wrote 
some  church-music,  notably  Gloria  in 
excelsis    Deo,    and    Resurrection.      Of 
his    compositions    probably    the    best 
known    are    The    Fairy    Queen;    The 
Princess      Royal;      Gracey      Nugent; 
Bridget    Cruise;    Devotion,    the    only 
one  of  his  two  hundred  songs  that  is 
written  in  English;  O'Rourke's  Feast 
or  Carolan's  Receipt;  Why,  Liquor  of 
Life,  Do   I   Love   You  So;    Bumpers, 
Squire  Jones;  and  a  monody  in  mem- 
ory of   his  wife.     He   died   at   Alder- 
ford,     the     home     of     his     childhood 
friends,    the    MacDermot    Roes,    and 
was     buried     in     the    churchyard    at 
Killronan,    after   a    four    days'    wake, 
which   was   attended  by  hundreds   of 
his    admirers.      He   was    high    in   the 
esteem  of   Geminiani   and  others,  be- 
side  his   own   countrymen.      Some   of 
his    songs    were    printed    in    Aria    di 
Camera  by  Dwight  in  1727,  a  collec- 
tion was  published  by  his  son  in  Lon-. 
don   in    1747,   and   Terence    Carolan's 
collection  appeared  in  1780. 

Ochs  (okhs),  Siegfried.     1858- 

German  composer  and  conductor; 
born  at  Frankfort.  After  studying 
medicine  and  chemistry  in  his  native 
city  and  at  Heidelberg  University  he 
attended  the  Hochschule  fiir  musik  at 
Berlin,  and  took  private  lessons  from 
Kiel  and  Urban.  In  1882  he  founded 
at  Berlin  the  Philharmonic  Choir. 
He  also  directs  the  Porgeschor  at 
Munich  and  the  Riilschen  Gesang- 
verein  in  Frankfort,  and  has  intro- 
duced unknown  worksof  Bach,  Bee- 
thoven. Brahms  and  Liszt,_  as  well  as 
those  of  his  contemporaries,  Briick- 
ner,  Hugo  Wolff  and  Arnold  Men- 
delssohn. His  works  comprise  a 
comic  opera,  Im  Namen  der  Gesetzes 
(In  the  name  of  the  law);  songs, 
duets,   choruses,    and   other   excellent 




vocal  music,  as  well  as  some  piano- 
pieces.  He  is  one  of  the  directors  of 
the  new  Bach  Society,  and  a  member 
of  various  other  organizations.  His 
home  is  at  Berlin. 
Odenwald  (o'-den-valt),  Robert  Theo- 

dor.     1838-1899. 

German  teacher  and  conductor; 
born  at  Frankenthal.  He  studied 
under  Tschirch  and  Heifer,  and  when 
eighteen  years  old  became  prefect  of 
the  choir  of  Gera  Church;  from  1859 
to  1860  he  taught  singing  in  the 
schools  of  that  town,  and  in  1868 
founded  a  vocal  society;  went  to 
Elbing  in  1870  to  become  cantor  of 
the  Marienkirche  and  to  teach  in  the 
college,  and  there  in  1871  established 
the  Elbing  Church  Choir,  which  proved 
a  great  success.  In  1882  he  settled 
in  Hamburg  and  taught  at  the  Real- 
gymnasium  and  at  Wilhelm  College 
until  his  death,  April  22,  1899.  His 
compositions  consist  of  psalms  and 

Odington,  Walter  de. 

Monk  of  Evesham  Abbey,  often 
wrongly  identified  with  Walter 
Einesham  who  was  chosen  Arch- 
bishop of  Canterbury  in  1228,  but 
rejected  by  the  Pope.  He  was  prob- 
ably born  during  the  reign  of  Henry 
III.  (1216-1272),  and  is  thought  to 
have  written  his  treatise  on  music 
during  the  early  part  of  his  life,  about 
1280,  devoting  his  later  years  to 
astronomy  and  science.  De  Specu- 
latione  Musicae,  which  is  preserved  in 
Corpus  Christi  College,  Cambridge,  is 
of  great  importance  in  musical  history 
since  the  sixth  part  is  devoted  to  an 
elaborate  study  of  mensurable  music 
and  the  harmony  of  the  Thirteenth 
Century.  The  first  three  parts  treat 
of  the  monochord  and  its  "intervals, 
and  the  ratio  and  length  of  stretched 
strings,  organ-pipes,  and  bells.  The 
fourth  and  fifth  parts  are  on  musical 
notation  and  ecclesiastical  plain-song, 
giving  many  interesting  definitions 
and  rules  for  writing  certain  forms, 
with  illustrations  from  his  own  music. 

Odo  of  Clugny  (klun'-ye).    879-942. 

Old  French  musician;  born  in  the 
Province  of  Maine,  and  educated  at 
the  Court  of  Foulques,  Count  of 
Anjou,  or  at  that  of  William,  Duke  of 
Aquitaine.  After  taking  Holy  Orders 
he  became  canon  and  chapel-singer  at 
St.  Martin's  in  Tours,  and  later  stud- 
ied  music  under    Remi   d'Auxerre   at 


Paris.  He  returned  to  Tours,  and  in 
the  capacity  of  archicantor  composed 
three  hymns  and  twelve  antiphones  to 
St.  Martin.  In  909  he  went  to  Baume 
monastery,  where  he  was  choirmas- 
ter, and  probably  wrote  the  Dialog^s 
de  musica.  This  book,  in  the  form  of 
a  dialogue  between  master  and  pupij, 
is  an  important  work  on  the  mono- 
chord,  and  gives  rules  for  antiphonal 
singing  and  the  construction  of  plain- 
song.  In  it  first  appears  the  system 
of  modern  letter  notation  of  the  minor 
series.  The  authorship  of  this  work, 
however,  is  much  disputed,  it  being 
attributed  by  some  to  Guido,  and  by 
others  is  thought  to  be  the  same  as 
the  Enchiridion  or  Musica  Enchiriadis, 
supposed  to  be  the  work  of  Hucbald. 
In  927  Odo  became  abbot  of  Clugny 
(now  spelled  Cluny),  where  he  died  in 
942.  Dialogus  de  Musica  was  printed 
by  Gerbert  in  his  Scriptores,  vol.  I. 
Another  work,  Toniarum,  attributed 
to  Odo,  appeared  in  the  second  vol- 
ume of  Scriptores,  printed  by  Cousse- 
maker,  and  in  manuscript  at  St.  Die. 

Oelsner    (els'-ner),    Friedrich    Bruno. 

German  violinist;  born  at  Neudorf, 
in  Saxony.  Studied  violin  under 
Schrabieck  and  Hermann,  and  theory 
under  Grill,  at  the  Conservatory  at 
Leipsic  from  1877  to  1880.  Became 
solo  violin  of  the  Court  Orchestra  at 
Darmstadt,  and  studied  composition 
under  De  Haan.  Since  1882  he  has 
been  violin-teacher  in  the  Darmstadt 
Conservatory,  and  is  chamber-musi- 
cian to  the  Grand  Duke.  He  has 
Avritten  two  one-act  operas,  Vard- 
hamana,  in  1893,  and  der  Brautgang, 
in  1894;  a  cantata  for  tenor  and  bary- 
tone, chorus  and  orchestra;  a  piano 
trio;  and  songs. 

Oesten     (a'-shten),     Theodor.     1813- 

German  pianist,  composer  and  ar- 
ranger of  instrumental  music.  Born 
and  died  in  Berlin.  He  was  a  per- 
former on  many  instruments  and  a 
popular  piano-teacher.  He  is  said  to 
have  learned  to  play  the  piano  from 
the  instruction  of  a  schoolmaster,  and 
was  taught  the  clarinet  by  a  chamber- 
musician,  Tanne,  and  other  wind  and 
string  instruments  by  Politzki,  the 
town  musician  at  Fiirstenwald.  After 
he  had  written  a  large  number  of 
dance-pieces,  he  took  lessons  in  com- 
position under  Bohmer  privately,  and 
from    W.    A.    Bach,    Schneider    and 




Rubenhagen  at  the  Royal  Academy 
of  Arts  at  Berlin.  Abandoning  the 
style  of  his  masters,  he  catered  to 
public  taste  and  his  light  and  brilliant 
compositions,  especially  the  rondo, 
Les  premieres  violettes,  enjoyed  great 
popularity.  Among  his  works  are 
symphonies;  fugues;  quartets;  masses; 
motets;  and  some  good  transcriptions 
from  the  well-known  operas.  Despite 
their  shallowness  they  are  still  fre- 
quently used  and  much  imitated. 

Offenbach      (of'-fen-bakh),     Jacques. 

Originator  of  opera  bouflfe;  a  natur- 
alized Frenchman,  although  he  came 
of  German-Jewish  stock,  and  was  born 
at  Cologne,  where  his  father  was  can- 
tor of  the  Synagogue.  He  went  to 
Paris  and  attended  Vaslin's  violon- 
cello class  at  the  Conservatory  in 
1833.  In  1842  he  permanently  settled 
at  the  French  capital  and  obtained  a 
position  as  violoncellist  in  the  or- 
chestra of  the  Opera  Comique.  He 
appeared  in  concerts,  visiting  England 
in  1844;  wrote  a  few  compositions, 
and  published  settings  on  parodies  on 
La  Fontaine's  fables,  which  brought 
his  name  before  the  public.  In  1848 
or  1849  he  was  given  charge  of  the 
orchestra  at  the  Theatre  Frangais, 
and  there  he  made  his  first  real  suc- 
cess with  the  setting  of  Alfred  de 
Musset's  Chanson  de  Fortunio,  in  one 
act.  Previously  he  had  produced  Les 
Alcoves  at  a  concert  in  Paris  in  1847, 
and  in  1849  his  Marietta  came  out  in 
Cologne.  Ambitious  to  keep  in  the 
public  eye,  he  wrote  Pepito,  a  one-act 
operetta,  produced  at  the  Opera 
Comique,  but  it  could  hardly  be  called 
a  great  success.  It  was  not  until  1855, 
when  he  boldly  assumed  the  direction 
of  a  theatre  of  his  own,  that  he  gained 
the  popularity  which  he  so  eagerly 
desired.  The  Bouflfes  Parisiens,  as  he 
styled  it,  was  opened  in  the  Champs- 
Elysee,  but  when  winter  came  he  re- 
moved to  the  Theatre  de  Comte.  Not 
long  afterward  he  took  his  troupe  to 
Germany  and  England,  where  he  was 
well  received.  During  the  eleven 
years  of  his  management  of  the 
Bouffes  Parisiens,  most  of  his  best 
and  most  popular  works  were  pro- 
duced. Beginning  with  a  series  of 
light  and  charming  one-act  pieces  in 
Imitation  of  Auber  —  Les  Deux  Aveu- 
gles;  Le  Violoneux;  Bataclan:  Cro- 
quefer;  Dragonette;  and  Le  manage 
aux  lanterrs,  he  came  to  his  own  in 


1858  in  Orphee  aux  Enfers,  where 
he  gives  full  vent  to  his  peculiar  dia- 
bolical humor,  stripping  the  Olympian 
deities  of  every  vestige  of  dignity  and 
making  them  utterly  ridiculous  for  the 
pleasure  of  his  audience.  Then  fol- 
lowed Genevieve  de  Brabant;  Les 
Bavards;  La  belle  Helene;  Barbe- 
bleue;  La  Vie  Parisienne;  and  La 
Grande  Duchesse  de  Gerolstein.  In 
1866  he  gave  up  directing  the  Bouflfes 
Parisiens  and  his  plays  until  1873 
came  out  at  various  theatres.  He  then 
managed  the  Theatre  de  la  Gaite  from 
1873  to  1876.  His  later  works,  the 
most  important  of  which  are  La 
Perichole,  La  Princesse  de  Trebizonde, 
La  Jolie  Parfumeuse,  and  Madam 
Favart,  show  a  higher  aim,  and  the 
caricature  is  not  so  broad;  but  when 
he  attempted  the  higher  form  of  comic 
opera,  in  Barkouf  and  Robinson  Cru- 
soe, he  failed  signally.  His  last  work, 
Contes  d'  Hoffman,  was  not  given 
until  1881,  a  year  after  his  death. 
Offenbach's  works  became  popular  in 
America  in  1876,  when  Bateman  intro- 
duced La  Grande  Duchesse  in  New 
York  with  Tostee  as  leading  lady, 
but  the  composer's  visit  here  the  fol- 
lowing year  was  not  very  successful. 
Musicians  and  people  of  refinement 
have  condemned  Offenbach  for  his 
utter  disregard  of  all  established  rules 
and  for  his  shameless  caricature  of 
all  that  they  held  sacred.  Yet  his 
burlesques,  immoral  as  they  are,  were 
the  outgrowth  of  the  age  in  which  he 
lived  and  furnished  great  enjoyment 
to  the  masses.  "The  fundamental 
humor  of  them  all,"  says  a  writer 
in  Seidel's  World  of  Modern  Music, 
"consisted  in  the  association  of  myth- 
ologic  and  majestic  concepts  with  the 
tornfoolery  of  the  most  unscrupulous 
artists."  He  was  a  native  genius  of 
remarkable  originality,  as  is  shown 
not  only  by  the  fact  that  during  his 
career  he  turned  out  one  hundred  and 
two  pieces  for  the  stage  but  that 
Lecocq,  LitolfT  and  Planquette,  Suppe 
and  Straus  have  fallen  short  of  him  in 
following  his  lead,  and  have  finally 
turned  back  to  the  comic  and  lyric 
fields.  Unfortunately  for  his  immor- 
talit3^  his  works  lack  the  external 
form  indispensable  to  long  life.  Since 
his  death  they  have  been  forgotten. 

Oginski  (6-gen'-shki),  Prince  Michael 
Cleophas.     1765-1833. 

Polish  composer,  pianist  and  violin- 
ist. Grand  Treasurer  of  Lithuania  and 



Senator  of  Russia.  Born  at  Gutzow, 
near  Warsaw.  He  was  the  nephew 
of  Michael  Casimiro  Oginski,  of  Lith- 
uania, a  talented  amateur  musician,  to 
whom  is  accredited  the  invention  of 
pedals  for  the  harp,  and  who  is  said 
to  have  suggested  to  Handel  the  ora- 
torio. Creation,  as  well  as  to  have 
written  the  article  on  the  harp  in  the 
First  French  Cyclopaedia.  Cleophas 
studied  music  under  Kozlowski  and 
wrote  fourteen  fine  polonaises;  three 
marches;  and  romances  for  the  piano. 
Twelve  polonaises  were  published  in 
the  Harmonicon  in  1824.  One,  called 
The  Death  Polonaise,  composed  in 
1793,  was  world-famed  because  of  the 
romantic  story  attached  to  it.  He  died 
at  Florence. 

Okeghem  (och-ka'-gem),  Jean  de. 

Celebrated  Flemish  contrapuntist  of 
the  Fifteenth  Century.  Authorities 
differ  widely  about  the  dates  of  his 
birth  and  death,  placing  his  birth  as 
early  as  1415  and  as  late  as  1434,  but 
the  majority  give  approximately  1430. 
Termonde  is  generally  considered  his 
birthplace,  and  it  is  certain  that  he 
sang  at  the  Cathedral  at  Antwerp 
from  1443  to  1444,  where  he  studied 
under  Binchois.  Two  years  later  he 
entered  the  service  of  Charles  VII. 
of  France  and  was  first  chaplain  in 
1454.  In  1461  he  was  Royal  chapel- 
master  and  was  made  treasurer  of  St. 
Martin's  Abbey  at  Tours  by  Louis 
XI.  As  founder  of  the  second  or  Xew 
Netherland  School,  and  the  first  great 
teacher,  he  holds  an  important  place 
in  the  history  of  music.  Agricola, 
Brumel,  Compere,  Josquin  Despres, 
de  la  Rue  and  others  studied  under 
him  and  spread  his  teaching  through- 
out Europe.  Ambros  states  that  all 
schools  may  be  traced  back  to  Oke- 
ghem. He  did  not  invent  canon,  as 
some  authorities  once  thought,  but 
he  did  develop  it  to  a  high  degree, 
employing  many  devices  original  with 
himself.  His  elaborate  contrapuntal 
works  are  of  great  value  to  the  musi- 
cal historian,  showing  a  wonderful 
advance  beyond  the  old  school.  Under 
him  masses  and  motets  became  a 
little  less  artificial,  a  little  more  cap- 
able of  expressing  human  emotion. 
He  wrote  chansons;  motets;  canons; 
and  masses.  Parts  of  Missa  Prola- 
tionium,  which  was  sung  at  Munich, 
where  a  manuscript  copy  still  exists, 
appeared  in  a  number  of  histories. 
Missa  Cuiusvis  toni,  a  fine  example  of 


Okeghem's  skill,  published  by  Petreius 
in  the  fifteenth  book  of  masses  at 
Louvain  in  1838,  is  in  manuscript  at 
the  Vienna  Library.  As  its  title  sug- 
gests, it  may  be  sung  in  any  mode. 
Of  his  extant  work  in  manuscript, 
some  motets  and  the  mass  De  plus  en 
plus  are  in  the  Papal  Chapel  at  Rome; 
the  masses.  Pour  quelque  peine,  and 
Ecce  ancilla  Domini,  at  the  library  in 
Brussels;  the  Kyrie  of  Gaudeamus  in 
the  Royal  Collection  at  Dresden,  and 
the  entire  mass  in  the  Vienna  Library; 
the  chansons,  D'ung  aultre  mer, 
Aultre  Venus,  and  Rondo  Royal,  and 
the  motet.  Alma  redemptoris,  in  Flor- 
ence; and  other  motets  at  Dijon. 

*  Oldberg,  Professor  Ame.    1874- 

Composer,  concert- pianist  and 
teacher;  born  at  Youngstown,  Ohio. 
Removing  to  Chicago,  he  studied 
music  under  August  Hyllested, 
Adolph  Koelling  and  Wilhelm  Mid- 
delschulte.  He  then  went  to  Vienna, 
where  he  studied  piano  with  Theodor 
Leschetizky  from  1893  to  1895  and 
with  Josef  Rheinberger  in  Munich, 
and  from  1898  to  1899  pursued  a 
three-years'  course  in  composition  in 
one  season.  He  returned  to  America 
in  1899  and  became  professor  of  com- 
position and  piano  at  Northwestern 
University  School  of  Music  at  Evans- 
ton,  Illinois,  a  position  he  has  held 
ever  since.  From  1901  to  1903  he 
was  president  of  the  Chicago  Manu- 
script Society.  He  is  a  member  of 
the  Cliff-Dwellers'  Club  of  Chicago. 
Of  his  numerous  piano  compositions, 
the  most  important  are  an  interesting 
concerto  for  piano  and  orchestra, 
marked  Op.  17;  a  theme  and  varia- 
tions for  piano.  Op.  25;  a  legend,  for 
piano.  Op.  26;  chamber-music,  includ- 
ing two  quintets  for  piano  and  string 
quartet;  a  woodwind  quintet;  and  a 
string  quartet.  His  orchestral  works 
include  a  symphony;  a  theme  and 
twelve  variations;  an  overture  to 
Paolo  and  Francesca;  and  a  concerto 
for   French   horn. 

O'Leary  (6-la'-ri),  Arthur.    1834- 

Irish  pianist  and  composer;  born  of 
a  musical  family  at  Tralee.  Educated 
at  Dublin,  and  received  his  first  musi- 
cal training  at  home,  becoming  such 
a  good  pianist  that  he  was  noted  by 
Mr.  \Vyndham  Goold,  who,  in  1847, 
sent  him  to  Leipsic.  Here  he  studied 
piano  under  Plaidy  and  Moscheles, 
theory  from  Hauptmann  and  compo- 




sition  from  Richter  and  Rietz,  and 
made  the  acquaintance  of  Mendels- 
sohn and  the  Schumanns.  Returning 
to  England  in  1852  he  joined  Ben- 
nett's class  in  composition  and  Pot- 
ter's piano  class  at  the  Royal  Academy 
of  Music.  In  1856  he  became  pro- 
fessor there,  where  he  taught  until 
1903.  In  1873  he  was  appointed  to 
the  newly  erected  National  Training 
School  of  Music,  and,  according  to 
Brown  and  Stratton,  he  has  also  been 
professor  at  the  Guildhall  School  and 
the  Crystal  Palace  School  of  Science 
and  Art,  and  has  lectured  and  written 
for  musical  papers.  In  1860  he  married 
Rosetta  Vinning,  of  Newton  Abbott, 
a  pupil  of  the  Royal  Academy  of 
Music  and  a  successful  song  com- 
poser. O'Leary's  compositions  in- 
clude the  instrumental  works,  overture 
and  incidental  music  to  The  Spanish 
Student,  by  Longfellow,  written  in 
collaboration  with  Potter;  a  symphony 
in  C;  a  concerto  in  E  minor,  for 
piano  and  orchestra;  a  theme  in  C 
minor,  with  variations;  and  a  toccata 
in  F;  and  songs,  among  them,  Ask 
not  why  I  love;  He  roamed  in  the 
forest;  Listening;  and  'Tis  Jamie's 
foot  I  hear.  He  has  edited  Bennett's 
piano-music,  Bach's  Christmas  ora- 
torio, and  masses  by  Hummel,  Sechter 
and  Schubert. 

Oliphant,  Thomas.     1799-1873. 

English  poet,  composer  and 
arranger  and  writer  on  musical  sub- 
jects; born  on  Christmas  Day  at 
Condie,  Perthshire.  Began  life  as 
a  merchant,  but  _  soon  turned  to  lit- 
erature and  music.  For  forty  years 
was  secretary  and  in  1871  president  of 
the_  Madrigal  Society  of  London, 
which  he  joined  in  1830.  In  1834  he 
wrote  A  Brief  Account  of  the  Madri- 
gal Society,  in  1836  A  Short  Account 
of  Madrigals,  and  in  1837  La  Musa 
Madrigalesca,  a  book  containing  the 
words  of  about  four  hundred  madri- 
gals, ballets  and  roundelays,  princi- 
pally of  the  Elizabethan  Age.  He 
edited  copies  of  two  works  by  Tallis, 
the  Song  of  Forty  Parts,  and  Service 
and  Responses,  and  greatly  assisted 
in  interesting  the  public  in  the  Flem- 
ish and  Italian  masters.  In  1842  his 
Catalogue  of  the  Manuscript  Music  in 
the  British  Museum  was  printed. 
Under  the  name  of  B.  Tomasi  he 
wrote  a  charming  madrigal  of  his 
own.  Stay  one  Moment,  Gentle  River. 
He    also    published    German    songs; 


Swedish  part-songs;  Ten  Favorite 
Madrigals,  with  piano  accompaniment; 
various  collections  of  glees,  madri- 
gals, catches,  and  rounds;  and  Ditties 
of  Olden  Times.  He  wrote  an  Eng- 
lish version  of  Beethoven's  Fidelio, 
besides  translating  portions  of  Lohen- 
grin for  the  Philharmonic  Society 
and  writing  words  to  a  number  of 
songs.     He  died  in  London. 

Oliver,  Henry  Kemble.    1800-1885. 

American  amateur  composer  of 
church-music;  born  at  Beverly,  Mass. 
His  father  was  a  minister  and  he 
inherited  his  musical  ability  from  his 
mother,  who  was  the  great-aunt  of 
Oliver  Wendell  Holmes  and  related 
to  the  family  of  Wendell  Phillips.  He 
graduated  from  both  Harvard  and 
Dartmouth  Colleges  in  1818.  Until 
1844  he  taught  school  in  Salem,  where 
he  married  Sarah  Cook  in  1825.  He 
became  superintendent  of  the  Atlantic 
Cotton  Mills  in  Lawrence  in  1848, 
and  during  the  four  years  intervening 
he  served  as  colonel  and  later  adju- 
tant-general of  the  militia,  serving  at 
the  head  of  a  regiment  in  the  Mexican 
War.  After  establishing  a  library 
and  making  many  other  improvements 
at  Lawrence  he  gave  up  his  position 
in  the  mills  in  1858  and  entered  poli- 
tics. In  1859  he  was  mayor  of  Law- 
rence; during  the  Civil  War  he  was 
treasurer  of  Massachusetts;  and  after 
investigating  child  labor  was  ap- 
pointed head  of  the  Massachusetts 
Bureau  of  the  Statistics  of  Labor  in 
1869,  and  a  judge  at  the  Centennial 
Exposition  in  1876.  He  was  mayor 
of  Salem  from  1877  to  1880,  and  then 
removed  to  Boston,  where  he  died 
five  years  later.  Was  made  Doctor 
of  Music  by  Dartmouth  in  1883,  hold- 
ing the  degrees  of  Bachelor  of  Arts 
and  Master  of  Arts  of  Harvard.  His 
career  as  a  musician  began  when  he 
was  but  a  boy  of  ten,  in  the  choir  of 
the  Park  Street  Church,  Boston,  and 
from  1819  he  was  a  professional  organ- 
ist, playing  and  directing  music  in  a 
number  of  churches  in  Salem  and 
Lawrence.  His  first  attempt  at  com- 
position was  in  1832,  when  he  wrote  a 
hymn.  Federal  Street.  In  1872,  at 
the  Peace  Jubilee,  this  hymn  was 
sung  to  his  own  words  by  twenty 
thousand  singers,  with  Oliver  leading 
and  an  assembly  of  forty  thousand 
joining  in.  In  1860  appeared  Oliver's 
Collection  of  Church-Music,  and  in 
1875  Oliver's  Original  Sacred  Music. 




He  also  published  the  National  Lyre, 
with  the  assistance  of  Dr.  Tuckerman, 
in  1849.  The  familiar  hymns,  Beacon 
Street,  Chestnut  Street,  Salisbury 
Plain,  Vesper,  Wendell,  Walnut  Grove, 
Elkton,  Harmony  Grove,  Hudson, 
Merton,  Morning,  Oakland,  and  Wal- 
singham,  were  written  by  him.  He 
founded  a  glee  club  in  1832  at  Salem, 
and  in  1826  organized  a  Mozart  Soci- 
ety there. 

Olsen  (ol'-zen),  Ole.    1851- 

Norwegian  critic,  conductor  and 
composer  of  extremely  modern  ten- 
dency. Born  at  Hammerfest.  His 
father  was  a  merchant  by  profession, 
but  also  organist  of  the  parish  church, 
and  when  Ole  was  only  seven  years 
old  he  was  able  to  play  at  church. 
In  1865  he  went  to  .Drontheim  to 
study  engineering,  but  two  years  later 
he  took  up  music  under  Fust  Lender- 
mann.  For  the  next  three  years  he 
spent  the  winter  in  hard  study  and 
the  summer  in  conducting  with  vari- 
ous traveling  theatrical  companies; 
then,  going  to  Leipsic,  he  studied  for 
four  years  under  Richter,  Reinecke 
and  Oscar  Paul.  On  his  return  to 
Sweden  in  1874  he  made  Christiania 
his  home,  and  there  established  him- 
self as  a  teacher  of  piano  and  a  choir- 
master. For  several  years  he  led  the 
Musical  Society  there,  and  in  1884 
was  appointed  musical  director  of  the 
Second  Brigade  of  Norwegian  Infan- 
try. In  1900  he  was  appointed  musical 
director  of  the  Military  Board.  In 
Denmark,  Germany,  Austria  and  Swe- 
den he  has  conducted  his  own  com- 
positions, which  include  the  grand 
operas,  Stig  Hvide,  Stallo,  and  Lajla, 
for  which  he  has  written  both  poem 
and  music;  the  elfin  comedy,  Svein 
Urad;  an  oratorio,  Nideros;  the  can- 
tatas, Ludwig  Holberg,  Griffenfeld, 
Broderbud,  and  the  Tourist  Cantata. 
Probably  his  best  known  works  are 
those  for  orchestra,  notably  Aasgaards- 
reien,  and  Elf-dance,  symphonic 
poems;  a  symphonj'  in  G  major;  and 
a  suite  for  piano  and  orchestra.  Olsen 
knows  his  resources  and  writes  in 
the  broad,  free  style  of  the  ultra  mod- 
ernists. His  compositions  are  popu- 
lar in  Norway  and  greatly  admired 
by  those  who  hear  them,  but  they 
have  not  yet  become  universally 

Ondricek  (on'-dri-chek),  Franz.    1859- 

_  Also  spelled  Ondriczek.     Excellent 
violinist;  born  at  Prague.    His  parents 

were  Austrians.  His  father  was  vio- 
linist of  the  National  Theatre  and 
conductor  of  a  band,  of  which  Franz 
became  a  member  when  only  seven. 
At  fourteen  he  entered  the  Prague 
Conservatory,  and,  after  three  years 
there  gave  a  concert,  in  1876,  at 
which  he  was  embraced  by  Wieniaw- 
ski,  so  thoroughly  did  that  virtuoso 
approve  his  playing.  A  rich  mer- 
chant thereupon  sent  him  to  the  Paris 
Conservatory,  where  he  studied  under 
Massart,  and,  after  gaining  the  first 
prize  in  two  years'  time,  he  played 
at  the  Pasdeloup  concerts  at  Paris 
and  in  other  cities  of  France.  He 
visited  Brussels  and  London,  appeared 
at  Berlin  and  other  German  cities, 
in  Russia,  Holland  and  Italy,  as  well 
as  the  Orient.  In  America,  whither 
he  came  in  1896,  he  has  also  achieved 
the  same  success  that  attended  him  on 
his  European  tours.  His  repertory 
includes  the  classic  and  the  modern 
of  all  countries,  but  he  is  perhaps 
at  his  best  in  Dvorak's  Concerto  in  A 

Onslow,  George.     1780-1853. 

Composer  of  chamber-music.  His 
father,  son  of  the  first  Lord  Onslow, 
married  a  Frenchwoman  of  Bran- 
tome,  and  George  was  born  on  his 
maternal  estate  at  Clermont-Ferrand, 
in  the  Province  of  Auvergne.  He 
studied  music,  taking  piano  lessons 
from  Hullmandel,  Dussek  and  Cramer. 
But  his  taste  for  music  did  not  develop 
until  he  was  enthused  by  the  overture 
to  Stratonice  by  Mehul.  He  then 
began  a  long  series  of  compositions, 
and  learned  to  play  the  violoncello 
and  to  take  part  in  the  performance 
of  chamber-music  with  some  friends. 
He  went  to  Venice,  where  he  studied 
composition  for  two  years.  Return- 
ing to  France  he  wrote  a  large  num- 
ber of  salon-pieces,  with  Mozart  for 
a  model.  He  was  ^  persuaded  to 
attempt  opera,  and,  in  preparation, 
studied  for  a  time  under  Reicha  at 
Paris.  But  of  his  comic  operas, 
L'Acalde  de  la  Vega,  Le  Colporteur, 
and  Le  Due  de  Guise;  the  overture  to 
Le  Colporteur  alone  sur\-ived  for  any 
length  of  time.  His  chamber-music 
comprised  thirty-four  quintets  and 
thirty-six  quartets;  six  violin,  and 
three  cello  sonatas;  ten  trios;  a  num- 
ber of  duets;  sonatas;  toccatas;  sex- 
tets; a  septet;  and  a  nonet.  The 
quintets  are  his  best  and  only  sur- 
viving   works.      He    was    elected    to 





take  Cherubini's  place  at  the  Institute 
in  1842  and  was  a  Chevalier  of  the 
Legion  of  Honor.  He  died  in  1853  at 
him  home  in  Clermont.  He  was  a 
gentleman  of  refined  taste,  and, 
although  not  a  genius,  he  worked  hard 
on  his  compositions,  many  of  which, 
doubtless,  were  worthy  of  their  pop- 

Ordenstein   (or'-den-shtin),   Heinrich. 

German  pianist,  teacher  and  writer; 
born  at  Ofifstein.  From  1871  to  1875 
he  studied  at  the  Leipsic  Conserva- 
tory under  Coccius,  Jadassohn,  Rei- 
necke,  Richter,  Wenzel  and  Oscar 
Paul.  He  then  toured  with  Madam 
Peschka-Leutner  and  Griitzmacher 
and  studied  in  Paris.  In  1878  he  played 
successfully  in  Leipsic  and  the  next 
year  was  engaged  in  Countess  Reh- 
binder's  school  at  Carlsruhe.  In  1881 
and  1882  he  taught  at  Kullak's  Acad- 
emy in  Berlin  and  gave  concerts,  but 
returned  to  Carlsruhe  in  1884  and 
founded  the  now  thriving  conservatory 
which  he  still  directs.  His  protector, 
the  Grand  Duke  of  Baden,  made  him 
professor,  and  he  is  a  member  of  the 
Sachverstandigenkommiss  fiir  Baden, 
Wiirtemberg  und  Hesse.  He  has 
written  some  excellent  articles  on 
music,  Musikmachen  und  Musikhoren; 
Beiter.  z.  Charakterist.  d.  Ipstrument- 
almus;  vor  stud.  z.  Bachspiel. 

Orgeni  (6r-ga'-ne),  Anna  Maria  Ag- 
laja.    1843- 

Soprano  singer,  whose  real  name 
is  Gorger  Saint  Jorgen.  Born  at  Tis- 
menice,  Sambor,  in  Galicia,  a  province 
of  Austria.  She  studied  under  Mad- 
ame Viardot-Garcia  at  Baden-Baden, 
and  in  1865  and  1866  played  at  the 
Court  Opera  in  Berlin,  where  she 
made  her  debut  as  Amina.  In  1866 
she  made  her  London  debut  at  Cov- 
ent  Garden  as  Violetta  in  La  Travi- 
ata,  and  after  singing  in  concerts  there 
went  to  Vienna.  She  sang  at  Berlin, 
Leipsic  and  elsewhere,  revisited  Lon- 
don in  1870  and  1881,  and  since  1886 
has  taught  singing  at  the  Dresden 

Ortigue    (or'-teg),   Joseph   Louis   d'. 

French  critic  and  writer  on  musical 
subjects;  born  at  Cavaillon.  He  first 
studied  law,  but  his  taste  for  music 
asserted  itself  and  he  became  a  musi- 
cal critic.  In  1829  he  wrote  for  the 
Memorial  Catholique.    He  was  a  con- 

stant contributor  to  various  periodi- 
cals, notably  Les  Journal  des  debats, 
Gazette  Musicale,  La  France  Musi- 
cale.  Revue  de  musique  ancienne  et 
moderne,  Le  Menestrel,  Le  National, 
and  L'Univers.  He  wrote  Le  Balcon 
de  rOpera;  Leaves  from  the  News- 
papers; De  I'ficole  Italienne  et  de  I'Ad- 
ministration  de  I'Academie  Royale  de 
Musique;  Du  Theatre  Italien  et  son 
Influence  sur  le  Gout  Musical  Fran- 
gais;  Abecedaire  du  Plain-Chant; 
Palingenesie  Musicale;  and  De  la 
Memoire  chez  les  Musiciens,  reprinted 
from  the  Revue  and  Gazette  Musicale; 
Introduction  a  I'fitude  Comparee  des 
Tonalites  et  Principalement  du  Chant 
Gregorien  et  de  la  Musique  Moderne. 
His  most  important  work  is  La  Dic- 
tionaire  Liturgique,  Historique;  et 
Theorique  du  Plain-Chant  et  de  Mu- 
sique Religieuse,  published  in  1854 
and  1860.  Ortigue  was  assisted  in  this 
work  by  Abbe  Normand,  known  as 
Theodore  Nisard.  Two  other  pro- 
ductions of  his  are  La  Musique  a 
I'figlise,  and  Traite  Theorique  et  Pra- 
tique de  I'Accompagniment  du  Plain- 
Chant,  written  in  collaboration  with 
Niedermeyer,  with  whom  he  founded 
La  Maitrise,  a  sacred-music  periodical, 
which  he  edited  from  1858  to  1860 
and  which  he  revived  in  1862  with 
M.  Clement  under  the  name  Journal 
des  Maitrises.     Ortigue  died  in  Paris. 

Ortiz  (6r-tes),  Diego. 

Spanish  contrapuntist;  the  date  and 
place  of  his  birth  are  unknown.  He 
was  chapelmaster  at  Naples  in  the 
Vice-regal  Chapel  of  the  Duke  of  Alva. 
A  volume  of  hymns,  magnificats, 
salves,  motets,  psalms,  and  other 
sacred  compositions  was  published  at 
Venice  in  1565,  and  a  theoretical  work 
on  instrumental  music  with  practical 
examples  was  printed  at  Rome  in 
1553.  Moore  states  that  in  Dodeca- 
chordon,  Glareanus  praises  one  of  the 
pieces  by  Ortiz. 

Orto  (6r'-t6),  Giovanni. 

Flemish  contrapuntist,  living  dur- 
ing the  Fifteenth  and  Sixteenth  Cen- 
turies, and  a  contemporary  of  Josquin. 
Petrucci  in  his  Odhecaton,  1500  to 
1503,  published  eleven  chansons  and  an 
Ave  Maria  for  four  voices  by  Orto,  and 
one  of  his  Lamentations  in  the  La- 
mentationium  Jeremae,  besides  a  sep- 
arate book  of  Orto's  masses.  In 
Fragments  of  Masses  is  the  Kyrie 
of   a   mass   by   Orto.      Some    of   his 





masses  are  in  manuscript  at  the  Papal 
Chapel  Library  at  Rome;  the  masses, 
Le  Serviteur,  and  Mi-Mi,  which  con- 
tain a  wonderful  Agnus;  songs;  and 
motets  are  in  the  library  at  Vienna. 
The  Agnus  and  the  Ave  Maria  are 
found  in  modern  score  in  the  Beilagen 
to  Ambros'  Geschichte  der  Musik.  He 
sang  in  the  Papal  Chapel  at  Rome 
from  1484  to  1494,  and  from  1505  to 
1516  was  first  chaplain  and  singer  in 
the  service  of  Philip  the  Fair  of  Bur- 

Osborne,    George    Alexander.      1806- 


Irish  pianist  and  composer.  His 
father  was  organist  and  lay-vicar  of 
the  Cathedral  at  Limerick,  where 
George  was  born.  At  eighteen  he 
went  to  Brussels,  where  he  studied 
the  classical  works  in  the  Prince  di 
Chimay's  library.  Here  he  met  Mali- 
bran  and  Fetis,  who  gave  him  much 
helpful  advice.  He  taught  the  Crown 
Prince  of  the  Netherlands,  and  was 
decorated  with  the  Order  of  the 
Crown  of  Oak.  At  Paris  he  formed 
lasting  friendships  with  Berlioz  and 
Chopin,  at  whose  debut  it  is  stated 
Osborne  played  one  of  his  pianos. 
He  studied  under  Pixis  and  later  with 
Kalkbrenner.  He  settled  in  London 
in  1843,  where  he  lived  until  his  death. 
He  belonged  to  the  Musical  Associa- 
tion, to  which  he  gave  his  recollec- 
tions of  Chopin  and  Berlioz.  He  was 
also  a  member  of  the  Philharmonic 
Society,  directed  the  Royal  Academy 
of  Music,  and  was  vice-president  of 
Trinity  College.  His  works  include 
some  songs;  three  trios  for  piano 
and  strings;  a  quartet;  piano  and 
violin  duets,  written  in  collaboration 
with  other  musicians;  a  piano  and 
cello  sonata;  a  sextet  for  piano, 
strings,  and  wind-instruments,  in 
which  he  played  at  his  last  appear- 
ance at  one  of  the  Wind-instrument 
Society  concerts  about  two  years 
before  his  death;  and  many  pieces 
for  the  drawing-room,  which  were 
very  popular.  Among  them  the  best 
were  La  Pluie  des  Perles;  A  Summer 
Eve;  Evening  Dew;  and  Marche  Mil- 

Osgood,  George  Laurie.    1844- 

American  tenor  singer,  teacher  and 
composer.  Born  at  Chelsea,  Mass. 
From  1860  to  1862  he  studied  organ 
and  composition  under  Paine,  and 
jifter    graduating    from    Harvard    in 

1866,  where  he  conducted  the  Glee 
Club  and  the  orchestra,  he  went  to 
Berlin  and  took  lessons  in  composi- 
tion from  Haupt  and  in  singing  from 
Seiber.  He  studied  German  song 
with  Franz  at  Halle  and  the  Italian 
method  at  Milan  for  three  years  under 
Lamperti.  Then  followed  a  successful 
concert  tour  of  Germany.  On  return- 
ing to  America,  in  1872,  he  was 
engaged  by  Theodore  Thomas,  spent 
the  winter  touring  the  United  States 
under  him,  and  then  settled  in  Boston. 
Since  1875  he  has  been  conductor  of 
the  Boylston  Club  and  since  1890 
of  the  Boston  Singers'  Society,  which 
under  him  has  become  famed  for  its 
brilliant  performances.  In  1882  he 
became  choirmaster  of  the  Emmanuel 
Church.  He  is  well  known  as  a 
teacher.  His  Guide  to  the  Art  of 
Singing  has  gone  through  many  edi- 
tions. His  compositions  include  more 
than  fifty  songs;  part-songs;  anthems; 
and  choruses  which  are  both  excellent 
and  popular.  His  home  is  at  Brook- 
line,  Mass.,  but  his  studio  is  in  Bos- 

*  O'Sullivan,  Denis.    1868-1908. 

Barytone  singer  and  actor;  born  at 
San  Francisco,  of  Irish  parentage; 
educated  at  St.  Ignatius  College,  San 
Francisco;  studied  music  as  an  ama 
teur  under  Hugo  Talbo  and  Karl 
Formes,  and  was  first  violin  of  the 
Philharmonic  Society,  also  playing 
the  second  violin,  viola,  cello,  oboe, 
doublebass  and  practically  every 
other  instrument  in  the  orchestra 
except  the  piano.  Studied  under  Van- 
nuccini  in  Florence  and  Shakespeare 
and  Santley  in  London,  and  spent  six 
months  under  Sbriglia  at  Paris  in 
1899.  His  professional  career  began 
in  1895.  He  joined  the  Carl  Rosa 
Opera  Company,  and  made  his  oper- 
atic debut  at  Dublin  as  Ferrando  in  II 
Trovatore  and  also  sang  Alfio 
in  Cavalleria  Rusticana,  the  Mayor  in 
Son  and  Stranger,  Prince  John  in 
Ivanhoe,  Biterolf  in  Tannhauser,  Lo- 
thario in  Mignon,  and  Van  der  Decken 
in  The  Flying  Dutchman.  In  1896 
he  made  his  reputation  in  Shamus 
P'Brien  at  the  London  Opera  Com- 
ique.  He  returned  to  America  in  1897, 
and  appeared  in  Shamus  O'Brien  and 
recitals  during  1897  and  1899.  He 
also  starred  in  Boucicault's  Irish 
dramas,  Arrah  na  Pogue.  Shaughraun, 
and  Colleen  Bawn.  In  1896  and  1901 
he    appeared    at    the    London    Ballad 




concerts,  and  frequently  appeared 
before  the  King  with  the  Royal 
Orchestral  Amateurs.  Mr.  O'Sullivan 
was  noted  especially  for  his  true  inter- 
pretation of  Irish  songs  and  for  his 
versatility,  as  shown  by  his  perfect 
rendering  of  songs  in  eight  other  lan- 
guages. In  the  summer  of  1907  he 
sang  Irish  songs  before  the  Colonial 
Convention,  where  were  assembled 
the  Premiers  of  all  the  British  Col- 
onies.   He  died  suddenly. 

Oswald,  James. 

Scotch  dancing-master  and  musician 
of  the  Eighteenth  Century.  He  was 
a  dancing  teacher  at  Dunfermline, 
where  he  pubhshed  in  1734  a  collec- 
tion on  minuets.  From  there  he  went 
to  Edinburgh,  where,  in  addition  to 
his  original  vocation,  he  became 
known  as  a  violinist,  organist  and 
composer,  and  edited  a  Curious  Col- 
lection of  Scots  Tunes.  He  left  Edin- 
burgh and  settled  in  London,  where 
he  edited  numerous  collections  of 
music,  publishing  his  own  composi- 
tions anonymously,  or  under  an 
assumed  name.  He  became  chamber- 
composer  to  King  George  III.  in 
1761,  and  is  one  of  the  many  to 
whom  God  Save  the  King  is  attrib- 
uted. Several  other  collections  of 
Scotch  music,  and.  Airs  for  Spring, 
Summer,  Autumn  and  Winter;  The 
Caledonian  Pocket  Companion;  Ten 
Favourite  Songs;  and  fifty-five  marches 
for  the  militia  were  published  by  him. 
Baptie  accuses  him  of  poor  taste  in 
the  selection  of  Scotch  tunes  and 
declares  that  his  information  is  not 

Otto  (6t'-t6),  Ernst  Julius.    1804-1877. 

German  composer;  born  at  Konig- 
stein,  Saxony.  He  studied  at  the 
Kreuzschule,  in  Dresden,  from  1814  to 
1822,  and  then  took  a  course  in  theol- 
ogy at  the  Leipsic  University  from 
1822  to  1825,  also  studying  music 
under  Weinlig  and  Schicht.  Return- 
ing to  Dresden  he  taught  music  for 
a  number  of  years  at  Blochmann's 
Institute  and  in  1838  went  to  the 
Kreuzschule.  Among  his  pupils  was 
Gustav  Meckel.  From  1830  to  1875 
he  was  cantor  at  Kreuzkirche,  and 
directed  the  music  of  the  leading  Lu- 
theran Churches  as  well  as  conducting 
the  Liedertafel.  He  composed  several 
oratorios,  Hiob,  Bitterfeld,  Des  Hei- 
lands  letzte  Worte,  Die  Feier  der  Er- 
losten  am  Grabe  Jesu;  motets;  masses; 


two  operas.  Das  Schloss  am  Rhein, 
and  Der  Schlosser  von  Augsberg;  and 
four  comic-operas,  the  best  of  them 
entitled,  Die  Mordgrundbruck  bei 
Dresden;  sonatas;  trios;  songs;  and 
part-songs  for  men's  voices;  rondos, 
and  etudes.     He  died  at  Dresden. 

His  brother  Franz,  born  at  Konig- 
stein  in  1809  and  died  in  Mayence 
in  1842,  was  a  bass-singer  and  com- 
poser of  popular  songs  and  part-songs, 
the  best  known  being  In  Dem  Hum- 
mel ruht  die  Erde,  and  Blauer  Mon- 
tag.  He  wrote  twelve  dances  for  the 
orchestra,  and  went  to  England  in 
1833  to  direct  a  Part-Singing  Society. 

Otto,  Rudolf  Karl  Julius.    1829- 

German  tenor  singer  and  teacher; 
born  in  Berlin;  as  a  boy  was  soloist 
of  the  choir  at  the  Cathedral  there. 
In  1852  he  became  one  of  the  faculty 
of  the  Stern  Conservatory,  and  since 
1873  has  been  at  the  Hochschule  in 
Berlin.  He  has  an  enviable  reputation 
as  an  oratorio  singer. 

Otto  -  Alvsleben     (6t'-t6  alf'-sla-ben), 

Melitta.    1842-1893. 

Opera-singer;  born  at  Dresden.  She 
entered  Thiele's  vocal  class  at  the 
Conservatory  in  that  city  when  four- 
teen years  old,  and  studied  under  him 
for  three  years.  In  1860  she  made  her 
debut  at  the  Dresden  Court  Theatre, 
and  from  that  time  till  1873  she  sang 
light  soprano  parts.  In  1866  she  mar- 
ried Max  Otto.  In  1873  she  made  her 
debut  in  London  at  a  concert  given 
by  Clara  Schumann  in  St.  James'  Hall. 
She  made  such  a  success  that  her 
stay  lengthened  into  two  years,  dur- 
ing which  she  sang  frequently  at  the 
important  concerts  in  London  and  in 
the  provinces.  After  her  return  to 
Germany  she  sang  in  opera  at  Ham- 
burg, going  from  there  to  Dresden, 
where  she  was  engaged  at  the  Court 
Theatre  until  1883.  She  appeared  at 
Cincinnati  Music  Festival  of  1879.  She 
died  in  Dresden.  Among  her  roles 
were  Anna  in  Hans  Heiling;  Rowena 
in  the  Templer  und  Jiidin;  Alice;  Eva; 
Martha;  and  the  Queen  of  Night. 

Oudin    (oo-dari),   Eugene   Esperance. 

_  Barytone  operatic  and  concert- 
singer;  born  of  French  parents  in  New 
York  City.  Studied  music  under  Mod- 
erati,  graduated  from  Yale  and  was  for 
a  time  a  practising  lawyer,  but  on  go- 
ing to  London  he  was  persuaded  to  be- 
come a  professional  singer.    He  made 




a  great  success  at  private  concerts 
while  in  London,  and  made  his  debut 
as  an  opera-singer  at  Wallack's  Thea- 
tre, New  York,  in  1888,  in  a  comic 
opera  by  Victor  Roger.  After  a  suc- 
cessful run  in  New  York  the  company 
made  a  tour  of  the  country,  and  while 
at  Detroit  Oudin  married  Miss  Louise 
Parker,  the  leading  lady.  In  1889  Mr. 
Oudin  was  again  singing  at  concerts 
in  London,  and  two  years  later  took 
the  part  of  the  Templar  in  Mr.  Sul- 
livan's Ivanhoe  at  the  Royal  English 
Opera  House,  and  in  1892  played  the 
leading  role  in  Eugen  Onegin,  by 
Tschaikowsky,  and  of  Henri  Quatre 
Ma  Mie  Rosette,  by  Lacome.  He 
went  to  Russia  in  1893;  returned  to 
England  in  1894,  made  an  especially 
great  success  of  Dr.  Marianus'  music 
in  Schumann's  Faust,  and  died  not 
long  after  from  a  stroke  of  apoplexy. 
His  flexible  voice  and  excellent  inter- 
pretation of  the  romantic  and  senti- 
mental in  music  made  him  greatly 
sought  after.  He  translated  many 
modern  songs,  and  also  wrote  the 
words  and  music  of  a  few  songs 

Oury  (oo'-re),  Antonio  James.    1800- 

English  violinist  and  teacher;  born 
in  London.  His  father  was  an  Italian 
of  fine  family,  who  taught  dancing 
and  music.  Antonio  played  the  violin 
at  three  years  of  age;  later  took  les- 
sons from  Kiesewetter,  an  accom- 
plished German  violinist,  and  in  1820 
went  to  study  under  Baillot,  Kreutzer 
and  Lafont  at  Paris.  Returning  to 
London  in  1828  he  made  his  first 
appearance  at  a  benefit  for  his  first 
master's  widow  and  children.  Soon 
afterward  he  made  a  great  success  at 
a  Philharmonic  concert,  and  played 
later  at  others  given  by  that  society. 
He  was  leader  of  the  ballet  at  King's 
Theatre.  In  1831  he  married  Mile. 
Belleville,  the  noted  pianist,  and 
together  they  spent  nine  years  tour- 
ing Austria,  France,  Germany  and 
Russia.  In  speaking  ofOury's  play- 
ing, Haweis  in  his  Musical  Memoirs 
says,  "  I  can  liken  those  astonishing 
violin  passages  to  nothing  but  the 
elaborate  embroidery  of  little  notes 
which  in  Chopin's  music  are  spangled 
in   tiny  type   all   round   the   subject. 


which  is  in  large  type.  He  had  the 
fine  large  style  of  the  De  Beriot 
school,  combined  with  a  dash  of  the 
brilliant  and  romantic  Paganini  and 
the  most  exquisite  taste  of  his  own." 

Oury,  Emilie.    See  Belleville-Oury. 

Ouseley    (ooz'-le),   Sir   Frederick 
Arthur  Gore.     1825-1889. 

Organist,  composer  and  theorist; 
born  at  London.  His  father  was  a 
baronet,  noted  as  an  Orientalist  and 
ambassador  to  Persia  and  Russia,  and 
on  his  death  in  1844  Frederick  suc- 
ceeded to  the  title.  Though  untu- 
tored in  music  he  had  already  shown 
considerable  ability  in  an  opera, 
L'Isola  disabilita,  written  when  only 
eight  years  old.  He  graduated  from 
Christ  Church,  Oxford,  in  1846,  and 
three  years  later  took  the  Master's 
degree.  He  was  ordained  and  became 
curate  of  St.  Paul's  Church,  Knights- 
bridge,  where  he  remained  until  1850. 
He  was  then  given  the  degree  of 
Bachelor  of  Music  on  examination  of 
his  cantata,  The  Lord  is  the  True 
God,  and  that  of  Doctor  of  Music  in 

1854  for  his  oratorio,  St.  Polycarp. 
He  took  Sir  Henry  Bishop's  place 
as  professor  of  music  at  Oxford, 
where  he  reorganized  the  office  of 
Choragus  and  prevailed  upon  the  uni- 
versity to  give  honorary  degrees,  a 
practise  which  was  started  in  1879.    In 

1855  he  was  put  in  charge  of  the 
choir  at  the  Cathedral  in  Hereford. 
In  1856  he  was  appointed  vicar  of 
St.  Michael's  Church,  Tenbury,  and 
warden  of  St  Michael's  College.  He 
was  made  Bachelor  and  Doctor  of 
Music  by  Durham  in  1856,  Doctor  of 
Music  and  Law  by  Cambridge,  and 
Doctor  of  Law  by  Edinburgh.  He 
died  of  heart  failure  at  Hereford  and 
^yas  buried  at  Tenbury,  leaving  his 
library  to  the  college.  He  was  an 
excellent  organist  and  was  proficient 
in  the  science  of  music.  He  edited 
a  number  of  collections,  and  wrote  an 
oratorio,  Hagar;  solos;  songs;  part- 
songs;  carols;  glees;  chants;  hymn- 
tunes;  eleven  church  services;  seventy 
fine  anthems;  two  string  quartets,  and 
a  sextet;  many  preludes  and  fugues, 
andantes,  etc.,  for  the  organ;  and  also 
some  piano-music. 

Pabst  (papst),  Paul.    1854-1897. 

German  pianist;  son  of  August 
Pabst,  a  dramatic  composer,  singer 
and  organist,  who  was  director  of  the 
Riga  Conservatory.  Paul  began  his 
career  as  a  concert  player  at  nine 
years  of  age,  and  had  the  advantage 
of  a  number  of  years  of  instruction 
from  Liszt.  In  1878  he  went  to  Mos- 
cow, by  invitation  of  Nicholas  Rubin- 
stein, to  become  professor  of  piano 
at  the  Conservatory.  He  also  directed 
the  Imperial  Society  of  Music  and 
wrote  transcriptions  from  The  Demon, 
by  Rubinstein,  and  Eugene  Onegin,  by 
Tschaikowsky,  and  pieces  for  the 
piano,  which  have  won  popularity  in 

Pacchierotti     (pak-ki-a-rot'-tc),     Gas- 
pare.   1744-1821. 

Italian  soprano  singer;  one  of  the 
most  noted  of  the  Eighteenth  Cen- 
tury. He  was  born  at  Fabriano,  not 
far  from  Ancona,  and  was  trained  in 
the  choir  of  the  Cathedral  in  Forli 
and  at  St.  Mark's  in  Venice.  After 
thorough  training  he  took  to  opera- 
singing,  making  his  debut  at  the  San 
Benedetto  Theatre,  Venice,  about  1770. 
From  there  he  went  to  Palermo, 
Naples,  and  many  other  Italian  cities, 
creating  a  reputation  which  soon 
spread  to  England.  In  1778  he  made 
his  London  debut,  with  great  success. 
He  again  visited  England  in  1782  and 
1783;  sang  in  Paris,  and  in  1790  was 
back  in  London.  His  last  years 
were  spent  in  retirement  at  Padua. 
His  singing  is  described  as  intellect- 
ual and  full  of  emotion.  He  not  only 
made  his  hearers  forget  his  plain  and 
awkward  appearance  but  frequently 
moved  them  to  tears.  He  was  gifted 
with  a  wonderful  ability  to  improvise, 
as  well  as  a  keen  perception  of  the 
intentions  of  the  composers,  which 
rendered  him  remarkable  in  interpre- 

Pachelbel       (pakh'-el-bel),       Johann. 


German  organist  and  composer;  of 
great  importance  in  the  development 
of  organ-music  in  his  country.     He 

was  born  at  Nuremberg  and  studied 
first  under  Schwemmer,  then  at  the 
University  at  Altdorf  and  later  at  the 
Gymnasium  Poeticium  in  Regensburg, 
now  Ratisbon.  He  next  went  to 
Vienna,  where  he  became  deputy  or- 
ganist at  St.  Steven's,  from  whose 
chapelmaster,  Kerl,  he  received  valuable 
instruction.  Atter  being  Court  organist 
at  Eisenach  he  moved  on  to  Erfurt, 
where  he  remained  until  1690.  He 
lived  two  years  in  Stuttgart  and  three 
years  in  Gotha,  afterward  returning 
to  his  native  city,  where  he  spent  the 
remaining  years  of  his  life  as  organist 
of  St.  Sebaldus'  Church.  He  was  one 
of  the  most  highly  esteemed  and  influ- 
ential writers  of  his  time,  and  it  was 
he  who  first  gave  clearness  and  sym- 
metry to  the  fugue,  laying  the  foun- 
dation of  the  modern  tonal  system 
and  preparing  the  field  for  Bach.  His 
forte  was  the  organ  choral,  which  he 
brought  to  a  state  bordering  on  per- 
fection. An  intimate  friend  of  the 
Bach  family,  he  taught  Johann  Chris- 
toph,  the  eldest  son,  and  was  a  potent 
factor  in  the  youthful  development  of 
Sebastian.  His  works  include  Musi- 
kalische  Sterbensgedanken;  Musika- 
lische  Ergotzen;  six  suites  for  two 
violins;  Chorale  zum  praambuliren; 
and  Hexachordum  Apollinis,  six  sets 
of  variations.  His  Tabulaturbuch 
geistlichen  Gesange  D  Martini  Lu- 
theri,  and  some  of  his  chorals  are  in 
manuscript  in  the  Grand  Ducal 
Library  at  Weimar  and  other  manu- 
scripts are  in  the  Royal  Institute  for 
Church-Music  at  Berlin.  Miscellan- 
eous compositions  of  his  are  contained 
in  the  first  volume  of  Commer's 
Musica  Sacra. 

Pachelbel,  Wilhelm  Hieronymus.  1685- 


Son  of  the  preceding  and  a  con- 
temporary of  Sebastian  Bach.  He 
was  born  at  Erfurt  and  learned  com- 
position and  the  harpsichord  from  his 
father.  His  first  position  as  organist 
was  at  Wohrd,  near  Nuremburg,  and 
in  1706  he  became  organist  at  one 
of  the  Nuremburg  churches.  His 
book     called     Musical     Amusements, 



which  was  published  in  1725,  contains 
a  prelude,  fugue,  and  fantasia  for  the 
organ  or  harpsichord.  The  same  year 
a  fugue  in  F  for  the  harpsichord  was 
published.  A  prelude  in  B  minor,  for- 
merly attributed  to  him,  is  now 
thought  to  be  by  Bach,  and  the  dis- 
cussion of  this  disputed  point  is  in 
Spitta's  J.  S.  Bach.  Besides  the  man- 
uscripts in  various  libraries,  a  few 
of  his  compositions  are  included  with 
his  father's  in  Denkmaler  der  Ton- 
kunst  in  Bayern,  which  gives  1764 
as  the  date  of  his  death.  This  date, 
however,  is  not  certain. 

Pachmann  (pakh'-man),  Vladimir  de. 

One  of  the  best  known  pianists  of 
the  day  and  an  exponent  of  the  roman- 
tic school.  He  was  born  at  Odessa, 
where  his  father  was  professor  in  the 
University.  After  studying  with  his 
father,  who  was  a  talented  amateur 
violinist,  Vladimir  went  to  Vienna  in 
1866,  where  he  joined  Dachs'  class  at 
the  Conservatory,  and  at  the  end  of 
three  j'^ears'  study  was  presented  with 
the  gold  medal.  Returning  to  Russia 
he  gave  a  series  of  successful  concerts, 
but  not  feeling  himself  sufficiently  edu- 
cated, he  devoted  eight  years  more  to 
study.  Even  then  his  performances 
at  Leipsic,  Berlin  and  other  great 
music  centers  failed  to  satisfy  him, 
and  again  he  retired  to  study.  In 
two  years  he  had  accomplished  what 
he  desired,  and  appeared  at  Vienna 
and  Paris.  Since  then  he  has  played 
in  nearly  all  of  the  great  cities  of 
Europe,  appearing  with  great  success 
in  London  in  1882  and  being  decorated 
with  the  order  of  Danebrog  at  Co- 
penhagen. On  his  first  tour  of  Amer- 
ica, from  1890  to  1892,  his  wife, 
formerly  Miss  Okey,  one  of  his  pupils 
whom  he  had  married  in  1884,  accorn- 
panied  him  and  also  gave  recitals  in 
New  York.  Since  1896  Berlin  has 
been  his  home,  but  he  was  in  America 
in  1899,  1900  and  1907.  His  technique 
is  broad  and  his  touch  so  soft  and  deli- 
cate that  it  is  often  called  feline.  He 
is  a  master  of  cantabile  playing,  but 
he  is  so  individual  that  he  is  success- 
ful only  as  a  soloist.  In  this  line  he 
is  remarkable,  especially  for  his  inter- 
pretation of  Chopin.  His  eccentricities 
lay  him  open  to  attack,  but  most  fair- 
minded  critics  agree  that,  setting  aside 
his  amusing  and  absurd  mannerisms, 
he  is  an  artist  of  extraordinary 

Pacini   (pa-che'-ne),  Giovanni.     1796- 

This  prolific  composer  of  both  oper- 
atic and  sacred  music  was  born  at 
Catania,  Sicily.  His  father,  a  noted 
tenor-singer,  took  him,  as  a  child,  to 
Rome  to  begin  his  musical  education. 
He  later  went  to  Bologna,  where  he 
studied  singing  under  Marches!  and 
counterpoint  and  harmony  with  Mat- 
tei,  and  from  1808  to  1812  he  was 
taught  by  Furlanetto  in  Venice.  As 
he  was  educated  for  a  choir-singer, 
his  first  compositions  were  naturally 
for  the  church,  but  his  dramatic  talent 
was  not  slow  in  making  itself  mani- 
fest, and  in  1813  his  first  opera,  An- 
netta  e  Lucindo,  was  written  for  the 
Santa  Redegonda  Theatre,  Milan.  It 
was  favorably  received  at  Venice  the 
next  year,  and  from  that  time  until 
1834  the  theatres  of  various  Italian 
cities  produced  over  forty  of  his 
operas,  among  them.  La  Sacerdotessa 
d'  Irminsul;  Atala;  La  schiava  de  Bag 
dad;  Cesare  in  Egitto;  La  Vestale; 
Alessandro  nelle  Indie;  Amazilea;  L'ul- 
timo  giorno  di  Pompei;  Niobe;  Gli 
Arabi  nell  Gallic;  II  Talismano;  II 
Corsaro;  and  Ivanhoe.  On  the  fail- 
ure of  his  Carlo  di  Borgogna,  in  Ven- 
ice in  1834,  he  stopped  composing 
temporarily  and  retired  to  Viareggio, 
where  he  founded  a  very  successful 
school  of  music,  in  connection  with 
which  he  established  a  theatre.  For 
the  benefit  of  his  pupils  he  wrote  a 
number  of  treatises,  Memoria  sub 
migliore  indirizzo  degli  studi  musicali; 
Corso  teoretico-prattico  di  lezioni  di 
armonia;  Cenni  storicii  sulla  musica  e 
trattato  di  contrapunto;  Principi  ele- 
mentari  col  metodo  pel  meloplasta; 
and  other  minor  treatises.  He  also 
wrote  for  musical  papers,  and  was 
director  of  music  at  Florence,  where 
in  1865  his  autobiography  appeared. 
His  school  had  meantime  been  trans- 
ferred to  Lucca  and  he  had  resumed 
his  composing,  trying  to  rid  himself 
of  the  Rossini  style,  which  had  per- 
vaded his  earlier  works.  In  1840 
SaflFo  was  given  at  Naples,  and  in 
1842  Medea  so  delighted  the  people 
of  Palermo,  that  a  statue  of  Pacini 
was  placed  beside  that  of  Bellini  in 
the  Royal  Villa.  Then  followed 
Regini  di  Cipro,  Lorenzino  de 
Medice,  II  Cid,  and  many  others.  In 
all  Pacini  wrote  about  ninety  operas, 
and  over  seventy  other  works,  includ- 
ing A  Dante  cantata,  or  symphony 
as  it  is  also  called,  and   other  can- 




tatas;  masses;  six  string  quartets;  an 
octet;  trios;  duets;  arias;  and  ora- 
torios, notably  La  Destruzione  di 
Gerusalemme,  Carrere  Mamertino  and 
II  Trionfo  di  Giuditta.  He  was  ap- 
pointed chapelmaster  to  the  Empress 
Maria  Louise,  widow  of  Napoleon  I., 
in  1825,  the  year  of  his  first  marriage. 
He  was  subsequently  married  twice 
and  had  nine  children.  Pacini  was 
most  popular  in  his  day,  but  he  was 
not  original  enough  to  become  a 
great  master.  His  imitation  of 
Rossini  is  quite  patent  and  his  works, 
though  melodious,  are  carelessly 
written.  Consequently  they  have 
fallen  into  disuse,  Safifo,  which  ^yas 
written  in  twenty-eight  days,  being 
the  last  to  follow  the  fate  of  its  com- 

Pacius     (pa-tsi-oos),    Friedrik    (ch). 

Called  "The  father  of  Finnish 
music,"  though  a  native  of  Hamburg. 
He  was  a  pupil  of  Spohr  and  Haupt- 
mann,  and  on  emigrating  from  Ger- 
many was  for  some  time  Court  vio- 
linist at  Stockholm.  In  1834  he  went 
to  Finland  to  become  master  of 
music  at  Helsingfors  _  University, 
where  he  remained  until  his  death. 
From  limited  resources  he  organized 
at  the  capital  a  symphony  society 
in  1845,  and  a  singing  society  in  1848, 
and  stimulated  a  taste  for  good  music 
by  presenting  the  works  of  the  great 
masters.  He  was  a  talented  composer 
as  well  as  violinist,  and  his  works, 
though  not  essentially  national  in 
themselves,  are  the  foundation  of  the 
national  music  of  Finland.  His 
Kung  Carl's  Jagt  (King  Carl's  Hunt), 
the  first  Finnish  opera,  was  given  at 
Helsingfors  in  1852.  It  was  also  given 
at  Stockholm  for  the  coronation  of 
Charles  XV.,  and  was  taken  into  the 
regular  repertory  of  the  Royal  Thea- 
tre there.  He  also  composed  a 
singspiel,  Die  Princessan  von  Cypern 
(The  Princess  of  Cyprus);  the  can- 
tatas, Weihe  der  Tone  and  Porthan 
Cantata;  a  Fantasia,  and  concerto  for 
violin;  Kvarnsangen;  Miriam's  Siegie- 
sang;  and  patriotic  songs,  among 
them  the  national  hymn  Vartland 
(Our  Country)  to  Runeberg's  poem, 
first  sung  at  the  Students'  May  Fes- 
tival in  1848;  Suomis'  Song,  Soldat- 
gassen  (The  Soldier  Boy);  and 
Fridsboner  (The  Prayers  for  Peace). 
His  music  drama,  Lorelei,  was  not 
presented  till  1887. 

Paderewski    (pad-e-ref'-shki),    Ignace 

Jan.     1860- 

One  of  the  greatest,  and  popularly, 
the  greatest  living  pianist.  He  was 
born  at  Padolia,  in  Russian  Poland, 
on  the  estate  of  his  father,  a  gentle- 
man farmer  and  patriot.  Ignace  in- 
herited his  musical  taste  from  his 
mother,  but  her  death  when  he  was 
very  small,  left  him  to  develop  that 
taste  unaided.  His  ear  was  always 
acutely  sensitive  to  the  sounds  about 
him,  and  he  soon  learned  to  distin- 
guish notes  unerringly.  He  frequently 
experimented  with  tonal  efifects  on 
the  piano,  and  when  only  three  years 
old  played  at  a  party  for  the  children 
to  dance.  At  six  years  of  age  he 
had  his  first  piano  lessons  from  a 
fiddler,  and  soon  after  an  old  teacher 
paid  monthly  visits  to  his  home  to 
instruct  him  and  his  sister  in  piano. 
His  first  composition,  written  at  the 
age  of  seven,  was  a  set  of  dances. 
When  twelve  he  began  his  systematic 
study  at  the  Warsaw  Conservatory 
under  Roguski  in  harmony,  and  in 
piano  under  Janothra,  then  eighty 
years  old,  from  whom  he  received 
the  traditions  of  the  past  generation. 
In  the  Conservatory  library  he  be- 
came familiar  with  the  masterpieces 
of  both  classical  and  romantic  com- 
posers, and  laid  the  foundation  of  his 
splendid  general  education.  At  six- 
teen he  made  a  tour  of  Russia,  play- 
ing his  own  compositions,  and  those 
of  others,  though  the  difficult  pas- 
sages forced  him  to  improvise  in 
nearly  every  number  on  his  pro- 
grams, making  them  all  practically 
his  own.  On  his  return  he  renewed 
his  studies  with  great  zeal,  and  after 
being  graduated  was  appointed  pro- 
fessor at  the  early  age  of  eighteen. 
The  next  year  he  married,  but  in  an- 
other j'ear  was  a  widower  with  an 
invalid  son.  To  assuage  his  grief, 
Paderewski  applied  himself  more 
closely  to  his  studies  and  in  a  short 
time  went  to  Berlin,  where  he  studied 
composition  under  Kiel  and  Urban, 
and  about  1882  published  some  of  his 
compositions.  In  1884,  then  but 
twenty-three  years  old,  he  became  a 
teacher  in  the  Strasburg  Conserv- 
atory, and  had  it  not  been  for  a 
chance  meeting  with  Mme.  Modjeska 
during  a  vacation  he  might  have  con- 
tinued his  career  merely  as  a  teacher. 
It  was  she  who  gave  him  the  hope 
of  better  things,  and,  encouraged  by 
her   he   went   to   Vienna   and   placed 





himself  under  Leschetizky  in  1886. 
These  two  compatriots  Paderewski 
holds  in  the  highest  esteem,  for  to 
them  he  feels  his  success  is  due.  He 
made  his  debut  as  a  virtuoso  at 
Vienna  in  1887,  but  did  not  make  a 
remarkable  impression,  and  it  was  not 
until  he  was  almost  thirty  that  he 
was  made  famous  by  the  great  en- 
thusiasm which  the  people  and  the 
press  showed  on  his  Paris  debut  in 
1888.  He  next  went  to  England, 
where,  though  his  first  appearance 
failed  to  make  a  favorable  impression, 
his  second  recital  not  only  gained 
popular  favor  but  caused  a  reversion 
of  feeling  among  the  critics,  who, 
to  use  Paderewski's  own  words, 
"joined  in  the  campaign  of  kindness 
which  has  since  been  my  reward  in 
every  part  of  England."  In  America, 
where  the  former  excess  of  enthu- 
siasm, practical  idolatry,  has  been 
replaced  by  a  healthier  and  more 
genuine  admiration,  he  made  his  first 
appearance  in  1891,  and  at  New  York 
as  in  London,  his  genius  was  not 
recognized  until  after  the  second  per- 
formance, and  even  more  tardily  by 
the  critics.  During  his  visit  in  1900 
and  1901  he  founded  the  Paderewski 
Fund,  for  the  encouragement  of  na- 
tive American  composers,  which 
every  three  years  gives  prizes  for  the 
best  orchestral,  choral  and  chamber 
work  presented.  To  the  original  gift 
of  $10,000  he  added  $1,500  more  in 
1897.  He  toured  Russia  in  1899  and 
was  in  England  the  same  year,  but 
has  not  appeared  very  often  in  Ger- 
many, though  in  that  country  too  he 
has  become  popular.  Of  late  his 
tours  are  becoming  less  frequent,  and 
it  is  said  that  he  would  like  to  give 
them  up  entirely  and  devote  himself 
to  composition.  His  works  already 
number  twenty-three  compositions,  of 
which  the  latest  is  Variations  et 
Fugue  sur  un  Theme  original,  played 
for  the  first  time  on  his  seventh 
American  tour  1907  and  1908.  Others 
are  a  Prelude;  Minuet;  Legende; 
Melodie;  Theme  varie  in  A;  Noc- 
turne in  B  flat;  filegie;  Introduction 
and  Toccata;  four  songs;  Chant  du 
Voyageur;  Album  de  Mai,  five  roman- 
tic scenes;  Variations  and  fugue; 
two  sonatas;  Humoresques  de  Con- 
cert, in  two  parts  of  three  pieces 
each,  among  which  is  the  Minuet  en 
Sol,  which  IS  his  most  popular  work; 
toccata,  Dans  le  Desert;  Concerto  in 
A    minor;     Fantaisie    Polonaise    for 

piano  and  orchestra;  four  songs  of 
which  Ach  die  Qualem  (Ah!  the  Tor- 
ment) is  especially  good;  also  Polish 
dances,  and  Tatra  Album.  He  also 
edited  The  Century  Library  of  Music 
published  in  1900  and  1902.  His 
gypsy  opera,  Manru,  was  heartily  re- 
ceived on  its  first  presentation  at 
Dresden,  May  19,  1901,  and  was  given 
at  the  Metropolitan,  New  York,  Feb- 
ruary 14,  1902.  It  is  remarkably 
strong  for  a  first  attempt.  The  score 
shows  delicate  and  beautiful  music, 
and  it  is  richly  orchestrated.  Pade- 
rewski's works  all  show  great  indi- 
viduality and  promise  much  for  the 
future,  if,  as  has  been  his  long-cher- 
ished wish,  he  retires  and  devotes 
himself  to  composition.  Such  sen- 
sational success  as  Paderewski's  has 
been  experienced  only  by  Liszt  and 
Rubinstein,  and  critics  have  been  in- 
clined to  be  hard  on  him  because  of 
this  great  popularity,  some  even  laying 
his  great  charm  to  hypnotism.  His 
playing  is  phenomenally  brilliant  and 
has  a  magic  power  of  holding  at  once 
the  rnusically  educated,  and  ignorant. 
His  interpretations  are  poetic  and 
emotional  but  also  intellectual.  His 
touch  is  perfect,  his  tonal  effects,  his 
shading,  remarkably  varied,  at  times 
even  orchestral,  which  to  a  great  ex- 
tent is  due  to  his  peculiar  use  of 
the  pedal,  upon  which  he  lays  espe- 
cial stress  in  teaching,  but  his  great 
power  lies  in  that  indescribable  some- 
thing called  personality.  In  February, 
1908,  Paderewski  accepted  the  direc- 
torship of  the  Warsaw  Conservatory. 
In  1899  he  married  Baroness  Gorsky 
von  Rossen,  widow  of  the  Polish  vio- 
linist. Paderewski,  the  gentleman 
farmer  at  his  home,  Riond-Bosson, 
on  Lake  Geneva,  near  Morges,  Swit- 
zerland, or  at  Kasnia,  his  Polish 
estate,  is  a  most  interesting  individ- 
ual, gentle,  charitable  and  modest; 
beloved  by  his  tenants  and  the  peo- 
ple round  about.  In  1908  an  inter- 
esting volume  on  Paderewski  by 
Edward  Baughan  was  added  to  the 
Living  Masters  of  Music  series. 

Paer  (pa'-ar),  Ferdinando.    1771-1839. 

Italian  operatic  composer;  born  at 
Parma,  where  he  studied  composition 
under  Ghiretti,  and  in  1789  wrote  his 
first  opera,  La  locanda  de  vagabondi, 
in  which  he  displayed  his  talent  for 
comedy.  I  pretendenti  burlati  fol- 
lowed the  next  year,  and  in  1791  he 
went  to  Venice  on  being  oflfered  the 




mastership  of  a  chapel.  Beginning 
with  Circe  in  1791,  he  wrote  busily 
for  Italian  theatres  until  1797,  not  a 
year  passing  but  that  at  least  one 
and  usually  several  of  his  operas  came 
out.  His  patron,  the  Duke  of  Parma, 
having  given  him  a  pension,  he  went 
to  Vienna,  where  his  style,  formerly 
in  imitation  of  Paisiello  and  Cimaroso, 
grew  richer  and  stronger  in  harmony 
and  instrumentation  under  the  influ- 
ence of  Mozart.  Here  in  1801  he 
wrote  Camilla,  ossia  il  sotterraneo, 
perhaps  his  best  work,  and,  receiving 
an  invitation  from  the  Elector  of  Sax- 
ony to  take  a  place  as  chapelmaster, 
he  went  to  Dresden  about  1802,  where 
three  of  his  best  known  pieces,  Sar- 
gino,  ossia  I'allievo  dell'  amore; 
Eleonora,  or  Lenora,  which  gave  rise 
to  Beethoven's  Fidelio;  and  Achille, 
appeared.  In  1806  he  was  engaged 
by  Napoleon,  whom  he  followed  to 
Posen  and  Warsaw,  and  in  1807  he 
settled  in  Paris  as  chapelmaster  and 
conductor  of  the  Opera  Comique.  In 
1812  he  received  the  baton  of  the 
Theatre  des  Italiens.  Through  the 
troubled  period  of  Catalani's  manage- 
ment, and  a  period  of  joint  authority 
with  Rossini,  from  1824  to  1826,  he 
retained  his  position,  but  the  next 
year  he  was  obliged  to  resign  on  ac- 
count of  the  poor  financial  condition 
of  the  house,  for  which  he  received 
the  blame.  Although  he  was  made 
Chevalier  of  the  Legion  of  Honor  in 
1828,  and  became  a  member  of  the 
Academie  in  1831  and  was  also  a 
director  of  chamber-music  to  the 
King  from  1832  until  his  death,  his 
success  at  Paris  was  not  great,  owing 
to  his  inability  to  write  French  Opera 
and  the  much  greater  genius  of 
Rossini  in  the  Italian.  Agnese,  how- 
ever, was  quite  popular  during  1811, 
and  Le  maitre  de  chapelle,  played  in 
1821,  is  the  best  known  of  his  works, 
which  are  long  since  forgotten.  Paer, 
the  man,  was  too  dissolute  to  be  ad- 
mired, but  Paer  the  composer,  with 
his  pleasing  melody,  comic  genius, 
and  mastery  of  the  simple  forms, 
though  he  lacked  depth  and  serious- 
ness, holds  an  important  place  in  the 
history  of  the  Eighteenth  Century 
Italian  Opera.  He  also  wrote  two 
oratorios,  II  San  Sepolcro  and  II 
trionfo  della  Chisea;  set  the  Passion; 
composed  ten  cantatas;  also  numer- 
ous duets,  arias,  motets  and  other 
vocal  pieces;  besides  the  Symphonie 
bacchante,    and   Vive    Henri    Quatre, 

Pagan  ini 

for  grand  orchestra;  four  military 
marches;  six  waltzes;  a  fantasie, 
Sweet  Victory;  sonatas;  and  themes 
with  variations. 

Paganini  (pag-a-ne'-ne),  Niccolo.  1784- 

Italian  violinist;  generally  consid- 
ered the  greatest  violin  virtuoso  that 
ever  lived.  He  was  born  at  Genoa, 
where  his  father,  Antonio,  was  a 
tradesman  and  an  amateur  mandolin 
player  of  some  ability,  who,  perceiv- 
ing his  son's  talent,  early  began  to 
cultivate  it.  Niccolo  was  naturally 
delicate  and  the  unremitting  practise 
to  which  his  father  forced  him  was 
most  injurious  to  his  health.  Niccolo's 
mother,  however,  greatly  encouraged 
him  by  the  story  of  a  dream  in  which 
an  angel  had  promised  her  that  he 
would  be  the  greatest  violinist  in  the 
world,  and  this  encouragement  coupled 
with  his  own  passion  for  music  led 
him  to  persevere.  At  six  years  of 
age  he  had  become  a  remarkable 
player,  and  soon  after,  having  learned 
all  he  could  from  his  father,  he  was 
placed  with  Servetto,  violinist  in  one 
of  the  theatres,  and  then  under 
Giacomo  Costa,  chapelmaster  of  the 
principal  churches  of  Genoa.  In  1793, 
then  but  nine  years  old,  Niccolo  made 
his  debut  at  a  concert,  playing  orig- 
inal variations  on  La  Carmagnole,  to 
the  great  delight  of  the  audience.  He 
also  played  regularly  at  church,  but 
in  1795,  his  father  thinking^  that 
further  study  would  make  him  of 
greater  market  value,  decided  to  take 
him  to  Parma.  The  necessary  funds 
were  raised  by  a  benefit  concert,  and 
father  and  son  arrived  at  Parma  to 
find  the  noted  musician,  Rolla,  sick  in 
bed.  While  waiting  in  an  adjoining 
room  Niccolo  saw  a  violin  and  a  new 
composition  on  the  table,  and  taking 
the  instrument  played  it  at  sight  so 
perfectly  that  Rolla  inquired  what 
master  was  in  the  house.  On  seeing 
a  mere  boy  he  could  hardly  believe 
his  eyes  and  protested  that  he  could 
teach  him  nothing.  However,  he  did 
direct  Paganini's  studies  for  a  short 
time,  and  then  the  boy  took  three 
lessons  a  week  in  counterpoint  and 
composition  from  Ghiretti.  So  rapidly 
did  he  advance  that  on  his  return  to 
Genoa  he  composed  works  which  he 
himself  had  to  study  hard  to  execute. 
After  a  period  of  ten  or  twelve  hours 
a  day  practise  he  set  out  with  his 
father    on     his     first     tour  —  through 



Lombardy,  making  so  great  a  success 
that  instead  of  returning  home  he 
went  on  to  Pisa  and  neighboring 
towns,  and  being  no  longer  under 
parental  restraint  he  fell  to  gambling 
and  leading  a  dissolute  life.  The 
money  from  several  concerts  would 
be  lost  in  a  night  and  he  once  had  to 
sell  his  violin,  arriving  at  Leghorn, 
where  he  was  to  give  a  concert, 
without  an  instrument.  M.  Levron, 
a  kind  French  merchant,  lent  him  a 
fine  Guarnerius,  and  then  refused  to 
take  it  back,  saying  that  he  would 
but  profane  the  instrument  which 
Paganini's  fingers  had  touched.  Again 
he  was  almost  compelled  to  sell  this 
gift,  which  he  held  so  dear,  and  in 
desperation  staked  his  last  money. 
He  won,  but  the  experience  led  him 
to  give  up  gambling  for  good. 

From  1801  to  1804  he  devoted  him- 
self to  the  guitar  and  to  agriculture, 
living  in  retirement.  He  then  re- 
turned to  Genoa  and  studied  the  vio- 
lin compositions  of  Locatelli  and 
others,  composing  at  this  time  his 
three  grand  quartets  for  violin,  viola, 
guitar  and  cello.  In  1805  he  began 
touring  again,  and  was  made  Court 
violinist  to  Napoleon's  sister,  Elisa 
Bacecocchi,  Princess  of  Lucca.  It 
was  at  her  court  that  he  began  his 
astonishing  feats  on  two  and  on  one 
string,  which  he  accounted  for  in  the 
following  manner:  He  wished  to  ex- 
press his  affection  for  a  certain  lady 
of  the  court,  and  accordingly  devised 
a  Scene  Amoureuse,  a  duet  on  the  E 
and  G  strings,  representing  the  lady 
and  her  lover.  This  clever  invention 
pleased  the  Princess,  who  asked  if 
one  string  would  not  suffice  for  his 
talent,  and  at  that  suggestion  he 
wrote  his  sonata  for  the  G  string, 
called  Napoleon,  which  so  captivated 
his  hearers.  His  roving  disposition 
did  not  allow  him  to  remain  long  in 
one  place,  and  in  1808  he  obtained 
permission  from  the  Princess  to  make 
a  tour.  Leaving  Florence  about  1812 
he  took  up  his  residence  in  Milan, 
where  in  1816  he  played  with  Lafont, 
worsting  him,  as  far  as  popular  ap- 
plause was  concerned,  though  he  him- 
self said  that  the  Frenchman's  tone 
was  probably  better.  He  spent  most 
of  the  year  1816  at  Venice  in  rather 
poor  health,  but  in  1817  he  was  travel- 
ing again,  being  at  Rome  during  the 
Carnival.  In  1818  he  toured  North- 
ern Italy,  later  visiting  Naples,  where 
opinion  was   inclined  to  be  adverse. 


but  he  played  so  perfectly  the  diffi- 
cult piece  prepared  to  stagger  him 
that  the  enthusiasm  became  as  great 
as  in  the  rest  of  Italj'.  His  first  visit 
to  Sicily,  about  1819,  was  not  a  very 
great  success,  but  on  again  appearing 
at  Palermo  he  was  well  received.  The 
same  year  he  had  been  in  Rome  and 
Naples,  and  the  next  he  spent  largely 
in  Venice.  In  1823  he  was  prevented 
by  sickness  from  making  a  tour  of 
Germany,  but  on  recovering  he  ap- 
peared in  the  principal  Italian  cities 
mcluding  Milan,  where  in  1820  he  had 
founded  the  Gli  Orfei  Society,  and 
Rome,  where  on  a  later  visit  in  1827 
Pope  Leo  XII.  decorated  him  with 
the  order  of  the  Golden  Spur.  From 
Milan  in  1828  he  made  his  long  looked 
for  journey  to  Vienna  and  there 
created   intense   excitement. 

Paganini  was  tall  and  very  thin, 
with  a  hawk  nose,  penetrating  eyes, 
and  a  protruding  chin,  and  around  all 
was  a  mass  of  long  black  hair  which 
intensified  the  livid  color  of  his  face. 
His  strange  looks  and  bearing  added 
to  his  almost  superhuman  genius  had 
given  rise  to  all  sorts  of  fanciful  tales. 
He  was  said  to  have  murdered  his 
wife,  or  rival,  accounts  varied,  and 
to  have  been  imprisoned  for  eight 
years  when  his  only  comfort  was  an 
old  violin  with  but  one  string,  on 
which  _  he  learned  to  play  so  ex- 
cruciatingly that  his  jailers  had  to 
release  him.  Another  story  made  him 
out  to  be  the  child  of  Satan,  whom 
one  man  said  he  saw  directing  his 
bow  at  a  concert,  and  at  night  the 
people  near  an  old  Florentine  castle 
which  Paganini  frequently  visited  de- 
clared that  he  held  intercourse  with 
the  devil,  for  they  heard  all  manner 
of  queer  noises  coming  from  the 
place.  Such  stories  as  these-  circu- 
lated far  and  wide  and  found  many 
to  believe  them,  and  so  annoying  had 
they  become  that  at  Vienna  and  later 
in  Paris,  Paganini  took  official  steps 
to  silence  them.  But  in  vain.  They 
preceded  him  on  his  tour  of  Ger- 
many, where  he  was  received  with 
wild  applause.  He  played  in  Berlin 
in  1829,  visited  Dresden,  Munich, 
Frankfort  and  many  other  cities,  and 
in  March,  1831,  arrived  at  Paris. 
After  two  months  at  the  French 
capital,  in  which  time  he  changed  the 
attitude  towards  him  from  doubt  to 
admiration,  he  made  his  first  appear- 
ance in  London,  where  throngs  fol- 
lowed him  in  the  streets,  even  pinch- 




ing  him  at  times  to  see  if  he  were 
real.  After  touring  England,  Ireland 
and  Scotland,  creating  the  usual  furore 
everywhere,  he  returned  to  the  Con- 
tinent in  1832;  toured  Holland  and 
Belgium,  and  during  the  winter  of 
1833  was  at  Paris.  The  receipts  from 
Paganini's  travels  amounted  to  a 
large  fortune,  most  of  which  he  in- 
vested in  real  estate,  and  on  return- 
ing to  Italy  in  1834  he  retired  to  his 
newly  acquired  Villa  Gajona,  near 
Parma.  In  1839  his  health  was  so 
poor  that  he  was  ordered  to  Mar- 
seilles, where  he  recovered  sufficiently 
to  play  in  a  Beethoven  mass  at 
church.  Believing  himself  cured  he 
returned  to  Genoa  but  was  forced  to 
seek  the  milder  climate  of  Nice  for 
the  winter.  He  did  not  think  that 
death  was  near  and  was  so  busy  plan- 
ning a  new  tour  that  he  sent  away 
the  priest  who  had  come  to  give  him 
the  final  rites  of  the  church.  So, 
unabsolved,  death  overtook  him  one 
beautiful  May  night  in  1840,  as  he 
lay  clasping  his  favorite  violin  and 
gazing  out  of  the  window  at  the 
moonlit  scene.  The  Bishop  of  Nice 
refused  to  give  him  Christian  burial, 
and  while  the  matter  was  referred  to 
the  Spiritual  Council  the  body  was 
embalmed  and  removed  to  a  sealed 
room  in  the  lazaretto  at  Villa  Franca. 
The  fact  that  so  many  came  from  near 
and  far  to  do  honor  to  the  poor  re- 
mains made  the  priests  very  angry 
and  when  the  Council  returned  a 
favorable  verdict  it  was  overruled  by 
the  Archbishop.  After  five  years'  de- 
lay, Achilles  Paganini  gained  permis- 
sion from  the  Pope  to  bury  his  father 
in  the  churchyard  at  the  Villa,  near 
Parma.  The  son  inherited  the  title 
of  Baron,  which  had  been  conferred 
on  Paganini  in  Germany,  and  the  for- 
tune of  about  four  hundred  thousand 
dollars,  with  the  exception  of  small 
legacies  left  to  Paganini's  sisters,  and 
an  annuity  to  the  singer,  Antonia 
Bianchi,  the  mother  of  Achilles. 
Paganini  is  accused  of  being  avari- 
cious, but  he  was  always  generous 
with  his  mother,  and  also  played  fre- 
quently for  charity.  Despite  his 
eccentricities,  Paganini's  patience  with 
and  love  for  his  little  son,  whom  he 
legitimized  by  a  process  of  law,  and 
his  tenderness  toward  his  mother 
command  respect. 

Paganini  seldom  played  anything 
but  his  own  compositions,  in  which  he 
could  show  to  the  best  advantage  his 


peculiar  style,  and  never  allowed 
anyone  to  see  his  solo  score.  He  only 
permitted  a  few  of  his  works  to  be 
printed  during  his  life  —  the  twenty- 
four  caprices  for  solo  violin,  which 
are  so  famous,  and  which  have  been 
transcribed  for  the  piano  by  Liszt  and 
Schumann;  two  sets  of  six  sonatas  for 
the  violin  and  guitar;  and  three  grand 
quartets  for  violin,  viola,  guitar  and 
cello.  After  his  death  were  published 
Concerto  in  E  with  orchestral  accom- 
paniment; Concerto  in  B  minor  with 
Rondo  a  la  Clochette,  for  violin  and 
orchestra;  the  famous  variations,  Le 
Streghe  (Witches'  Dance);  God  Save 
the  King,  variations  for  violin  and 
orchestra;  Le  Carnaval  de  Venise; 
Moto  Perpetuo,  for  violin  and  orches- 
tra; variations  on  Non  piti  mesta, 
from  Rossini's  La  Cenerentola;  vari- 
ations on  the  air  Di  tanti  palpiti; 
and  sixty  variations  in  all  keys  on  the 
air  Barucaba,  for  violin  with  piano 
and  guitar  accompaniment.  The  rest 
of  his  compositions,  including  a  num- 
ber of  concertos  and  sonatas,  have 
been  lost.  The  original  manuscripts 
of  fourteen  of  his  works  were  dis- 
covered at  Perugia  in  1907.  His  first 
composition  was  a  sonata,  written  at 
the  age  of  eight,  which  is  among  the 
lost.  He  promised  to  reveal  the 
secret  of  his  remarkable  playing 
before  he  died,  but  as  he  did  not  it 
still  remains  a  mystery.  He  used 
unusually  thin  strings,  and  tuned  them 
differently  for  different  effects,  some- 
times pitching  them  a  semi-tone  higher 
than  ordinary.  His  chromatic  and 
staccato  passages  were  remarkable, 
and  the  way  in  which  he  combined 
the  pizzicato  and  arco,  plucking  the 
strings  with  his  left  hand  and  at 
the  same  time  using  his  bow  with  the 
right,  was  most  astonishing.  Some 
of  these  effects  he  revived,  but  the 
others  resulted  from  experiments 
which  he  was  constantly  trying  from 
a  very  early  age;  and  though  he  had 
instruction,  his  system  was  mostly 
his  own,  eked  out  by  steady  practise 
until  he  was  thirty  years  old.  After 
that  time  it  is  said  that  he  never 
touched  his  instrument  to  do  anything 
but  tune  it,  except  at  concerts  and 
to  play  a  few  passages  at  rehearsals, 
where  he  was  very  severe  with  the 
orchestra,  yet  ready  to  praise  them 
when  they  did  well.  This  unique 
figure,  whose  career  so  much  resem- 
bled a  meteor,  wrought  a  revolution 
in   the  violin   world,   and   though   he 



left  no  direct  disciple  his  influence  is 
seen  in  the  French  and  Belgium 
Schools.  By  many  he  has  been 
severely  criticized  as  a  charlatan,  but 
Vieuxtemps,  himself  so  renowned  a 
violinist,  who  had  heard  the  wonderful 
virtuoso,  is  reported  to  have  said, 
"  He  is  the  greatest  of  us  all." 

Among  the  numerous  biographies 
of  Paganini,  the  following  may  be 

Anders,   G.    E.  —  Xicolo   Paganini,    sa 
vie,   sa  personne,  et  quelques  mots 
sur  son  secret. 
Bruni,   Oreste  —  Xiccolo   Paganini. 
Conestiable    Giancarlo  —  Vita  di   Xic- 
colo  Paganini  da  Genova. 
Fetis,  F.  J.  —  Xotice  biographique  sur 

N^iccolo  Paganini. 
Guhr,  Carl  —  Uber  Paganini's  Kunst. 
Harris,  Georges  —  Paganini  in  seinem 
Reisewagon   und   Zimmer    (an   inti- 
mate view  of  Paganini  by  one  who 
was  for  a  time  his  secretary). 
Schottky,      Julius      Max  —  Paganini's 
Leben    und    Treiben    als    Kiinstler 
und  als  Mensch. 
Schutz,  J.  —  Paganini's   Leben,   Char- 
akter  und  Kunst. 

*  Page,  Nathaniel  Clifford.     1866- 

Contemporary  American  composer, 
of  old  Xew  England  stock;  born  at 
San  Francisco.  At  twelve  years  of 
age  he  was  composing  operas,  and  at 
sixteen  began  to  study  the  theory  of 
music  seriously  with  several  teachers, 
chief  among  them  Edgar  Stillman 
Kelley.  In  May,  1889,  his  first  opera, 
The  First  Lieutenant,  was  produced 
at  the  Tivoli  Opera  House  in  San 
Francisco,  and  since  then  he  has  writ- 
ten five  comic  and  dramatic  light 
operas,  including  Villiers,  descriptive 
of  English  life  in  Cromwell's  time;  an 
Oriental  opera;  and  one  with  scenes 
laid  in  Brazil;  also  much  incidental 
music  for  plays,  notably,  The  Moon- 
light Blossom,  a  Japanese  play,  which 
met  with  cordial  approval  when  given 
under  his  own  direction  at  the  Prince 
of  Wales  Theatre,  London,  in  1899; 
and  The  Japanese  Xightingale,  per- 
sonally conducted  by  him  at  Daly's 
Theatre,  Xew  York,  in  1903.  His 
Japanese  music  is  based  on  recognized 
native  themes  and  is  especially  good 
in  coloring,  while  all  his  music  is 
excellently  descriptive  and  effectively 
orchestrated.  He  is  particularly  inter- 
ested in  orchestral  composition,  and 
has  written  The  Village  Fete  (Petite 
Suite    in    B    flat),    produced    by    the 


Manuscript  Society  of  New  York  in 
1896,  and  several  other  suites,  for 
grand  orchestra.  Many  songs  and  a 
few  small  works  for  the  piano  also 
bear  his  name.  He  was  president  of 
the  San  Francisco  Philharmonic  So- 
ciety in  1893;  has  conducted  various 
operatic  and  dramatic  productions. 
He  has  also  taught  harmony  and 
orchestration.  During  his  long  resi- 
dence in  Xew  York,  from  1895  to  1905, 
he  was  a  member  of  the  Manuscript 
Society  and  of  the  Xew  Music  So- 
ciety of  America.  Since  1905  he  has 
been  a  member  of  the  editorial  staff  of 
the  Oliver  Ditson  Company  of  Boston. 

Paine,  John  Knowles.    1839-1906. 

The  first  great  American  composer; 
born  at  Portland,  Maine.  With  the 
intention  of  devoting  himself  to  the 
organ  he  took  lessons  from  Kotz- 
schmar,  a  teacher  of  repute  in  his 
native  city,  and  in  1857  he  made  his 
debut  as  an  organist.  In  order  to 
perfect  his  training  he  went  to  Ger- 
many the  next  year,  where  he  studied 
for  three  years  under  Haupt,  Wie- 
precht  and  Teschner,  and  gave  several 
concerts.  In  1861  he  returned  to  this 
country  and,  settling  in  Boston, 
became  organist  6f  West  Church. 
The  next  year  he  resigned  to  take  a 
position  as  musical  instructor  at  Har- 
vard, an  appointment  then  amounting 
to  nothing  but  organist  and  chapel- 
master.  Yet  in  his  anxiety  to  make 
music  a  feature  of  importance,  he  gave 
lectures,  for  which  he  received  no 
remuneration,  and  which  were  but 
slightly  attended,  since  music  counted 
nothing  toward  a  degree. 

In  1866  he  made  a  second  trip  to 
Germany,  where  he  toured  for  a  year, 
directing  his  Mass  in  D,  when  it  was 
given  by  the  Singakademie  at  Berlin 
in  1867,  and  then  returned  to  his  post 
of  organist  at  Har\-ard.  Despite  the 
discouraging  appearance  of  musical 
affairs  in  the  college  in  1862.  the  good 
seed  had  sprouted,  and  in  1870  music 
was  made  an  elective  course,  and 
Paine  renewed  his  lectures.  Three 
years  later  he  was  appointed  assistant 
professor  of  music,  and  in  1875  they 
created  for  him  the  chair  of  music, 
the  first  department  of  the  kind  to  be 
founded  in  an  American  college. 
Until  1905  Paine  retained  his  posi- 
tion in  the  University,  where  he  so 
nobly  advanced  the  cause  of  music. 

As  an  organist  of  the  classical 
school  Mr.  Paine  had  a  high  reputa- 



tion.  He  had  the  distinction  of  being 
one  of  those  to  open  the  great  organ 
at  the  Music  Hall,  Boston,  in  1863. 
During  his  later  years,  however,  he 
performed  very  seldom,  and  so 
brightly  did  he  shine  as  a  composer 
that  his  work  as  an  organist  was 
almost  eclipsed.  On  his  return  from 
Germany,  instilled  with  the  traditions 
of  Bach  and  the  classical  school,  he 
was  very  conservative  in  style,  but 
gradually,  with  the  advance  of  roman- 
ticism, he,  too,  felt  the  impulse  of  the 
movement,  as  is  evinced  by  his 
superb  music  for  Sophocles'  CEdipus 
Tyrannus,  and  the  works  which  fol- 
lowed it.  Paine  is  remarkable  for 
many  works  in  the  large  form,  in 
which  he  has  shown  himself  a  master. 
In  1873  his  oratorio,  St.  Peter,  was 
first  performed  at  Portland,  Maine, 
and  the  next  year  was  sung  by  the 
Handel  and  Haydn  Society  in  Boston. 
In  1876  he  had  the  honorable  task 
of  composing  the  Centennial  Hymn 
to  Whittier's  poem  for  the  Exposi- 
tion at  Philadelphia;  at  the  time  of 
the  Chicago  World's  Fair,  in  1893,  he 
wrote  the  Columbus  March  and 
Hymn;  and  for  the  opening  of  the  St. 
Louis  Exposition  in  1904,  he  set  Sted- 
man's  Hymn  of  the  West.  His  first 
symphony,  in  C  minor,  was  played  by 
the  Thomas  Orchestra  at  the  Boston 
Music  Hall  in  1876,  and  the  second. 
Spring,  at  Sanders  Theatre,  Cam- 
bridge, in  1880.  Meanwhile  the 
Thomas  Orchestra  had  performed  his 
symphonic  poem  in  D  minor,  on  The 
Tempest,  in  1877  at  New  York,  and 
in  1878  his  overture  to  As  You  Like 
It  was  played  at  the  Sanders  Theatre, 
as  was  also  a  duo  concertante  for 
violin  and  cello  with  orchestra.  In 
1888  the  Boston  Symphony  Orchestra 
played  his  Island  Fantasy.  In  1901 
the  Harvard  Classical  Club  gave 
Aristophanes'  Birds,  for  the  music  of 
which  it  was  indebted  to  Professor 
Paine,  and  that  year  his  opera,  Azara, 
of  which  he  wrote  both  words  and 
music,  was  published.  He  has  also 
written  a  number  of  minor  works  for 
the  voice,  piano,  organ  and  strings. 
At  the  time  of  his  death,  April  25, 
1906,  he  was  busy  writing  a  sympho- 
nic poem  illustrative  of  the  character 
and  death  of  Abraham  Lincoln. 

Paisiello      (pa-e-si-el'-lo),      Giovanni. 


Sometimes  spelled  Paesiello.     Cele- 
brated    Italian     operatic     composer; 


born  at  Tarento.  His  father,  a  veter- 
inary surgeon,  wishing  his  son  to  be  a 
lawyer,  put  him  in  the  Jesuit  School 
of  his  native  place,  at  the  age  of  five. 
There  his  musical  talent  was  dis- 
covered by  Carducci,  chapelmaster  of 
the  Capuchins,  who  urged  the  boy's 
parents  to  send  him  to  Naples,  After 
long  hesitation  they  decided  to  let 
him  go,  and,  in  preparation,  he  was 
taught  the  rudiments  of  music  by  the 
priest,  Resta.  In  1754  he  entered  the 
Conservatory  of  San  Onofrio,  and 
there  studied  under  Durante,  Cotu- 
macci  and  Abos,  and  later  taught  and 
composed  sacred  music.  In  1763  he 
ventured  on  a  comic  intermezzo,  for 
the  Conservatory  Theatre,  which 
called  attention  to  its  author  and 
obtained  him  a  contract  for  an  opera 
for  the  Bologna  Theatre.  The  opera, 
La  Pupilla,  and  another,  II  Mondo  a 
Rovescio,  were  produced  in  1764.  In 
1772  he  married  Cecile  Pallini,  and  his 
married  life  proved  a  happy  one. 
Until  1776  he  composed  a  long  list  of 
operas  for  the  theatres  of  Modena, 
Venice,  Naples,  Rome  and  other  Ital- 
ian cities,  of  which  II  marchese  di 
Tulipano,  L'idolo  Cinese,  and  La  Serva 
Padrona  are  the  best  known.  His 
name  having  now  won  a  European 
celebrity,  he  was  called  to  Russia  in 
1776  as  composer  to  Empress  Cath- 
erine II.  There  he  wrote  two  books 
of  sonatas;  caprices;  and  piano-music; 
and  one  of  his  best  operas,  II  Bar- 
biere  di  Siviglia,  which  became  so 
popular  that  Rossini  was  considered 
most  presumptuous  when  he  wrote 
new  music  for  the  same  text. 

In  1784  Paisiello  left  St.  Petersburg 
for  Warsaw,  where  he  set  Metastasio's 
Passion,  and  proceeding  to  Vienna, 
composed  II  re  Teodore,  one  of  his 
best  opera  bouflfes,  and  twelve  sym- 
phonies for  Emperor  Joseph.  The 
next  year  he  was  back  in  Italy,  re- 
turning to  Naples  to  become  chapel- 
master to  King  Ferdinand  IV.  Offers 
from  St.  Petersburg,  where  he  had 
been  so  royally  treated,  also  Berlin 
and  London,  were  refused,  and  he 
remained  in  the  service  of  the  Bour- 
bons at  Naples  But  when,  by  a  revo- 
lution, Naples  became  a  republic, 
Paisiello  became  a  republican,  and 
was  appointed  director  of  music  in 
1799.  On  the  restoration  of  the  King 
this  action  was  considered  an  offense, 
and  it  was  two  years  before  the  com- 
poser was  taken  back  into  royal  favor. 

In    1802,    Napoleon,    First    Consul, 




who  had  in  1797  chosen  Paisiello's 
funeral  symphony  for  General  Hoche, 
in  preference  to  Cherubini's,  requested 
the  King  to  send  him  to  France.  Per- 
mission was  granted,  and  on  his 
arrival  at  Paris  he  was  lavishly  pro- 
vided for,  and  offered  numerous  high 
offices,  accepting  only  the  mastership 
of  the  Royal  Chapel.  For  it  he  wrote 
much  sacred  music,  and  for  the  Royal 
Academy  of  Music  he  composed  an 
unsuccessful  opera,  Proserpine.  Dis- 
appointed at  its  failure,  but  with  the 
pretext  of  his  wife's  ill  health,  he 
returned  to  Naples  after  two  years 
and  a  half  in  Paris.  When  the  Bona- 
parte family  became  rulers  of  Naples, 
they  not  only  left  Paisiello  his  posi- 
tions, but  gave  him  the  badges  of  the 
Legion  of  Honor  and  the  Two  Sicilies, 
and  made  him  a  member  of  the 
Accademia  Napoleone  at  Lucca,  the 
Italian  Academy  at  Leghorn,  the  Sons 
of  Apollo  at  Paris,  and  finally  in  1809 
of  the  Institute.  But  with  the  fall  of 
that  family  he  lost  all  his  appoint- 
ments except  that  of  Royal  chapel- 
master,  and  so,  deprived  of  favor,  he 
spent  the  last  few  years  of  his  life, 
dying  at  the  age  of  seventy-five  in 
the  city  that  had  so  long  been  his 
home.  His  funeral  was  publicly  cele- 
brated; a  requiem  of  his  own  was 
sung  for  him;  and  the  performance 
of  his  opera,  Nina,  which  took  place 
that  night,  was  attended  by  the  King 
and  court.  Of  his  nearly  one  hundred 
operas,  both  serious  and  comic,  there 
may  be  mentioned,  besides  those 
already  spoken  of.  La  Francatana; 
La  Molinara;  I  zingari  in  fiera;  Nina, 
La  Pazza  par  Amore;  and  L'Elfrida; 
all  given  at  Naples.  He  also  wrote 
intermezzos;  a  great  many  cantatas; 
oratorios;  masses;  symphonies;  piano 
concertos;  and  quartets  for  piano  and 
strings  and  strings  alone.  He  made 
a  number  of  improvements  in  orches- 
tral composition,  and  brought  the 
viola,  clarinet  and  bassoon  into  use  in 
Italian  theatres.  His  music  is  natural 
and  very  simple,  with  no  attempt  at 
elaboration,  and  though  not  intensely 
dramatic,  it  is  delicate  and  charming. 
The  accompaniments  are  also  simple 
and  are  now  considered  thin,  but  in 
spite  of  the  disuse  into  which  his 
works  have  fallen,  they  are  generally 
considered  of  much  merit. 

Paladilhe  (pal-a-del),  fimile.     1844- 

French    composer;    born    at    Mont- 
pellier.     His  father,  a  cultivated  phy- 

sician,  gave  him  his  first  instruction 
in  music,  and  later  he  studied  under 
Boixet,  organist  of  the  Montpellier 
Cathedral.  At  nine  years  of  age  he 
went  to  Paris  to  join  the  Conserv- 
atory, where  he  studied  organ  under 
Benoist,  piano  under  Marraontel,  and 
composition  under  Halevy.  He  took 
the  first  prize  for  piano  in  1857,  and 
in  1860  the  organ  prize,  and  also  the 
Grand  Prize  of  Rome  for  his  cantata, 
Le  Czar  Ivan  IV.,  given  at  the 
Opera,  but  not  published.  After  a 
short  stay  in  Italy  he  returned  to 
Paris,  where  he  still  resides,  and  is  a 
member  of  the  tuition  committee  of 
the  Conservatory,  having  received  the 
cross  of  the  Legion  of  Honor  in  1881, 
and  succeeded  Guiraud  in  the  Acad- 
emie  in  1892.  His  non-dramatic  works 
include  two  masses;  six  Scotch  melo- 
dies; twenty  melodies,  and  other  songs 
with  piano  accompaniment;  a  sym- 
phony, and  some  other  instrumental 
music.  His  first  opera,  Le  Passant, 
was  given  at  the  Opera  Comique  in 
1872.  But,  aside  from  the  very  popu- 
lar song,  Mandolinata,  it  was  not  a 
great  success.  Neither  was  L'Amour 
Africain,  produced  in  1875,  although  it 
has  much  intrinsic  value.  Suzanne,  a 
three-act  comic  opera,  which  came  out 
in  1878,  shows  "  something  beyond 
mere  ingenuity  in  devising  effects," 
and  is  rendered  charming  by  its  deli- 
cate and  unique  melodies.  Though 
better  received  than  the  others  its 
success  was  not  flattering,  and  Pala- 
dilhe turned  to  concert  composition, 
writing  Fragments  symphoniques  in 
1882.  But  returning  to  the  field  of 
opera  he  brought  out  Diana  in  1885, 
another  failure.  However,  he  at  last 
achieved  a  brilliant  success  in  1886 
with  La  Patrie,  a  grand  opera,  for 
the  text  of  which  Sardou's  drama  was 
obtained.  His  late  lyric-drama,  Sainte 
Marie  a  la  mer,  was  given  in  1892. 
Paladilhe  is  said  to  have  no  great 
creative  ability,  and  has  not  kept  up 
with  the  progress  of  music,  his  style 
being  old-fashioned. 

Palestrina    (pa-les-tre'-na),    Giovanni 

Pierluigi  da.    1514-1594. 

Much  is  uncertain  concerning  the 
life  of  this  man,  the  musical  giant  of 
the  Sixteenth  Century.  Born  in  the 
rambling  hill-town  of  Palestrina,  a 
famous  resort  in  the  days  of  ancient 
Rome,  from  which  it  is  but  twenty- 
four  miles  distant,  he  is  generally 
known  by  its  name,  though   his  real 




name  was  Giovanni  (John)  Pierluigi 
(Peter  Lewis.)  In  familiar  parlance 
he  was  Gianetto  and  his  published 
works  shows  various  other  differ- 
ences in  the  spelling  of  his  name.  No 
biography  of  him  was  written  until 
1828,  and  then  Giuseppe  Baini  had  to 
found  his  work,  for  the  most  part,  on 
traditions.  No  record  of  his  birth 
remained,  as  the  town  archives  had 
been  burned.  So,  probably,  misin- 
terpreting a  passage  in  the  dedication 
of  the  eighth  volume  of  Palestrina's 
masses  published  by  his  son  Ignio  in 
1594,  stating  that  for  nearly  seventy 
years  Palestrina  had  spent  his  time 
composing  praises  to  God,  Baini  set 
1524  as  the  date  of  his  birth,  and  he 
has  been  followed  by  many  others. 
Yet  Baini's  pupil,  Cicerchio,  discov- 
ered some  family  papers  from  which, 
later,  Schelle  fixed  the  date  as  1514, 
a  conclusion  to  which  Kandler  had 
arrived  from  the  inscription  on  a  por- 
trait of  Palestrina  in  the  Sistine 
Chapel.  Haberl,  the  founder  of  a 
Palestrina  Society  and  chief  editor 
of  the  complete  set  of  his  works, 
favors  1526,  and  another  writer  thinks 
that  or  the  previous  year  most  likely. 
The  family  name  of  Palestrina's 
father  was  Sante  and  his  mother  was 
Maria  Gismondi,  and  they  are  now 
conceded  to  have  been  well-to-do- 
peasants.  In  1540  Palestrina  went  to 
Rome  and  began  his  musical  studies, 
but  beyond  this  fact  nothing  about 
his  student  life  is  very  certain.  He 
is  generally  said  to  have  attended  the 
school  of  one  Goudimel  or  Gaudio 
Mell,  a  Fleming  or  Frenchman, 
though  much  doubt  exists  on  this 
point.  Whoever  his  teacher  was, 
Palestrina  must  have  obtained  a  very 
thorough  education,  and  in  1544  he 
returned  to  his  native  town,  where 
he  became  canon  in  the  Cathedral. 
There  until  1551  he  sang  in  the  daily 
service,  taught,  and  played  the  organ 
on  festal  occasions,  and  meantime, 
probably  in  1547,  he  married  Lucrezia 
Goris.  The  Bishop  Cardinal  of  Pales- 
trina was  a  patron  of  his,  and  on 
becoming  Pope,  Julius  III.  appointed 
Palestrina  master  of  the  boys  of  the 
Cappella  Giulia  in  St.  Peter's,  under 
the  new  title,  Magister  Cappellse 
(teacher  or  master  of  the  chapel). 
Though  the  salary  was  small,  the 
position  was  a  very  honorable  one, 
and  to  show  his  gratitude  Palestrina 
dedicated  to  the  Pope  his  first  volume 
of  masses.    This  volume  is  interesting 

not  only  as  the  first  work  by  this 
great  composer  but  the  first  to  be 
dedicated  to  any  Pope  by  an  Italian, 
so  completely  had  the  Netherland 
School  held  sway  in  Rome.  Pope 
Julius  appreciated  this  action  and 
forthwith  appointed  Palestrina  one  of 
the  singers  in  the  Sistine  Chapel,  vio- 
lating his  own  rule  that  no  layman 
could  be  a  member  of  the  choir,  and 
overlooking  the  quality  of  Palestrina's 
voice.  The  Pontifical  singers  pro- 
tested, but  the  Pope  insisted,  and  on 
Jan.  13,  1555,  Palestrina  was  entered 
on  the  journal  as  becoming  a  member 
without  the  consent  of  the  college. 
He  himself  hesitated  to  break  the 
rules  and  moreover  he  was  loath  to 
leave  the  post  which  he  enjoyed  so 
much.  Unfortunately  for  Palestrina 
the  Pope  died  soon  after  and  when 
Paul  IV.,  the  stern  reformer,  became 
Pope  and  ascertained  that  there  were 
three  married  men  in  the  choir,  Pales- 
trina being  one,  he  immediately  dis- 
missed them  with  a  pension,  despite 
the  intercession  of  the  singers  and 
the  rule  that  members  of  the  Pontif- 
ical Choir  are  chosen  for  life.  So 
deeply  did  Palestrina  feel  this  "  dis- 
grace," as  he  considered  it,  that  he 
became  dangerously  ill.  On  his  re- 
covery he  was  straightway  made 
chapelmaster  of  St.  John  at  Lateran, 
where  he  remained  from  October,  1555 
until  February,  1561,  and  there  he 
wrote,  among  other  things,  his  beau- 
tiful music  for  Holy  Week:  Lamen- 
tations of  Jeremiah  for  four  voices; 
Improperia,  Reproaches  of  Christ; 
and  the  hymn.  Crux  Fidelis,  all  for. 
eight  voices.  These  compositions 
were  so  enthusiastically  received  that 
Paul  IV.  had  them  sung  in  the  Vati- 
can and  added  to  the  collection,  and 
they  are  still  sung  in  the  Sistine 
Chapel.  From  the  Lateran  he  went  to 
the  Liberian  Chapel  of  Santa  Maria 
Maggiore,  _  where  he  remained  until 
1571,  and  it  was  while  there  that  he 
wrote  the  famous  Missa  Papse  Mar- 
celli,  _  which  won  him  the  nam.e  of 
"  Savior  of  church-music."  The  old 
Gregorian  plain  chant,  formerly  the 
only  form  of  church-music,  had,  under 
the  Netherland  masters,  given  place 
to  a  more  elaborate  contrapuntal 
form,  which  in  turn,  influenced  by  the 
effect  of  the  Renaissance  and  the 
striving  of  the  contrapuntists  to  outdo 
each  other  in  displaying  their  science, 
had  become  so  intricate  that  the 
words  of  the  service  were  hidden  by 




the  mass  of  interwoven  passages.  It 
had  also  become  customary  for  com- 
posers to  use  a  popular  air  for  the 
theme  of  their  mass,  and  frequently 
the  original  words  were  retained,  with 
the  final  result  that  many  of  the  choir 
and  congregation  would  be  singing 
the  ribald  words  of  some  drinking 
song  simultaneously  with  the  words 
of  the  mass.  The  Catholic  Church 
finding  itself  endangered  by  a  de- 
graded condition  internally,  and  by 
the  reforms  of  Luther  without,  held 
the  famous  Council  of  Trent  and 
there  the  condition  of  church-music 
was  briefly  discussed.  The  council 
was  in  favor  of  abolishing  contra- 
puntal music  altogether  from  the 
service,  but  a  commission  of  eight 
cardinals  was  appointed  to  take 
charge  of  the  matter,  and  after  con- 
sulting with  an  equal  number  of  the 
Pope's  singers,  gave  to  Palestrina  the 
commission  for  a  mass  which  would 
prove  that  music  could  be  a  help,  not 
a  hindrance,  to  the  church  service. 
But,  fearing  to  intrust  the  destinies 
of  music  to  a  single  work,  Palestrina 
composed  three  masses,  which  were 
performed  before  the  committee  at 
the  home  of  Cardinal  Vitellozzi  on 
April  28,  1565.  All  three  were  greatly 
praised,  but  especially  the  one  dedi- 
cated to  Pope  Marcellus.  It  was 
given  with  great  ceremony  before  the 
Pope  at  the  Sistine  Chapel,  June  19, 
Cardinal  Borromeo  directing,  and  His 
Holiness  was  so  pleased  that  he 
ordered  it  copied  in  the  chapel  books 
in  letters  twice  as  large  and  beautiful 
as  usual.  The  light  of  modern  re- 
search, however,  shows  this  celebrated 
mass  in  a  much  less  picturesque  way. 
It  has  now  been  proven  by  docu- 
mentary evidence  that  the  committee 
of  eight  was  chiefly  concerned  in 
purifjnng  the  Pontifical  Choir,  and 
that  the  investigation  of  music  itself 
was  a  secondary  matter.  The  journal 
records  the  performance  of  certain 
works  before  the  committee  at  Vitel- 
lozzi's,  but  gives  no  names.  Nor  in 
the  record  does  it  speak  of  a  particu- 
lar mass  by  Palestrina  being  per- 
formed. Even  further,  Dr.  Haberl  is 
of  the  opinion  that  Palestrina's  fa- 
mous mass  was  written  before  Mar- 
cellus became  Pope,  for  it  is  found 
in  the  archives  of  Santa  Maria  Mag- 
giore  and  the  Sistine  Chapel,  without 
dedication,  previous  to  its  publication 
in  1567  as  the  Missa  Papge  Marcelli. 
As    to    the    reformation    in    church- 


music,  it  was  more  a  purification  of 
the  words  and  methods  of  singing, 
than  a  radical  change  in  the  music 
itself,  beyond  the  improvement  which 
one  of  Palestrina's  genius  naturally 
made,  for  his  music  shows  no  direct 
departure  from  the  old  contrapuntal 
style,  but  the  culmination  of  all  the 
best  in  that  style  in  him,  the  greatest 
and  last  composer  of  the  old  school. 
The  production  of  the  Missa  Papse 
Marcelli  is  assigned  as  the  reason  for 
his  being  honored  with  a  pension  and 
the  title  of  composer  to  the  Sistine 

Until  1571,  however,  he  continued  at 
Santa  Maria  Maggiore,  then  he  re- 
turned to  his  old  post  at  St.  Peter's, 
where  he  remained  through  the  rule 
of  seven  pontiffs  until  his  death.  Out- 
side his  duties  Palestrina's  time  was 
occupied  so  fully  with  composing  that 
he  could  not  do  much  teaching.  As 
often  as  he  was  able  he  taught  in  the 
school  of  Giovanni  Nanini,  the  friend 
of  his  youth  and  his  successor  at  the 
Liberian  Chapel.  This  was  the  first 
pubHc_  music  _  school  in  Rome,  and 
from  it,  Baini  says,  "  was  derived  all 
the  beauty,  the  grandeur,  the  senti- 
ment, of  the  Roman  School,  mother 
and  mistress  of  all."  Though  his  sal- 
aries were  never  very  large,  great 
honor  was  bestowed  upon  Palestrina 
by  the  church  and  his  fellowmen,  one 
expression  of  which  manifested  itself 
in  1575,  when  Pope  Gregory  held  a 
jubilee  and  the  people  of  Palestrina, 
fifteen  hundred  strong,  marched  to 
Rome  in  gala  attire  singing  the  songs 
of  their  great  townsman,  while  he 
led  the  procession.  But  among  many 
honors  there  was  one  rebuff:  In  1585 
Pope  Sixtus  V.  wished  to  make  Pales- 
trina chapelmaster  of  the  Pontifical 
Chapel  in  return  for  the  beauitful 
mass,  Assumpta_  est  Maria  in  Ccelum, 
dedicated  to  him,  but  the  singers, 
jealous  perhaps  of  Palestrina's  re- 
nown, flatly  refused  to  obey  the 
Pope's  commands.  It  was  now  five 
years  since  a  great  sorrow  had  come 
to  him  in  the  death  of  his  wife,  who 
for  thirty  years  had  been  so  dear  to 
him,_  and  some  of  his  most  beautiful 
music  was  written  in  his  grief.  Greg- 
ory XITI.  commissioned  him  to 
revise  the  Graduate  and  Antifonario, 
and  though  he  never  completed  the 
Graduale,  the  other  part,  which  he 
intrusted  to  his  pupil  Giudetti,  was 
published  in  1582  as  Directorium 
Chori.    In  1587  Sixtus  V.,  wanting  the 





music  to  the  lessons  for  Holy  Week 
changed,  Palestrina  set  the  first  les- 
son for  Good  Friday,  and  the  next 
year  published  his  first  book  of  Lam- 
entations. He  continued  to  com- 
pose up  to  the  last,  and  when  he  felt 
the  end  approaching,  called  his  only 
surviving  son,  Ignio,  and  later  charg- 
ing him  to  publish  the  remainder  of 
his  works,  blessed  and  dismissed  him, 
and  spent  the  last  few  hours  of  his 
life  with  St.  Neri,  his  beloved  friend 
and  confessor,  whose  sanctity  he  him- 
self so  nearly  approached.  Pales- 
trina was  buried  with  great  ceremony, 
all  the  musicians  and  ecclesiastics  of 
Rome,  as  well  as  a  concourse  of 
people,  attending  at  St.  Peter's,  where 
his  own  Libera  me  Domine  was  sung 
by  the  whole  college  of  the  Sistine 
Chapel.  He  was  interred  before  the 
altar  of  St.  Simon  and  St.  Jude,  and 
near  by  a  tablet  was  placed  bearing 
the  inscription: 

Johannes  Petrus  Aloysius  Praenestinus 
Musicse  Princeps. 
The  character  of  the  "  Prince  of 
Music  "  (he  has  been  given  numerous 
appellations  of  this  sort)  must  be 
sought  in  his  works,  and  they  show 
him  to  have  been  a  grave,  religious 
man,  working  not  for  self-aggrandize- 
ment but  for  "  the  glory  of  the  Most 
High  God"  and  these  works,  to  quote 
Ambros,  "breathe  the  holy  spirit  of 
devotion."  His  attitude  toward  his 
art  is  most  clearly  set  forth  in  one  of 
his  dedications,  where  he  says  "  Music 
exerts  a  great  influence  upon  the 
minds  of  mankind,  and  is  intended 
not  only  to  cheer  them,  but  also  to 
guide  and  control  them,  a  statement 
that  has  not  only  been  made  by  the 
ancients,  but  which  is  found  equally 
true  today.  The  sharper  blame  there- 
fore do  those  deserve  who  misemploy 
so  great  and  splendid  a  gift  of  God 
in  light  and  unworthy  things  and 
thereby  excite  men  who  themselves 
are  inclined  to  all  evil,  to  sin  and  mis- 
doings. As  regards  myself,  I  have 
from  youth  been  afifrighted  at  such 
misuse,  and  anxiously  have  avoided 
giving  forth  anything  which  could 
lead  anyone  to  become  more  wicked 
or  godless.  All  the  more  should  I 
now,  that  I  have  attained  to  riper 
years,  place  my  entire  thoughts  on 
lofty,  earnest^  things  such  as  are 
worthy  a  Christian."  He  surely  ac- 
complished work  "worthy  a  Chris- 
tian "  for  even  today,  as  was  true  four 

centuries  ago,  his  music  has  an  in- 
spiring and  uplifting  power.  Rosen- 
wald  has  given  in  a  few  words  a  vivid 
suggestion  of  the  difference  in  style 
between  Palestrina  and  Bach,  the  two 
greatest  church  composers,  the  one 
of  the  Catholic,  the  other  of  the 
Protestant  faith,  "Palestrina  prays; 
Bach  preaches."  It  was  not  by  blazing 
a  new  trail  that  Palestrina  attained 
his  wonderful  style.  He  worked  with 
the  tools  left  him  by  his  predecessors, 
wrote  in  the  old  ecclesiastical  key,  in 
the  old  polyphonic  style,  only  his 
master-hand  did  work  more  delicate 
and  polished  even  than  that  of  his 
great  contemporary,  Orlandus  Lassus. 
New  methods,  new  instruments,  new 
views  have  broadened  the  musical 
horizon  since  his  time,  but  Pales- 
trina's  music  is  still  magnificent  and 
touching  in  its  simple  grandeur.  Many 
tales  of  his  poverty  have  been  told, 
but  they  are  now  considered  ground- 
less, for  it  has  been  found  that  he 
owned  considerable  land  and  a  num- 
ber of  vineyards,  purchased  from  time 
to  time.  The  house  with  its  small 
back  garden,  where  he  lived  at  Pales- 
trina, can  still  be  seen,  and  rumor  has 
it  that  Cardinal  Vannutelli  is  trying 
to  have  a  statue  to  him  raised  in  his 
native  town. 

Palestrina's  works  were  published  at 
Rome  and  Venice  and  are  not  only 
of  remarkable  quality  but  amazing 
quantity.  There  were  originally 
twelve  books  of  masses.  Another 
book  of  four  masses  appeared  in  1601. 
A  few  of  these  masses  need  be  men- 
tioned by  name:  .Sterna  Christi 
Munera,  Dies  santificatus,  Lauda  Si- 
non,  Pater  Noster,  Iste  confessor,  and 
Jesu  Nostra  redemptio,  for  four 
voices;  Beatus  Laurentius,  Panem 
Nostrum,  Salve  Regina,  O  Sacrum 
Convivium,  and  Dilexi  quoniam,  for 
five  voices;  Ecce  ego  Joannes,  Tu  es 
Petrus,  Veni  Creator  Spiritus,  and  Ut 
Re  Me  Fa  Sol,  for  six  voices;  Con- 
fitebor,  and  Hodie  Christus  Natus  est. 
But  the  most  famous  are  Assumpta 
est  Maria  in  Ccelum;  Missa  Papse 
Marcelli;  Missa  Brevis;  and  the 
Stabat  Mater;  the  latter  of  which 
Wagner  edited.  Mendelssohn  is  said 
to  have  considered  the  Improperia 
Palestrina's  best  work.  The  first 
book  of  motets  for  four  voices,  a 
collection  for  the  feast  days  of  the 
year,  Motecta  Festorum  Totius  Anni, 
was  printed  in  1563.  Five  books  of 
motets  for  from  five  to  eight  voices 



appeared  later.  Of  these  motets  the 
Songs  of  Solomon;  Fratres  ego  enim; 
Exaudi  Domine;  Viri  Galilaei;  Dune 
complirentur;  Peccantem  me;  and 
Supra  flumina  Babylonis;  are  espe- 
cially fine.  There  are  also  four  books 
of  madrigals,  Hymni  Totius  Anni  was 
published  in  1589;  Book  I  of  Lamenta- 
tions in  1588;  Book  I  of  Magnificats 
in  1591;  offertorios  for  five  voices  in 
1593,  and  Litanies  in  1600.  Some 
madrigals  were  published  separately 
in  contemporary  works,  and  nine  of 
Palestrina's  masses,  motets,  hymns, 
lamentations,  offertorios  and  magnifi- 
cats form  seven  volumes  of  Alfieri's 
Raccolta  di  Musica,  published  at 
Rome  in  1841.  Burney  pubhshed  the 
Stabat  Mater  in  1771  and  the  Passion 
music  in  1772.  Robert  Eitner  made  a 
complete  alphabetical  list  of  Pales- 
trina's works,  but  the  latest  and  best 
collection  is  the  complete  edition  of 
thirty-three  volumes  published  by 
Breitkopf  and  Hartel  from  1862  to 


Baini,  Abbate  Giuseppe  —  Memoire 
storio-critiche  della  vita  e  della 
opere  di  Giovanni  Pierluigi  da  Pal- 
estrina.    2  vols. 

Bartoloni,  A.  —  Elogio  di  Giovanni 
Pierluigi  da  Palestrina. 

Baumker  —  Palestrina,  ein  Beitrag. 

Cametti,  A.  —  Cenni  biografici  Gio- 
vanni Pierluigi  da  Palestrina. 

Naumann,  Emil  —  Italienische  Ton- 
dichter  von  Palestrina  bis  auf  die 

Nisard  —  Monograph  on  Palestrina. 
(Re\'ue  de  musique  ancienne  et 
moderne,  1856.) 

Waldersee,  Paul,  ed.  —  Giovanni  da 
Palestrina  und  die  Gesammt.  Aus- 
gabe  seiner  werke. 

Winterfield,  C.  —  Palestrina,  seine 
Werke  und  deren  Bedeutung  fiir 
die  Geschichte  der  Tonkunst. 

Pallavicini    (pal-la- ve-che'-ne).    Carlo. 


Italian  operatic  composer  of  the 
Venetian  School.  Born  at  Brescia. 
His  first  operas  were  brought  out  at 
Venice.  He  then  went  to  Dresden, 
where  in  1667  he  became  assistant 
chapelmaster,  and  in  1672  Court 
chapelmaster.^  The  next  year  he  went 
back  to  Venice,  where  he  produced 
Diocleziano;  Enea  in  Italia;  Galeno;  II 
Vespasiano;  II  Nerone;  Messalina; 
Bassiano,  ossia  il  maggiore  impossi- 
ble; Carlo,  re  d*  Italia;  II  re  infante; 

and  Licinio.  In  1685  he  returned  to 
Dresden,  and  in  1687  was  formally 
appointed  master  of  the  New  Italian 
Opera,  where  Recimero,  re  de'  Van- 
dali;  Massino  Puppieno;  Penelope  la 
casta;  Didone  delirante;  Amor  inna- 
morato;  L'amazzone  corsara;  and 
Elmiro,  re  di  Corinto,  were  given. 
Gerusalemme  liberata  came  out  at 
Hamburg  in  1693.  He  died  at  Dres- 
den, in  1688,  before  his  Antiope  was 
finished.  It  was  completed  by 
Strungk  and  produced  the  next  year. 
Other  works  are  cantatas;  an  ora- 
torio; fantasias;  and  masses  in  manu- 
script at  Modena,  Munich,  Dresden 
and  Christ's  Church,  Oxford. 

*  Palmer,    Horatio    Richmond.     1834- 


Writer,  composer,  and  teacher; 
born  of  American  parentage  at  Sher- 
burne, New  York.  His  father  was  a 
musician,  and  when  only  seven  years 
old  Horatio  sang  alto  in  a  church 
choir,  becoming  organist  and  choir- 
master at  seventeen.  He  studied  at 
the  Rushford  Academy  of  Music  in 
New  York  City,  and  latter  in  Berlin 
and  Florence.  He  began  his  pro- 
fessional work  at  Rushford  Academy, 
and  two  years  later  he  was  made 
director  of  that  institution.  He  began 
his  work  as  a  conductor  when  only 
twenty,  and  after  experience  in  the 
Northern  States  and  Canada  he 
organized  the  Church  Choral  Union 
of  New  York  City,  in  1873,  and  for 
seven  years  was  leader  of  that  society, 
which  at  times  numbered  four  thou- 
sand singers.  In  1877  he  established 
the  Chautauqua  Summer  School  of 
Music,  of  which  he  was  dean  for 
fourteen  years.  He  also  led  the  choir 
there,  and  for  seventeen  years  con- 
ducted the  Musical  Festival  at  Cort- 
land, N.  Y.  He  served  as  choirmaster 
of  the  Broome  Street  Tabernacle 
for  eleven  years,  and  was  a  prominent 
member  of  the  Clef  Club  in  New 
York  City.  His  great  activity  along 
musical  lines  was  rewarded  by  the 
degree  of  Doctor  of  Music,  conferred 
upon  him  by  the  Chicago  University 
in  1881  and  the  Alfred  University  in 
1882.  Dr.  Palmer  was  a  great  student 
of  literature  and  astronomy,  as  well 
as  music,  and  lectured  on  all  three 
subjects.  He  was  the  publisher  of  his 
own  works,  which  include  the  Theory 
of  Music;  Class  Method;  Manual  for 
Teachers:  Pronouncing  Pocket  Dic- 
tionary of  Musical  Terms;  Pronounc- 




ing  Biographical  Pocket  Dictionary  of 
Musicians;  Peerless  Piano  Primer; 
Book  of  five  hundred  and  sixteen  short 
Interludes  and  Modulations;  and  the 
popular  class  books,  The  Song 
Queen;  The  Song  King;  Song  Herald; 
Concert  Choruses;  and  many  other 
collections.  He  wrote  quantities  of 
sacred  pieces,  and  among  his  well- 
known  hymns  are  Just  for  Today; 
Yield  Not  to  Temptation;  Beautiful 
Home;  The  Rose  of  Sharon;  Holy 
Spirit  from  Above;  Galilee,  Blue 
Galilee;  and  Peace  be  Still. 

Paminger     (pa-ming-er),     Leonhardt. 


Also  spelled  Paminger,  Pamiger, 
Pammigerus  and  Pannigerus.  Ger- 
man contrapuntist  and  a  great  friend 
of  Luther's;  noted  for  his  church- 
music.  He  was  born  at  Aschau, 
Upper  Austria,  and  died  at  the  Mon- 
astery of  St.  Nicholas  at  Passau, 
where  he  had  studied,  and  where, 
after  finishing  his  studies  at  Vienna 
in  1516,  he  became  school  rector  and, 
later,  secretary.  Among  his  compo- 
sitions are  four  books  of  motets,  pub- 
lished at  Nuremburg  under  the  name 
Ecclesiasticarum  cantiorum,  by  _  his 
sons,  Balthaser,  Sophonias  and  Sigis- 
mund,  who  were  also  composers  and 
a  few  of  whose  compositions  appeared 
therein.  Paminger  also  wrote  con- 
troversial tracts;  and  his  compositions 
are  among  the  collections  of  his  time. 

Panny,  Joseph.    1794-1838. 

Austrian  violinist,  composer,  and 
teacher;  born  at  Kolmitzberg.  His 
father  was  a  violinist,  and  his  grand- 
father an  organist,  and  from  them  he 
received  instruction  in  violin,  organ 
and  theory.  In  his  youth  he  had  to 
give  up  the  study  of  music  to  earn 
his  own  living,  but  he  went  to  Vienna 
in  1815  and  studied  under  Eybler,  and 
appeared  in  a  concert  of  his  own  com- 
positions in  1824.  _He  attracted  the 
attention  of  Paganini,  and  together 
they  toured  as  far  as  Prague.  From 
there  Panny  went  to  Germany,  visit- 
ing the  principal  cities.  In  1831  he 
set  out  on  a  tour  through  Norway, 
Sweden  and  England.  On  his  return 
to  Germany  he  founded  a  music 
school  at  Weisserling  in  Alsace,  and 
after  visting  Paris  in  1835,  married, 
and  made  Mainz  his  home.  Here  he 
founded  another  school  of  music. 
Three  masses;  a  requiem;  male 
choruses;  songs;  a  scene  with  orches- 


tral  accompaniment,  written  for 
Paganini;  a  sonata;  trio;  string  quar- 
tets; and  other  instrumental  music, 
beside  the  opera.  Das  Madchen  von 
Riigen,  written  in  1831,  are  the  work 
of  his  hand.  Some  manuscripts  on 
the  musical  history  of  England, 
France,  Germany  and  Italy  are  also 

Panofka  (pa-nof'-ke),  Heinrich.    1807- 

German  violinist  and  composer, 
better  known  as  a  singing-teacher  in 
London.  He  was  born  at  Breslau, 
and  studied  according  to  his  father's 
wish.  He  himself  was  eager  to  com- 
plete his  musical  education,  begun 
under  his  sister,  a  violinist,  and  the 
cantors,  Strauch  and  Foerster,  and  at 
last  his  father  acquiesced.  He  went 
to  Vienna  in  1824  and  studied  violin 
urider  Mayseder,  and  composition 
with  Hauptmann,  making  his  concert 
debut  in  1827.  In  1834  he  went  to 
Paris,  where  he  played  at  the  con- 
certs of  the  Conservatory,  and  stud- 
ied singing  and  music-teaching  with 
Bordogni,  with  whom  he  founded  an 
Academic  de  Chant,  which  failed. 
From  1844  to  1852  London  was  his 
home,  and  there  he  became  celebrated 
as  a  singing-teacher.  During  Jenny 
Lind's  engagement  at  Her  Majesty's 
Theatre  in  1847  he  was  assistant  con- 
ductor. From  London  he  returned  to 
Paris,  but  in  1866  he  moved  on  to 
Florence,  where  he  spent  the  rest  of 
his  life.  The  Practical  Singing 
Tutor;  L'art  de  chanter;  Abecedaire 
vocal;  twenty-four  vocalises  progres- 
sives;_  Erholung  und  Studium;  twelve 
vocalises  d'artiste;  eighty-six  nou- 
veaux  exercises;  twelve  vocalises  pour 
contralto;  and  twelve  Vokalisen  fiir 
Bass  are  his  most  important  works. 
He  also  wrote  music  for  the  violin, 
with  piano  and  orchestral  accompani- 
ment, and  translated  into  German 
Baillot's  book  on  violin. 

Panseron     (pan-su-roii),     Auguste 
Mathieu.    1796-1859. 

A  noted  French  singing-teacher. 
Born  and  died  at  Paris.  His  father 
was  a  professor  of  music,  and  from 
him  Auguste  received  his  early  train- 
ing. In  1804  he  became  a  pupil  of 
the  Conservatory,  studying  counter- 
point with  Gossec,  violoncello  with 
Levasseur,  and  harmony  under  Ber- 
tini,  taking  prizes  in  all  three  subjects. 
In    1813   his   cantata,   Hermine,   won 




the  Grand  Prize  of  Rome,  and  going 
to  Italy,  he  took  up  counterpoint 
under  Mattei,  at  Bologna,  and  singing 
under  good  teachers  at  Naples  and 
Rome.  He  then  studied  with  Salieri 
in  Vienna,  and  Winter  in  Munich.  In 
1817  he  was  made  chapelmaster  to 
Prince  Esterhazy,  and  settled  as  a 
teacher  in  Paris  in  1818.  He  was 
soon  made  accompanist  of  the  Opera 
Comique,  and  between  1820  and  1827 
he  brought  out  the  operas.  La  grille 
du  pare;  Les  deux  cousines;  and  Le 
mariage  difficile.  In  1826  he  was 
appointed  professor  of  Solfege  at  the 
Conservatory,  professor  of  vocaliza- 
tion in  1831,  and  of  singing  in  1836. 
His  experience  there  enabled  him  to 
write  some  excellent  educational  books, 
his  most  important  works,  which  in- 
clude ABC  Musical,  progressive  ex- 
ercises, written  for  his  little  girl; 
Solfege  d'artiste,  fifty  exercises  with 
change  of  clef;  thirty-six  lessons  of 
advanced  difficulty;  Solfege  for  pian- 
ists; Solfege  for  violinists;  Methode 
complete  de  vocalization,  in  three 
parts;  and  Traite  de  I'harmonie  pra- 
tique et  de  modulation.  As  a  corn- 
poser  he  is  best  known  for  his 
romances,  numbering  about  two  hun- 
dred. He  also  composed  masses;  and 
Mois  de  Marie,  containing  motets  and 
hymns.  He  is  given  the  credit  of 
developing  for  the  romance  its  indi- 
vidual style. 

Pape  (pa'-pe),  Johann  Heinrich.   1789- 


Piano-builder;  a  native  of  Sarstedt, 
Germany,  but  most  of  his  life  a  resi- 
dent of  Paris,  where  he  died  in  his 
eighty-sixth  year.  In  1811  he  was 
engaged  by  Pleyel  to  take  charge  of 
the  organizing  of  his  piano  factor};, 
and  with  whom  he  remained  until 
1815,  when  he  formed  a  business  of 
his  own.  His  fertile  brain  thought 
out  all  sorts  of  changes  in  the  con- 
struction of  the  case  and  the  mechan- 
ism of  the  instrument,  and  he  is  said 
to  have  taken  out  one  hundred  and 
twenty  patents,  though  only  a  few 
of  his  inventions  have  been  used.  He 
turned  out  pianos  of  all  shapes  and 
sizes,  with  different  arrangements  of 
strings,  sounding-boards  and  ham- 
mers. He  built  a  few  eight-octave 
grands,  used  springs  instead  of 
strings  in  one  of  his  mstruments;  in- 
troduced reed  attachments  and  made 
a  piano,  which,  by  means  of  a  key, 
would  transpose  without  moving  the 


keyboard.  These  were  merely  novel- 
ties, but  in  his  table-pianos  he  intro- 
duced the  system  of  over-striking 
hammers,  which,  though  he  claimed 
to  have  invented,  had  been  in  exist- 
ence in  some  of  the  old  clavichords. 
This  system  has  since  been  adopted, 
as  well  as  his  idea  of  padding  the 
hammers  with  rabbit  hair. 

Papini  (pa-pe'-ne),  Guido.     1847- 

Italian  violinist  and  composer;  born 
at  Camagiore.  He  studied  under 
Giorgetti  at  Florence,  and  made  his 
debut  there  in  1860,  executing  the 
third  concerto  by  Spohr.  Later  he 
led  the  Societa  del  Quartetto  for  a 
number  of  years.  In  1874  he  made 
his  London  debut  at  the  Musical 
Union,  where  he  afterward  usually 
appeared,  but  he  has  also  played  at 
concerts  of  the  Old  and  New  Phil- 
harmonic Societies,  and  at  the  Crystal 
Palace.  In  1876  he  took  part  in  the 
Pasdeloup  concerts  at  Paris,  and  also 
at  those  of  the  Bordeaux  Philhar- 
monic. He  is  the  composer  of  a  con- 
certo for  the  violin,  and  one  for  the 
cello;  romances;  nocturnes;  and 
Feuilles  d'  album;  Exercises  du 
mecanisme,  for  the  violin  alone;  and 
Violin  School,  arrangements  and  tran- 
scriptions. He  also  edited  a  number 
of  classical  works,  among  them 
twenty-four  of  Paganini's  caprices. 
In  1893  he  became  head  of  the  violin 
department  of  the  Royal  Academy  of 
Music  at  Dublin,  but  gave  up  the 
position  in  1896  and  returned  to  Lon- 
don, where  he  has  since  lived,  com- 
posing and  giving  a  few  private 

Papperitz     (pap'-pe-rets),     Benjamin 
Robert.    1826- 

Well-known  German  teacher  of 
piano;  born  at  Pirna,  Saxony,  and 
graduated  Doctor  of  Philolo^.  He 
studied  music  at  the  Leipsic  Con- 
servatory under  Moscheles,  Haupt- 
mann  and  Richter,  and  was  appointed 
teacher  of  harmony  there  in  1851.  In 
1868  he  became  organist  at  the 
Nikolaikirche,  a  post  from  which  he 
resigned  in  1899.  Some  songs,  choral 
pieces  and  organ-music  by  him  have 
been  published.  He  received  the 
honorable  title  of  Royal  Professor  in 

Paradis   (pa-ra-des'),  Maria  Theresia 

von.     1759-1824. 

Austrian  pianist,  composer  and  so- 
prano singer,  also  skilled  as  an  organ- 




ist.  Her  father,  Joseph  Anton,  was  a 
Councillor  at  the  Court  in  Vienna, 
where  she  was  born  and  died.  Such  a 
favorite  was  she  with  her  godmother, 
the  Empress,  for  whom  she  was 
named,  that  she  received  an  annual 
pension  of  about  two  hundred  florins 
as  long  as  the  Princess  lived.  When 
a  little  child  Maria  lost  her  eyesight, 
but  that  did  not  prevent  her  from 
studying  the  piano  under  Richter  and 
Kozeluch,  singing  with  Righini  and 
Salieri,  and  composition  from  Fibertti 
and  Vogler.  Her  repertory  included 
no  less  than  sixty  concertos,  which 
she  learned  perfectly  by  ear  and 
through  her  wonderful  memory  was 
able  to  keep.  More  remarkable  still, 
she  was  a  composer.  A  family  friend 
invented  for  her  a  system  of  notation. 
By  means  of  this  she  was  able  to 
write  a  number  of  stage  pieces, 
Ariadne  und  Bacchus;  Der  Schulecan- 
didat;  and  Rinaldo  und  Alcina;  the 
cantata,  Deutsches  Monument  Lud- 
wig's  des  Ungliicklichen,  in  com- 
memoration of  Louis  XVI.;  a  trio; 
sonatas  and  variations  for  the  piano; 
a  fantasia;  and  a  number  of  songs. 
She  founded  a  school  of  music  for 
girls,  and  the  last  years  of  her  life 
were  spent  in  giving  vocal  and  piano 

Parepa-Rosa    (pa-ra'-pa    ro'-za),    Eu- 
phrosyne.     1836-1874. 

Well-known  soprano-singer;  born 
at  Edinburgh.  Her  father  was  a 
native  of  Bucharest  and  her  mother, 
a  vocalist,  was  a  sister  of  Edwin 
Seguin,  the  famous  bass.  She  studied 
with  her  mother,  and  when  her  father 
died  went  on  the  stage,  making  her 
debut  as  Amina,  at  Malta,  when  only 
sixteen.  She  then  sang  with  great 
success  in  Italy  and  Spain  and  went 
to  London  in  1857,  where  she  first 
appeared  as  Elvira  in  I  Puritani.  In 
1865  she  visited  Germany  and  late  the 
same  year  came  to  America  on  a  con- 
cert tour  with  Carl  Rosa.  Captain  de 
Wolfe  Carvell,  whom  she  had  mar- 
ried in  1863,  died  at  Lima,  Peru,  in 
1865,  and,  on  her  second  trip  to  the 
United  States  in  1867,  she  married  Mr. 
Rosa.  She  and  her  husband  remained 
here  for  four  years,  during  which 
the  Parepa-Rosa  Opera  Company  was 
formed.  In  1871  she  returned  to  Eng- 
land, but  after  visiting  Egypt  she 
came  back  to  America,  where  she  sang 
in  Italian  Opera.  In  1873  she  made 
her  second  trip  to  Egypt,  returning  to 


London  to  sing  Elsa  in  a  performance 
of  Lohengrin.  But  she  was  taken  ill 
suddenly  and  died  Jan.  21,  1874.  Her 
voice  was  sweet,  clear  and  strong, 
her  tone  mellow  and  her  register  was 
two  and  a  half  octaves.  She  was 
successful  in  both  English  and  Italian 
opera,  singing  in  Zampa,  Victorine, 
La  Reine  Topase,  Helvellyn,  and  The 
Bohemian  Girl,  and  as  Satanella,  Di- 
norah,  and  the  Zerlinas.  Not  having 
much  dramatic  ability,  she  was  better 
as  an  oratorio  and  concert-singer,  in 
which  capacity  she  constantly  ap- 
peared, prominent  occasions  being  the 
Handel  Festivals  in  London  in  1862 
and  1865  and  the  Peace  Jubilee  at 
Boston  in  1869. 

Parish-Alvars,  Elias.     1808-1849. 

Famous  English  harp  virtuoso  and 
an  excellent  composer  for  his  instru- 
ment. He  was  born  of  Jewish  parents 
at  Teignmouth  and  the  date  of  his 
birth  is  uncertain,  sometimes  being 
given  as  1810  or  1816.  He  took  les- 
sons from  Boscha,  Dizi  and  Labarre, 
and  was  also  a  proficient  pianist.  On 
his  many  journeys  he  visited  Germany, 
Italy  and  England,  finally  settling  at 
Vienna  in  1847,  after  spending  four 
years  in  the  Orient.  In  Vienna  he  was 
made  chamber-musician  to  the  Em- 
peror. As  a  composer  he  was  greatly 
improved  by  contact  with  Mendels- 
sohn on  a  visit  to  Leipsic.  His  works 
embrace  two  concertos  for  harp  and 
orchestra,  and  one  for  two  harps 
and  orchestra;  romances;  character- 
pieces;  and  melodies,  notably,  Voyage 
d'un  Harpiste  en  Orient,  a  collection 
of  airs  and  melodies  popular  in  Tur- 
key and  Asia  Minor,  for  solo  harp; 
a  march;  and  fantasies,  some  for  harp 
and  piano  and  some  for  the  harp 

*  Parker,  Horatio  William.    1863- 

Noted  American  composer,  organist 
and  teacher.  Born,  of  old  New  Eng- 
land stock,  at  Auburndale,  Mass.  His 
father  was  a  well-known  architect  and 
his  mother,  the  daughter  of  a  clergy- 
man, was  an  excellent  organist  and 
a  highly  cultured  woman.  Horatio 
disliked  music  until  he  was  fourteen, 
when  he  suddenly  conceived  a  passion 
for  it,  and  it  was  with  difficulty  that  he 
was  forced  to  cease  his  musical  studies 
long  enough  to  attend  to  his  general 
education  and  bodily  development. 
His  mother  gave  him  a  thorough 
foundation  in  organ  and  piano  play- 
ing, and  at  sixteen  he  became  organist 




of  St.  Paul's  at  Dedham  and  a  short 
time  later  of  St.  John's  at  Roxbury. 
He  continued  his  studies  at  Boston 
under  Orth  in  piano,  Emery  in  theory 
and  Chadwick  in  composition,  and  in 
1881  went  to  Munich.  There  for  three 
years  he  studied  at  the  Royal  School 
of  Music,  taking  conducting  from  Abel 
and  organ  and  composition  under 
Rheinberger.  At  the  age  of  fifteen 
he  had,  in  two  days  and  without  any 
study  in  composition,  set  to  music 
fifty  of  Kate  Greenaway's  poems,  but 
his  first  works  of  importance  were 
written  at  Munich.  In  1885  he  returned 
home,  and  was  immediately  appointed 
organist  and  director  of  music  at  St. 
Paul's  and  St.  Mary's  Cathedral 
Schools  at  Garden  City,  Long  Island. 
In  1886  he  became  choirmaster  and 
organist  at  St.  Andrew's  at  Harlem, 
near  New  York,  and  two  years  later 
was  given  the  same  position  at  Holy 
Trinity,  New  York  City.  He  also 
taught  counterpoint  at  the  New  York 
National  Conservatory  for  some  time. 
In  1893,  however,  he  went  back  to 
Boston  to  take  the  organ  and  direc- 
torship of  Trinity  Church  there,  which 
he  held  until  1901.  Then,  however,  he 
found  the  journey  from  New  Haven, 
which  has  been  his  home  since  1894, 
when  he  became  Battle  Professor  of 
Music  at  Yale  University,  too  irk- 
some, and,  giving  up  that  post,  he 
took  a  position  at  New  York,  which 
incurred  less  traveling.  Dr.  Parker's 
work  at  Yale  is  on  the  order  of  that 
established  by  Paine  at  Harvard.  He 
teaches  harmony,  counterpoint,  com- 
position and  orchestral  scoring;  gives 
lectures  on  musical  history,  and  con- 
ducts six  orchestral  concerts  a  year, 
at  one  of  which  the  compositions  of 
the  students  are  played.  Each  con- 
cert is  prefaced  by  a  lecture  in  which 
the  director  anah-zes  the  program, 
thus  adding  to  their  educational  value. 
To  facilitate  this  work  Woolsey  Hall 
was  built.  This  hall  has  a  seating 
capacity  of  two  thousand  and  a  mag- 
nificent organ  with  eighty  stops. 

In  1899  Dr.  Parker's  wonderful  can- 
tata, Hora  Novissima,  was  sung  at 
the  Worcester  Festival,  the  first  Amer- 
ican composition  to  receive  such  an 
honor.  He  himself  conducted,  as  he 
did  in  1900,  when  his  Wanderer's 
Psalm,  written  for  the  Hereford  Festi- 
val, was  produced.  On  his  visit  to 
England  in  1902  the  third  part  of  The 
Legend  of  St.  Christopher  was  sung 
at    the    Worcester    Festival    and    the 


whole  oratorio  at  the  Bristol  Festival, 
both  under  his  own  direction,  and  he 
was  further  honored  by  having  the 
degree  of  Doctor  of  Music  conferred 
upon  him  by  Cambridge  University. 
The  same  year  his  cantata,  A  Star 
Song,  was  sung  at  the  Norwich  Fes- 
tival, and  at  the  Gloucester  Festival 
of  1907  his  new  organ  concerto,  with 
orchestral  accompaniment,  was  played. 
Dr.  Parker's  greatest  work,  so  far,  is 
Hora  Novissima,  for  which  his  mother 
translated  about  two  hundred  lines 
of  Bernard  de  Morlaix's  famous  poem. 
Rhythm  of  the  Celestial  Country. 
Like  his  other  church-music  this  ora- 
torio has  been  criticized  as  too  dra- 
matic, but  it  has  received  the  highest 
praise  from  many  able  critics.  One 
writer  says,  "  It  has  a  cappella  chorus 
which  is  one  of  the  finest  specimens 
of  pure  church  polyphony  that  has 
been  produced  in  recent  years.  The 
orchestration  is  extraordinarily  rich, 
and  as  a  whole  the  composition  may 
be  set  down  as  one  of  the  finest 
achievements  of  the  present  day." 
The  dramatic  oratorio.  The  Legend  of 
St.  Christopher,  was  written  in  1896. 
and  two  years  later  had  its  first  per- 
formance at  the  twenty-fifth  anniver- 
sary jubilee  of  the  New  York  Oratorio 
Society.  His  other  large  vocal  works 
are  Ballad  of  a  Knight  and  His 
Daughter;  King  Trojan,  a  ballad  for 
chorus  and  orchestra;  Ballad  of  the 
Normans,  for  male  chorus  and  orches- 
tra; Idylle,  a  cantata,  after  Goethe; 
The  Kobalds,  for  chorus  and  orches- 
tra; Harold  Harfager,  for  chorus  and 
orchestra;  The  Dream  King  and  His 
Love,  a  cantata  which  took  the  New 
York  National  Conservatory  prize  in 
1893;  and  The  Holy  Child,  a  Christ- 
mas cantata.  The  motet,  Adstant  An- 
gelorum  Chori,  won  the  McCagg  prize 
at  the  New  York  Musical  Art  Society 
in  1899,  and  the  cantata,  A  Star  Song, 
took  the  Paderewski  prize  in  1901. 
Among  his  other  male  choruses  are 
The  ShepTierd  Boy,  and  Blow,  Thou 
Winter  Wind.  His  church-music  in- 
cludes a  Morning  and  Evening  Serv- 
ice in  E;  a  Communion  Service  in  D 
flat;  three  sacred  songs;  three  settings 
to  ^lediaeval  Hymns;  anthems;  and 
SQngs.  For  the  organ  he  has  written 
four  sets  of  four  pieces  each;  and  two 
concertos,  with  orchestral  accompani- 
ment; besides  thirty  arrangements 
and  transcriptions  of  masterpieces. 
He  has  written  also  a  little  piano- 
music  and  some  secular  songs,  includ- 




ing  Union  and  Liberty,  a  song  with 
orchestra  for  the  inauguration  of  Pres- 
ident Roosevelt  in  190S.  His  orches- 
tral works  and  chamber-music  have 
not  been  published.  They  include  an 
overture  to  Count  Robert  of  Paris; 
concert  overture  in  E  fiat;  overture, 
Regulus;  symphony  in  C  minor; 
string  quartet  in  F;  Venetian  Overture 
in  B  flat;  scherzo  in  G  minor;  and  a 
Northern  Ballad. 

Parker,  James  Cutler  Dunn.     1828- 

Distinguished  American  teacher  and 
composer.  Doctor  of  Music  of  Alfred 
University.  He  was  born  at  Boston, 
where  his  father  was  an  active  mem- 
ber of  the  Handel  and  Haydn  Society. 
James  loved  music  from  his  child- 
hood, and,  after  being  graduated  from 
Harvard  in  1848  and  studying  law,  he 
yielded  to  his  natural  inclination  and 
took  music  lessons  for  a  time  in 
Boston.  He  was  one  of  the  earliest 
of  American  musicians  to  be  educated 
abroad,  having  gone  to  Leipsic  in 
1851,  where  for  three  years  he  studied 
under  Moscheles  and  Plaidy  in  piano, 
Hauptmann  in  theory  and  Richter 
and  Rietz  in  composition.  On  return- 
ing to  Boston  he  became  concert 
pianist  of  the  Mendelssohn  Quintet 
Club.  His  successful  career  as  a 
teacher  began  in  1854,  and  many  of 
his  pupils  have  become  famous.  He 
was  at  one  time  professor  in  the  Col- 
lege of  Music  of  the  Boston  Univer- 
sity, and  since  1871  has  been  a 
member  of  the  faculty  of  the  New 
England  Conservatory,  where  he  has 
taught  organ,  piano  and  harmony. 
About  1897  he  gave  up  his  active  work 
there  but  continues  as  examiner. 
From  1864  to  1871  he  was  organist 
and  choirmaster  of  Trinity  Church. 
Was  also  organist  for  several  years 
of  the  Boston  Handel  and  Haydn 
Society,  for  whose  festival  in  1877 
he  wrote  his  Redemption  Hymn,  a 
cantata  with  words  taken  from  the 
51st  chapter  of  Isaiah.  He  has 
also  appeared  successfully  as  a 
pianist  at  the  Harvard  Symphony  con- 
certs. Has  written  an  excellent  Man- 
ual of  Harmony  and  a  Treatise  on 
Theoretical  and  Practical  Harmony, 
as  well  as  a  translation  of  Richter's 
work  on  harmony.  As  a  composer  he 
is  most  favorably  known.  His  works 
include  the  cantata.  The  Blind  King; 
St.  John,  a  sacred  cantata,  with  orches- 
tra; the  oratorio.  The  Life  of  Man, 
probably  his  best  work;  also  piano- 


music;  part-songs;  church  services 
and  sacred  music;  and  some  orches- 
tral pieces.  His  work  shows  a  fine 
balance  between  the  classic  and  the 

Parker,   Louis  Napoleon.     1852- 

English  dramatist  and  composer; 
born  in  Calvadoz,  France.  He  was 
educated  in  France  and  at  Freiburg, 
also  in  Italy,  and  entered  the  Royal 
Academy  of  Music  at  London  in  1870. 
There  he  studied  under  Banister,  Wil- 
liam Sterndale  Bennett,  Cusins,  Steg- 
gall,  Harold  Thomas  and  Walworth, 
and  on  being  graduated  in  1874  was 
elected  associate,  and  in  1898  became 
fellow  of  that  institution.  From  1877 
to  1892  he  was  director  of  music  at 
King's  School,  Sherbourne.  He  then 
removed  to  London,  where  he  is  now 
devoting^  his  time  to  writing  dramas. 
His  musical  compositions  include  the 
cantatas,  Silvia,  The  Wreck  of  the 
Hesperus,  Young  Tamerlane,  and  the 
23d  Psalm  as  a  motet;  overtures  still 
in  manuscript;  songs  and  part-songs; 
and  piano  and  violin  music.  He  has 
also  written  for  musical  papers,  Wag- 
ner being  his  particular  theme.  In 
1905  he  had  charge  of  the  Sherbourne 
Pageant  and  in  1906  of  the  Warwick 
Pageant.  He  was  on  the  United 
Wagner  Society  Committee  and  rep- 
resented England  in  the  Revue  Wag- 
nerienne  in   1885. 

Parratt,  Sir  Walter.    1841- 

The  most  prominent  organist  in 
England  at  the  present  time.  Born 
at  Huddersfield,  Yorkshire.  His 
father,  Thomas  Parratt,  was  the  first 
organist  and  professor  of  music  at 
Huddersfield,  and  held  the  organship 
of  the  Parish  Church  from  1812,  when 
the  organ  was  built,  until  his  death. 
Walter  very  early  showed  his  musical 
taste,  and  was  so  thoroughly  grounded 
by  his  father  that  at  seven  years  of 
age  he  played  at  church,  and  at  ten 
could  play  from  memory  Bach's  Well- 
tempered  Clavier.  The  next  year  he 
received  his  first  appointment,  suc- 
ceeding his  brother  at  the  Armitage 
Bridge  Church,  and  when  twelve  was 
organist  of  St.  Peter's  Chapel,  Pim- 
lico,  where  he  lived  in  the  choir 
school.  Later  on  he  took  organ  les- 
sons from  George  Cooper  at  Holborn, 
and  once  played  a  service  at  St.  Paul's 
Cathedral.  After  his  return  from 
London  he  again  succeeded  his 
brother,  this  time  at  St.  Paul's  Church, 




Huddersfield,  in  1854,  and  for  seven 
years  he  was  kept  busy  with  concerts 
and  opening  organs  beside  his  regular 
duties.  In  1861  he  was  appointed 
organist  to  Lord  Dudley  at  Witley 
Court,  Worcestershire.  He  married 
Miss  Gledhill,  of  Huddersfield,  in  1864, 
and  until  1868  they  lived  a  quiet  coun- 
try life  at  Witley.  He  then  obtained 
the  vacancy  in  the  Parish  Church  at 
Wigan,  and  after  officiating  as  organ- 
ist and  conductor  of  the  Wigan  Church 
Choral  Association  for  five  years  he 
became  organist,  in  1872,  at  Magdalen 
College,  Oxford,  from  which  he  took 
the  degree  of  Bachelor  of  Music  the 
following  year.  For  ten  years  he 
served  as  organist  and  choirmaster  of 
that  and  other  Oxford  Colleges, 
directed  a  number  of  musical  societies 
and  lectured.  He  then  became  organ- 
ist of  St.  George's  Chapel,  Windsor, 
the  highest  organship  in  England. 
Other  honors  quickly  followed:  He 
was  appointed  professor  of  organ  and 
director  of  the  choral  class  of  the 
Royal  College  of  Music  in  London, 
in  1883,  a  post  which  he  still  retains; 
was  knighted  by  Queen  Victoria  in 
1892;  in  1893  appointed  master  of 
music  and  private  organist  to  Her 
Majesty,  and  he  continues  to  act  in 
the  same  capacity  under  King  Edward 
Vn.  His  home  is  at  The  Cloisters, 
Windsor  Castle.  Aside  from  his  offi- 
cial duties  he  conducts  the  Madrigal 
Society  and  various  other  societies  at 
Windsor,  gives  recitals  and  opens  new 
organs.  He  was  given  the  honorary 
degree  of  Doctor  of  Music  by  Oxford 
in  1894;.  is  Past  Grand  Organist  of  the 
Free  Masons;  a  member  of  the  Royal 
Victorian  Order,  and  is  connected 
with  many  other  societies.  He  is  an 
organist  of  rare  ability,  and  has  formed 
many  pupils  now  in  prominent  posi- 
tions. His  compositions  include  music 
for  ^schylus'  Agamemnon,  and  The 
Story  of  Orestes;  besides  anthems; 
pieces  for  the  organ,  and  the  piano, 
on  which  he  is  an  excellent  per- 
former; and  songs,  one  of  which  is 
in  the  volume  of  Choral  Songs,  dedi- 
cated to  Queen  Victoria,  which  he 
edited  in  1899.  He  also  wrote  the 
chapter  on  music  in  Mr.  Humphry 
Ward's  reign  of  Queen  Victoria,  pub- 
lished in  1887. 

Parry,  Sir  Charles  Hubert  Hastings. 

Born  at  Bournemouth,  England.  His 
father,    Thomas     Gambier     Parry,    a 


country  gentleman  and  owner  of  the 
old  estate  of  Highman  Court,  was 
noted  as  a  painter  and  inventor  of  a 
preserving  process,  known  as  "  spirit 
frescoes."  Hubert's  early  intimacy 
with  his  father's  studio  developed  in 
his  artistic  nature  the  love  of  correct- 
ness and  beauty  of  form  —  symme- 
try—  which  is  so  characteristic  of  his 
music.  He  probably  inherited  his  in- 
dustrious energy  and  strong  academic 
tendency  from  his  mother's  father, 
Henry  F.  Clinton,  a  noted  classical 
writer.  At  seven  years  of  age  Hubert 
was  sent  to  school,  going  first  to  Mal- 
vern, where  he  began  to  write  chants 
and  hymns  when  only  eight,  then  to 
Twyford,  where  an  organist,  wholly 
incompetent  as  a  teacher,  attempted  to 
instruct  hirn  in  piano,  and  in  1861  to 
Eton.  During  his  year  at  Twyford  he 
had  frequently  visited  Samuel  Wesley 
at  Winchester^  Cathedral,  where  he 
was  always  kindly  received,  and  it 
was  there  that  his  great  admiration 
for  Bach  commenced.  While  at  Eton 
he  took  lessons  in  harmony  of  Sir 
George  Elvey,  organist  of  St.  George's 
Chapel,  Windsor,  and  distinguished 
himself  as  a  pianist,  composer  and 
singer.  When  only  eighteen  his  can- 
tata, O  Lord,  Thou  Hast  Cast  Us  Out, 
won  him  the  degree  of  Bachelor  of 
Music  at  Oxford,  and  was  sung  at 
Eton  just  before  he  left  to  enter 
Exeter  College,  Oxford,  in  1867.  He 
continued  his  work  on  the  piano  and 
organ;  took  part  in  the  concerts  of  his 
own  college's  Musical  Society,  and 
founded  the  Oxford  University  Musi- 
cal Club.  He  also  took  lessons  in 
composition  from  Sterndale  Bennett 
and  George  A.  Macfarren,  and  spent 
one  vacation  at  Stuttgart,  studying 
under  Hugo  Pierson.  After  taking 
the  degree  of  Bachelor  of  Arts  in  1870 
he  was  bookkeeper  in  Lloyd's  shipping 
house,_  his  father  objecting  to  his 
becoming  a  professional  musician,  but 
after  the  failure  of  that  firm  three  or 
four  years  later  he  devoted  himself 
entirely  to  music.  In  1872  he  had 
commenced  taking  piano  lessons  from 
Edward  Dannreuther,  from  whom  he 
benefited  more  than  from  any  other 
teacher,  and  for  about  seven  years 
studied  under  him,  producing  at  the 
concerts  given  at  Dannreuther's  house 
in  Orme  Square  his  chamber-music, 
some  of  which  is  now  lost.  In  1879, 
at  the  Crystal  Palace,  was  played  his 
first  orchestral  work  that  commanded 
attention,    the    overture,    Guillem    de 




Cabestanh,  though  an  intermezzo  reli- 
gioso  for  strings  had  been  produced 
at  the  Gloucester  Festival  in  1868. 
But  the  works  which  have  won  for 
him  the  great  popularity  which  he 
now  enjoys  are  his  large  choral  pieces, 
without  one  of  which-  a  musical  fes- 
tival in  England  is  now  incomplete. 
Yet,  the  first  of  these.  Scenes  from 
Shelley's  Prometheus  Unbound,  failed 
when  first  produced  at  the  Gloucester 
Festival  in  1880. 

In  1883  he  was  made  choragus  of 
Oxford  University  and  professor  of 
composition  and  musical  history  at 
the  Royal  College  of  Music,  where  he 
succeeded  Sir  George  Grove  as  prin- 
cipal in  1894.  In  1883  he  received  the 
honorary  degree  of  Doctor  of  Music 
from  Cambridge  and  in  1884  from 
Oxford,  and  since  1900  he  has  been 
professor  of  music  at  Oxford.  _  He 
was  knighted  by  Queen  Victoria  in 
1898  and  made  a  Baronet  by  King 
Edward  at  the  coronation  in  1903,  for 
which  he  wrote  the  processional  music 
and  an  anthem,  I  am  Glad.  In  1905 
he  became  commander  of  the  Vic- 
torian Order.  Parry  married  Lady 
Elizabeth  Maude  Herbert,  of  Lea,  sis- 
ter of  the  Earl  of  Pembroke  in  1872. 
Their  daughters,  Mrs.  Arthur  Pon- 
sonby  and  Mrs.  H.  Plunket  Greene, 
are  both  musical,  the  former  a  pianist, 
the  latter  a  violinist. 

Besides  being  a  prolific  composer 
Parry  is  an  excellent  writer.  He  began 
his  literary  work  with  poems  pub- 
lished in  Macmillan's  Magazine  in 
1875.  He  has  written  the  words  to 
Judith,  Job,  and  a  number  of  his 
works,  and  contributed  to  the  Acad- 
emy and  other  periodicals.  He  is  the 
author  of  valuable  text-books,  and 
his  lectures  have  extended  beyond 
Oxford  University  and  the  Royal 
College  of  Music  to  the  Royal  Insti- 
tution, the  Midland  Institution,  Bir- 
mingham, and  elsewhere.  As  a 
composer  Parry  is  ranked  the  suc- 
cessor of  Purcell,  England's  greatest 
composer.  In  all  his  compositions 
form  holds  the  first  place.  His  works 
are  nearly  all  sacred  or  semi-sacred 
in  character,  and  possess  that  which 
makes  a  strong  appeal  to  the  nobler 
feelings  of  humanity.  They  are  aca- 
demic in  style,  truly  English  in  man- 
ner and  almost  faultless  in  their 
musicianship.  Parry  writes  rapidly, 
but  always  revises  everything  care- 
fully before  publication.  His  compo- 
sitions are  very  numerous,  and  he  is 


constantly  called  upon  to  write  for  the 
provincial  musical  festivals,  where  he 
frequently  conducts  his  productions. 
His  works  include  the  oratorios,  Ju- 
dith, Job,  and  King  Saul;  the  choral 
works,  Prometheus  Unbound,  L'Al- 
legro  ed  il  Pensieroso,  Tennyson's 
Lotus  Eaters,  a  choric  song.  Magnif- 
icat, A  Song  of  Darkness  and  Light, 
De  Profundis,  Te  Deum,  Voces  Cla- 
mantium,  and  the  Pied  Piper  of 
Hamelin;  the  odes.  The  Glories  of  Our 
Blood  and  State,  Ode  at  a  Solemn 
Music,  Ode  on  St.  Cecilia's  Day,  Invo- 
cation to  Music,  War  and  Peace,  and 
Ode  to  Music.  He  has  also  written 
dramatic  music  to  The  Birds,  The 
Frogs,  and  The  Clouds,  by  Aristoph- 
anes; to  Stuart  Ogilvie's  Hypatia; 
and  to  .<^schylus' Agamemnon.  Among 
his  orchestral  works  are  the  over- 
tures, Guillem  de  Cabestanh,  and  To 
an  Unwritten  Tragedy;  four  sym- 
phonies; Suite  Moderne;  and  Char- 
acteristic variations  in  E  minor.  He 
has  also  written  much  chamber-music 
and  a  large  number  of  songs.  His 
symphonic  poem.  The  Vision  of  Life, 
was  given  for  the  first  time  at  the 
Cardiff  Festival  in  1907. 

Parry,  John.     1776-1851. 

Welsh  composer  and  writer  and  a 
player  on  the  harp,  violin,  piano, 
clarinet  and  flageolet.  He  was  born 
at  Denbigh,  and  in  1795  joined  the 
band  of  the  county  militia,  playing  the 
clarinet,  which  he  had  learned  from  a 
dancing-master.  Two  years  later  he 
became  bandmaster,  a  position  which 
he  resigned  in  1807  to  go  to  London. 
There  he  taught  the  flageolet,  and  in 
1809  was  engaged  to  compose  for 
Vauxhall  Gardens.  For  several  years 
he  conducted  the  Congresses  of  Welsh 
Bards,  called  Eisteddfodau,  at  one  of 
which,  in  1821,  he  was  given  the  title 
of  Bardd  Alaw,  or  Master  of  Song. 
From  1834  to  1848  he  was  musical 
critic  of  the  Morning  Post.  To  the 
literature  of  music  he  contributed  sev- 
eral books  of  instruction  for  different 
instruments;  An  account  of  the  Rise 
and  Progress  of  the  Harp;  and  II 
Puntello,  or  The  Supporter,  which 
contains  the  rudiments  of  music.  He 
adapted  English  words  to  a  number 
of  Welsh  airs,  and  published  various 
collections,  notably  Cambrian  Har- 
mony, and  The  Welsh  Harper,  having 
an  historical  introduction,  and  incor- 
porating nearly  all  of  Jones'  Relics 
of    the    Welsh    Bards,    with    English 




translations  of  the  words.  Parry's 
compositions  number  over  three  hun- 
dred, including  music  for  the  harp, 
piano,  flute,  flageolet,  violin,  band 
and  orchestra;  incidental  music  to  a 
large  number  of  plays;  many  glees; 
and  songs. 

Parry,  John  Orlando.    1810-1879. 

Son  of  the  preceding.  Barytone 
singer,  composer  and  pianist  of  con- 
siderable ability;  born  in  London.  His 
father  taught  him  harp,  piano  and 
singing,  and  he  also  took  harp  lessons 
from  Bochsa  and  vocal  from  Smart 
and  Lablache.  He  made  his  debut 
as  a  harpist  in  1825  and  as  a  singer 
in  1830.  In  1833  he  visited  Italy, 
staying  for  some  time  at  Naples.  He 
was  a  capital  imitator  and  very  suc- 
cessful as  a  singer  of  humorous  bal- 
lads. Notes,  Vocal  and  Instrumental, 
an  entertainment  given  by  him  in 
1849,  won  great  popularity,  as  did  his 
numerous  songs.  The  words  of  most 
of  his  productions  were  written  for 
him  by  Albert  Smith,  but  he  himself 
arranged  the  music,  and  usually  was 
his  own  accompanist.  His  great  activ- 
ity told  on  his  health,  and  in  1853 
he  had  to  give  up  public  performances. 
He  became  organist  of  St.  Jude's 
Church,  Southsea,  also  giving  a  few 
vocal  lessons.  In  1860,  however,  he 
returned  to  the  public,  appearing  for 
nine  years  in  popular  entertainments. 
His  farewell  appearance  was  made 
in  1877  at  a  benefit. 
Parry,  Joseph.    1841-1903. 

Well-known  composer;  born  in  a 
poor  family  at  Merthyr  Tydvil,  Wales. 
His  musical  taste  came  from  his 
mother  and  developed  from  hearing 
the  songs  and  band-music  of  his  native 
land.  When  only  ten  years  old  he 
had  to  go  to  work  in  the  puddling 
furnaces.  In  1854  the  family  came  to 
America,  but  not  long  afterward 
Joseph  returned  to  his  old  home, 
where  he  was  taught  by  local  musi- 
cians, and  won  several  prizes  for  his 
songs  at  the  Eisteddfod.  At  last, 
through  the  efforts  of  Mr.  Brinley 
Richards,  a  fund  was  raised  to  enable 
Parry  to  study  at  the  Royal  Academy 
of  \Iusic,  of  which  he  became  a  fel- 
low. Beginning  in  1868,  Bennett,  Gar- 
cia and  Steggall  gave  him  instruction, 
and  under  them  he  made  great  prog- 
ress, winning  a  bronze  medal  in  1870 
and  a  silver  one  in  1871.  The  next 
year  he  became  professor  of  music  at 
the  University  College  of  Aberystwith, 


and  here  he  remained  until  1878,  the 
year  in  which  he  received  the  degree 
of  Doctor  of  Music  from  Cambridge. 
From  1879  to  1886  he  was  principal  of 
the  Music  College  of  Wales  at  Swan- 
sea, and  in  1888  he  was  made  musical 
lecturer  of  the  University  College  of 
South  Wales,  at  Cardiff.  He  edited 
six  volumes  of  Cambrian  Minstrelsy, 
and  among  his  compositions  are  about 
four  hundred  songs;  glees;  anthems; 
and  piano-music;  overtures;  an  orches- 
tral ballad;  and  a  string  quartet;  be- 
sides the  larger  works,  The  Prodigal 
Son,  Nebuchadnezzar,  and  Cambria; 
the  cantatas,  Emanuel,  and  Saul  of 
Tarsus;  oratorios;  and  the  operas, 
Blodwen,  Virginia,  Arianwen,  Sylvia, 
and  King  Arthur. 

Parry,  Joseph  Haydn.     1864-1894. 

Promising  composer;  son  of  the 
preceding.  Born  at  Philadelphia,  but 
lived  in  England.  His  father  gave 
him  most  of  his  musical  education,  yet 
he  also  studied  at  Aberystwith,  win- 
ning a  prize  for  a  piano  sonata  in 
1884.  In  1890  he  became  professor  in 
the  Guildhall  School  of  Music,  which 
position  he  only  lived  to  fill  for  four 
years.  He  died  at  Hampstead  when 
scarcely  thirty  years  old,  a  musician 
of  great  promise  though  not  remark- 
able achievement.  His  most  success- 
ful works  are  Gwen,  a  cantata,  and 
the  comic  opera.  Cigarette,  given  at 
Cardiff  in  1892.  The  next  year  his 
Miami,  with  a  setting  adapted  from 
The  Green  Bushes,  was  produced  at 
the  Princess  Theatre,  London,  but  his 
last  work.  Marigold  Farm,  was  not 
Parsons,  Albert  Ross.    1847- 

American  organist,  pianist  and 
teacher.  Born  at  Sandusky,  Ohio.  He 
began  to  take  piano  lessons  when  he 
was  six  years  old  from  Robert  Denton 
in  Buffalo,  and  played  at  a  concert 
there  when  nine  years  old.  From  1858 
to  1863  he  was  organist  in  one  of  the 
Indianapolis  churches,  and  then  went 
to  New  York,  where  for  three  years 
he  studied  under  Ritter.  Going  to 
Leipsic  in  1867  he  became  a  pupil  of 
the  Conservatory,  where  he  took  piano 
lessons  from  ^loscheles,  Papperitz, 
Reinecke  and  Wenzel  and  counter- 
point and  fug^e  from  Paul  and  Rich- 
ter.  In  1870  he  removed  to  Berlin, 
where  he  studied  at  Tausig's  High 
School  for  pianists  and  at  Kullak's 
New  Academy  of  Music.  Since  1873 
he  has  lived  m  New  York,  where  he 




teaches  and  where,  from  1874  to  1879, 
he  was  organist  of  the  First  Reformed 
Church,  then  of  Holy  Trinity,  and 
since  1885  of  Fifth  Avenue  Presby- 
terian Church.  He  became  president 
of  an  American  Society  for  the  Pro- 
motion of  Musical  Art  in  1890;  was 
one  of  the  founders  of  the  American 
College  of  Musicians  of  the  State  Uni- 
versity of  New  York,  of  which  society 
he  has  been  president  since  1893;  also 
examiner  for  piano  at  Evelyn  College, 
Princeton,  and  of  the  Metropolitan 
College  of  Music  at  New  York.  In 
1875  he  was  editor  of  Benham's  Re- 
view, and  held  the  same  position  on 
the  staff  of  The  Orpheus  from  1879 
to  1885.  He  has  written  musical, 
archaeological  and  genealogical  liter- 
ature and  edited  the  Complete  Works 
of  Chopin  and  Schumann  and  Wag- 
ner's Beethoven.  Of  his  songs  and 
piano-music,  may  be  mentioned:  The 
Night  Has  a  Thousand  Eyes;  Break, 
Break;  Crossing  the  Bar;  a  national 
anthem,  My  Country  'Tis  of  Thee; 
Humoresque-Tarantelle;  and  The  Lion 
and  the  Lizard. 

Pasdeloup  (pa-du-loop),  Jules  £tienne. 

Celebrated  French  conductor;  born 
at  Paris.  He  studied  at  the  Paris 
Conservatory  in  piano  with  Laurent 
and  Zimmermann,  and  won  the  first 
prize  in  1834.  He  was  accorded  first 
prize  for  solfege  in  1832,  and  in  1841 
had  a  class  in  singing.  Having  stud- 
ied harmony  under  Dourlen  and  Ca- 
rafa,  he  taught  a  piano  class  from  1847 
to  1850.  In  1848  he  was  appointed  by 
the  government  to  a  position  at  St. 
Cloud,  but  often  directed  the  concerts 
at  the  Louvre,  and  in  1851  organized 
and  took  direction  of  Societe  des 
Jeunes  artistes.  In  1861  he  removed 
to  the  Cirque  d'hiver  and  the  Cirque 
Napoleon,  where  concerts  were  held 
every  Sunday  afternoon,  the  famous 
Concerts  Populaires,  which  proved  so 
successful.  There  the  French  public 
were  for  the  first  time  able  to  hear 
the  music  of  the  great  classical  and 
modern  composers  at  a  popular  price. 
Between  1855  and  1868  Pasdeloup 
taught  a  vocal  class  at  the  Conserva- 
tory, and  then  for  a  little  more  than 
a  year  he  tried  with  poor  success  to 
conduct  the  Theatre  Lyrique,  bringing 
out  for  the  first  time  in  Paris  a  Wag- 
ner opera,  Rienzi.  Gradually  the  fin- 
ances of  the  Concerts  Populaires  were 
weakened  by  the  excessive  demands 


of  the  soloists  and  the  tax  collectors. 
Then  Colonne  and  Lamoureux  started 
their  concerts,  and  Pasdeloup's  audi- 
ences fell  off  so  much  that  in  1884 
the  Concerts  Populaires  had  to  be 
abandoned.  After  a  benefit  festival 
held  at  Trocadero,  bringing  M.  Pasde- 
loup nearly  twenty  thousand  dollars, 
he  retired,  but,  not  satisfied  with 
inaction,  he  gave  concerts  at  Monte 
Carlo  the  next  winter  and  later  at  the 
Conservatory.  Then,  in  1886  and  1887, 
Pasdeloup  made  a  last  and  futile 
attempt  to  regain  his  lost  place.  Soon 
after  this  hopeless  failure,  deserted  by 
the  public  which  he  had  done  so  much 
to  educate,  he  died  at  Fontainebleau. 

Pasmore,  Henry  Bickford.    1857- 

American  organist,  teacher  and  com- 
poser of  note.  Born  in  Jackson,  Wis- 
consin. At  twenty  years  of  age  he 
began  his  musical  education  at  San 
Francisco,  taking  organ  and  harmony 
from  John  Paul  Morgan  and  singing 
under  S.  J.  Morgan.  Going  abroad  in 
1882  he  finished  his  studies  in  har- 
mony and  composition  under  Jadas- 
sohn and  Reinecke  at  the  Leipsic 
Conservatory,  and  studied  singing  with 
Frau  Unger-Haupt  at  Leipsic  and 
Shakespeare  and  Cummings  in  Lon- 
don. He  then  settled  in  San  Fran- 
cisco, where  he  was  organist  of  St. 
John's  Episcopal  Church.  He  teaches 
vocal  music  and  composition  at  the 
University  of  the  Pacific  in  San  Jose, 
being  one  of  the  most  prominent 
teachers  in  that  part  of  the  country. 
At  Leipsic  in  1883  and  1884  his  Con- 
clave march,  and  the  overture.  Miles 
Standish,  both  for  orchestra,  were 
played.  He  has  composed  other 
orchestral  pieces;  a  suite  for  organ 
and  strings;  a  tarantelle  for  piano;  two 
masses;  part-songs  for  men's  voices; 
Northern  Romance,  Stars  of  the  Sum- 
mer Night,  and  many  other  songs; 
and  the  score  of  an  opera. 

Pasta  (pas'-ta),  Giuditta.    1798-1865. 

Celebrated  Italian  dramatic  soprano, 
of  Jewish  origin.  She  was  born  at 
Como,  where  Lotte,  organist  of  the 
Cathedral,  was  her  first  teacher.  At 
fifteen  she  entered  the  Conservatory 
at  Milan,  and  after  studying  for  two 
years  with  Asioli  she  appeared  at 
second-class  theatres  in  Brescia, Parma 
and  Leghorn.  Then,  having  married 
Signor  Pasta,  she  went  to  Paris,  in 
1816,  where  she  played  subordinate 
parts  at  the  Favart  Theatre.    In  1817 




she  made  her  first  visit  to  London, 
playing  at  the  King's  Theatre,  first  as 
Telemaceo  in  Cimarosa's  Penelope, 
then  as  Cherubino  in  Xozze  de  Figaro, 
but  her  voice  as  yet  was  rather  crude, 
and  the  season  failed  to  bring  her  into 
notice.  Returning  to  Italy,  she  devoted 
her  time  to  study  under  Scappa,  and, 
having  conquered  her  unruly  voice, 
made  her  first  real  success  at  Venice 
in  1819.  After  singing  at  Rome  the 
same  year  and  at  Milan  and  Trieste 
in  1820,  she  appeared  at  the  Theatre 
des  Italiens  at  Paris  in  1821.  She  made 
a  marked  impression  at  Verona  during 
the  Congress  in  1822,  and  there  met 
Rossini,  whose  operas  she  afterward 
so  successfully  sang.  It  was  in  the 
role  of  Desdemona  in  his  Otello, 
given  at  Paris  the  same  year,  that  she 
made  her  name  famous,  and  the 
French  were  enthused  with  her  excel- 
lent singing  and  wonderful  acting. 
She  appeared  at  the  King's  Theatre 
in  1824,  completely  conquering  Lon- 
don, and  was  much  sought  after  for 
concerts  both  private  and  public. 
After  the  season  she  returned  to  Paris, 
and  was  with  diflSculty  engaged  to 
reappear  in  London  in  1825  and  in 
1827,  when  her  presentation  of  Coc- 
cio's  Maria  Stuarta  made  a  great  im- 
pression. Instead  of  returning  to 
Paris,  a  quarrel  with  Rossini  caused 
her  to  visit  Italy,  where  she  sang, 
among  other  roles,  Xiobe,  which 
Pacini  wrote  for  her.  In  1828  she 
again  appeared  in  London,  Sontag 
and  Malibran  being  her  rivals.  A  great 
success  in  Vienna  in  1829  resulted  in 
Madame  Pasta's  appointment  as  Court 
singer  to  the  Emperor.  That  same 
year  at  Bologna  she  gave  twelve  of 
Rossini's  operas,  under  the  direction 
of  the  composer  himself.  At  Milan 
in  1830  she  created  the  role  of  Anna 
Bolena,  which  Donizetti  had  written 
for  her;  in  1831  introduced  Bellini's 
La  Sonnambula,  and  the  next  year 
gave  the  initial  performance  of  Norma 
at  La  Scala.  This  she  played  in  Lon- 
don on  her  return  in  1833,  and  during 
that  year  and  the  next  she  was  again 
in  Paris.  Her  voice  was  now  begin- 
ning to  fail,  though  her  acting  had 
lost  none  of  its  intense  dramatic 
beauty.  On  account  of  the  loss  of  her 
fortune,  through  the  failure  of  a 
Vienna  bank,  she  was  forced  to  keep 
on  with  her  work,  singing  in  St. 
Petersburg  in  1840  and  Berlin  in  1841. 
This  was  her  farewell  engagement, 
although  in  1850  she  sang  at  two  con- 


certs  in  London.  Her  retirement  was 
spent  at  her  home  on  Lake  Como  dur- 
ing the  summer  and  at  Milan  or 
Genoa  during  the  winter,  and  she 
occupied  herself  with  a  few  pupils. 
She  died  at  her  villa.  Madame  Pasta's 
voice  was  never  perfectly  equalized; 
it  was  inclined  to  flat  and  was  a  little 
muffled  at  the  beginning  of  a  per- 
formance, but  her  power  and  truth  of 
expression  and  the  simplicity  and  dra- 
matic intensity  of  her  rendering  left 
her   imperfections  unnoticed. 

Patey,  Janet  Monach.    1842-1894. 

Contralto  concert  and  oratorio  sing- 
er. Her  father  was  a  native  of  Glas- 
gow, but  Janet  was  born  in  London. 
John  Wass  was  her  first  teacher,  and 
later  she  studied  under  Pinsuti  and 
Mrs.  Sim  Reeves.  When  eighteen 
she  sang  in  concerts  at  Birmingham 
and  later  became  a  member  of  Honry 
Leslie's  choir.  She  did  not  become  a 
professional  singer  until  1865,  when 
she  toured  the  provinces  in  Lemmen's 
Concert  Party.  The  next  year  she 
married  the  barytone,  John  Patey,  an 
operatic  and  concert  singer,  and  later 
a  music  publisher,  and  he  toured  with 
her  in  America,  where  she  sang  Elijah 
in  New  York  City.  In  England  she 
appeared  at  many  festivals  and  at 
other  important  musical  gatherings, 
singling  not  only  the  old  and  tried 
but  creating  many  new  English  works, 
among  them  Macfarren's  cantata. 
Lady  of  the  Lake.  In  1875  she  sang 
at  Paris  and  received  a  medal  from 
the  Conservatory.  In  1890  she  and 
her  husband  went  to  Australia,  and  in 
1894,  during  her  farewell  concert  tour, 
she  died  suddenly  at  Sheffield. 

Paton,  Mary  Anne.     1802-1864. 

Popular  singer;  born  of  a  musical 
family  at  Edinburgh,  and  educated  by 
her  parents.  This  infant  prodigy, 
when  only  two  years  old,  could  name 
any  tone  or  semitone  that  she  heard. 
She  sang  like  a  bird,  and  at  four  was 
able  to  play  the  harp,  violin  and  piano, 
for  which  two  years  later  she  com- 
posed some  fantasies  and  other  music. 
In  1810,  then  but  eight  years  old,  she 
appeared  as  a  singer,  reciter  and 
player.  Then  the  family  moved  to 
London,  and  for  three  years  she 
appeared  at  private  concerts  with  lim- 
ited success.  Having  retired  in  1814 
to  complete  her  education  and  regain 
her  health,  she  reappeared,  making  a 
remarkably  successful  debut  in  1822  at 




the  Haymarket  Theatre,  London,  as 
Susanna  in  the  Marriage  of  Figaro. 
She  then  sang  successfully  in  The 
Barber  of  Seville,  The  Beggar's  Opera, 
Artaxerxes,  and  in  Weber's  Der  Frei- 
schiitz,  on  its  first  performance  in 
London  in  1824  and  in  Oberon  when 
it  was  first  produced  in  1826.  She 
created  the  role  of  Alice  in  an  English 
version  of  Robert  le  Diable  in  1832. 
In  1834  she  came  to  the  United  States 
with  her  husband,  Joseph  Wood,  an 
operatic  tenor  of  considerable  ability, 
and  they  repeated  the  trip  in  1835  and 
1836.  Retiring  to  her  husband's  es- 
tate at  WooUey  Moor,  in  1843,  she 
remained  there  until  1854,  after  which 
she  lived  abroad.  She  died  soon  after 
her  return  to  England  in  1864. 

Patti  (pat'-te),  Adelina.    1843- 

The  most  famous  soprano  of  the 
Nineteenth  Century.  She  was  born 
in  Madrid,  her  parents  being  Italian 
singers  of  note.  When  Patti  was  still 
very  young  the  family  came  to  New 
York,  where  her  father  directed  the 
Italian  opera  for  a  time.  Patti  was 
a  born  singer,  and  though  she  learned 
from  her  step-brother,  Ettore  Barili, 
all  that  could  be  learned  in  the  Italian 
School  of  singing,  and  finally  a  few 
operas  under  Maurice  Strakosch,  the 
impresario,  she  knew  how  to  sing, 
intuitively,  when  only  three  years  old, 
and  sang  the  shake  perfectly  without 
instruction.  As  she  expressed  it  her 
real  teacher  was  "  le  bon  Dieu."  The 
family  circumstances  became  such 
that  it  was  necessary  for  Patti  to 
put  her  talent  to  account,  and  in  1850 
she  appeared  with  great  success  at 
Tripler's  Hall,  New  York,  as  a  child 
prodigy.  Under  the  direction  of 
Strakosch  and  her  father  she  sang  in 
concerts  until  she  was  eleven,  but  as 
her  voice  was  beginning  to  break 
from  such  hard  use  she  was  with- 
drawn to  rest.  On  her  reappearance 
she  accompanied  Gottschalk  on  his 
visit  to  the  West  Indies,  and,  return- 
ing to  New  York  made  her  operatic 
debut  at  the  Academy  of  Music,  No- 
vember 24,  1859,  as  Lucia  di  Lammer- 
moor.  After  singing  in  the  southern 
states  and  at  Havana,  she  sailed  for 
England.  There  her  first  appearance 
as  Amina  in  La  Sonnambula,  at 
Covent  Garden,  May  14,  1861,  com- 
pletely conquered  the  audience,  and 
her  succeeding  roles,  Violetta,  Zerlina, 
Martha  and  Rosina,  were  all  triumph- 
ant  successes.     After   singing  at   the 


Birmingham  Festival,  in  Liverpool, 
Manchester  and  elsewhere  in  England, 
she  appeared  in  Brussels  and  Berlin, 
and  on  November  19,  1862,  brought 
all  Paris  to  her  feet  by  her  rendering 
of  Amina.  The  people  of  St.  Peters- 
burg went  wild  over  her,  and  in  Spain 
and  Italy,  where  she  first  appeared  as 
Violetta  at  La  Scala  in  1877,  the  en- 
thusiasm was  high.  Throughout  the 
world  she  reigned  Queen  of  Singers, 
and  it  was  this  great  popularity  prob 
ably  which  made  her  so  loath  to 
retire.  In  London  she  sang  in  opera 
at   Covent   Garden   each   season  until 

1884,  and  at  Her  Majesty's  in  1885 
and  1887,  and  she  gave  brilliant  con- 
certs in  many  other  English  cities, 
singing  on  numerous  festival  occa- 
sions. In  1881  she  made  a  concert 
tour  of  America,  and  the  next  two 
seasons  was  in  Mapleson's  Company 
at  the  Academy  of  Music  in  New 
York.  In  1890  she  sang  in  the  Metro- 
politan Company,  and  in  189S  was 
again  in  this  country.  The  last  of 
her  farewell  tours  in  America  began 
in  the  autumn  of  1903,  and  then  her 
voice  was  but  a  shadow  of  its  former 
self.  Nevertheless,  she  still  sings  oc- 
casionally at  her  home,  and  began  a 
farewell  tour  of  the  English  towns 
in  1907,  appearing  at  Liverpool  and 
at  Birmingham,  where  the  audience 
went  wild  over  her  singing  of  the 
simple  old  songs,  especially  Home, 
Sweet  Home. 

From  childhood  Patti  has  had  to 
live  carefully,  keeping  constant  watch 
over  her  voice.  She  never  forced  it 
or  sang  when  she  was  not  in  perfect 
condition,  and  this  probably  is  the 
reason  that  at  sixty,  her  beauty  is 
unimpaired  and  her  voice  still  well 
preserved.  Her  method  is  perfect, 
her  style  elegant,  easy  and  spontane- 
ous, her  tone  rich  and  clear  and  her 
compass  unusual.  Her  wonderful 
memory  enabled  her  to  sing  some 
forty  operas  in  four  different  lan- 
guages. Of  these  Rosina  in  the  Bar- 
ber of  Seville,  was  perhaps  her  best, 
and  Zerlina,  her  only  classic  role, 
Lucia,  Violetta  and  Martha  being 
also  favorites.  Mme.  Patti,  as  she  is 
still  called,  has  been  thrice  married; 
in  1868  to  the  Marquis  de  Caux, 
equerry  to  Napoleon  III.,  but  it  was 
not  a  happy  union,  and  after  separat- 
ing  in    1877    they     were     divorced    in 

1885.  The  next  year  she  married  the 
famous  tenor,  Ernest  Niccolini,  and 
their  life  was  a  happy  one  and  Patti 




was  most  patient  and  devoted  to  him 
during  his  last  sickness.  She  married 
Baron  Cederstrom  in  1899.  They  live 
at  her  beautiful  home,  Craig-y-Xos 
Castle,  near  Breconsture,  South 
Wales,  the  splendid  gifts  showered 
upon  her  by  an  adoring  world  add- 
ing to  the  luxury  of  the  place.  There 
she  has  a  private  theatre,  where  she 
sometimes  entertains  her  guests.  She 
is  said  to  be  a  charming  hostess,  and, 
at  home,  she  holds  court,  beloved  by 
the  people  round  about  for  her  many 
deeds  of  kindness. 

Patti,  Carlotta.     1840-1889. 

Well-known  Italian  soprano,  sister 
of  the  famous  Adelina.  She  was  born 
at  Florence,  and  at  first  took  piano 
lessons  from  Herz,  afterwards  devot- 
ing herself  to  singing,  in  which  her 
mother  and  father  drilled  her.  She 
made  her  debut  in  concert  in  New 
York,  and  appeared  afterward  in 
Italian  Opera  there,  but  because  of  her 
lameness  she  was  obliged  to  confine 
her  activity  to  concert-singing.  In 
1863  she  made  her  London  debut  at 
Coverit  Garden  Theatre.  She  toured 
America  and  Europe,  and  in  1879  mar- 
ried the  Weimar  violoncellist,  Ernst 
de  Munck,  at  last  settling  in  Paris, 
where  she  taught  until  her  death. 

Pattison,  John  Nelson.    About  1843- 

American  pianist  and  composer; 
born  at  Niagara  Falls,  New  York. 
He  early  showed  musical  ability,  and 
first  became  known  as  a  performer 
in  a  traveling  concert  troupe.  He 
studied  under  Haupt,  Reinecke,  Liszt, 
Thalberg,  Stern,  Marz,  von  Biilow 
and  Henselt,  and  after  a  short  visit 
to  his  native  land  went  back  to  Ger- 
many, giving  concerts  there,  also  in 
Paris  and  in  Italian  cities.  On  his 
return,  in  1862,  he  made  New  York 
his  home,  and  has  there  taught  suc- 
cessfully. He  played  at  the  Centen- 
nial Exposition  and  for  the  New  York 
and  Brooklyn  Philharmonic  Societies. 
He  has  composed  a  symphony, 
Niagara,  for  orchestra  and  military 
band;  a  concert  overture,  played  by 
the  Thomas  Orchestra  in  New  York; 
and  a  number  of  pieces  for  the  piano, 
including  a  romantic  concerto-fan- 
tasia, with  orchestra;  and  about  twen- 
ty piano  solos,  many  of  which  are  in 

Pauer  (pow'-er),  Ernst.     1826-1905. 

Noted  Austrian  pianist  and  teacher; 
born   at  Vienna.     His   father  was   a 


Lutheran  minister.  Superintendent 
General  of  the  Protestant  Churches 
of  Austria,  and  his  mother  was  a 
member  of  the  Streicher  family,  the 
noted  piano-makers.  Ernst  was  given 
a  liberal  education  by  private  tutors 
and  devoted  a  part  of  his  time  up  to 
1839  studying  the  piano  with  Dirzka, 
and  from  then  until  1844  with  W.  A. 
Mozart,  junior,  and  composition  with 
Sechter.  He  performed  in  public  and 
wrote  his  first  composition  in  1842. 
Three  years  later  he  went  to  Munich, 
where  he  studied  with  Franz  Lach- 
ner  until  1847.  He  then  became  direc- 
tor of  music  at  Mayence,  where  he 
wrote  a  number  of  orchestral  works, 
and  the  operas  Don  Riego,  and  the 
Red  Mask.  In  1851  he  went  to  Lon- 
don and  made  so  great  a  success  as 
a  pianist  in  concerts  of  the  Philhar- 
monic and  the  Musical  Union  that  he 
decided  to  remain.  He  was  made 
professor  of  piano  at  the  Royal  Acad- 
emy of  Music  in  1859  and  in  1876  at 
the  National  Training  School.  From 
1883  to  1896  he  taught  in  the  Royal 
College  of  Music  and  then  retired 
from  public  activity,  spending  the 
rest  of  his  life  at  Jugenheim,  in  Ger- 
many. He  represented  Austria  and 
Germany  among  the  judges  of  the 
International  Exposition,  held  in  Lon- 
don in  1862,  and  among  numerous 
honors  bestowed  upon  him  was  that 
of  pianist  to  the  Imperial  Court  of 
Austria,  in  1866.  Pauer  was  a 
thoughful  and  serious  pianist,  and  by 
his  historical  concerts,  begun  at  Lon- 
don in  1861  and  given  in  Europe  as 
well,  he  brought  before  the  public 
many  hitherto  unknown  classical 
works.  From  1870  date  his  lectures, 
given  in  London,  Scotland  and  Ire- 
land. He  composed  a  third  opera, 
The  Bride;  also  a  quintet;  sonatas, 
for  violin  and  cello  with  piano,  and 
for  piano  alone;  and  a  number  of 
piano  solos,  notably  the  Valse  de 
Concert,  Cascade;  also  valuable  educa- 
tional piano  studies;  and  arrangements 
of  Beethoven's  and  Schumann's  sym- 
phonies, and  Mendelssohn's  piano 
concertos.  He  edited  the  historical 
works,  Alte  Klaviermusik;  Alte  Meis- 
ter;  Old  English  Composers  for  the 
Virginal  and  Harpsichord;  and  about 
thirty  volumes  on  the  classical  com- 
posers from  Bach  to  Schumann.  He 
wrote  the  music  primers.  The  Art  of 
Piano  playing;  Elements  of  the  Beau- 
tiful in  Music;  Alusical  Forms;  and 
The  Pianist's  Directory. 



Pauer,  Max.    1866- 

Son  of  the  preceding.  Born  at 
London.  His  proficiency  as  a  pian- 
ist is  due  to  his  father's  training,  but 
he  studied  theory  and  composition 
under  Vincenz  Lachner  at  Carlsruhe 
from  1881  to  1885.  Then  for  two 
years  he  appeared  at  concerts  in  Ger- 
many, Holland  and  England,  spend- 
ing considerable  time  in  London.  In 
1887  he  became  teacher  of  piano  at 
the  Cologne  Conservatory,  changing 
in  1897  to  Stuttgart.  Since  1893  he 
has  been  pianist  to  the  Grand  Duke 
of  Hesse.  In  1898  received  the  title 
of  professor  from  the  King  of  Wiir- 
temburg.  Besides  writing  music  for 
the  piano  he  has  edited  a  new  edition 
of  the  Klavierschule  by  Lebert  and 
Stark,  and  has  arranged  Mozart's  and 
Haydn's  symphonies  for  two  and  four 

Paul  (powl),  Oscar.    1836-1898. 

German  teacher  and  writer  on  musi- 
cal subjects;  born  at  Freiwaldau, 
Silesia.  His  father  was  a  priest,  and 
he  himself  studied  theology  at  the 
Leipsic  University,  where  he  was 
graduated  in  1860,  having  previously 
attendedtheGorlitz  Gymnasium,  where 
he  received  his  first  musical  training. 
After  studying  at  the  Leipsic  Con- 
servatory and  privately  under  Plaidy 
in  piano,  and  Richter  and  Hauptmann 
in  theory,  he  spent  several  years  in 
other  cities,  principally  Cologne.  In 
1866  he  returned  to  Leipsic,  where  he 
spent  the  rest  of  his  life.  That  year 
because  of  his  treatise.  Die  absolute 
Harmonik  der  Griechen,  he  was  ap- 
pointed lecturer  at  the  University,  and 
m  1872  Professor  Extraordinarius. 
Meanwhile,  in  1869,  he  had  been  made 
teacher  of  musical  history  at  the  Con- 
servatory, and  in  1872  his  translation 
of  Boetius'  De  Musica  came  out.  His 
Lehrbuch  der  Harmonik,  was  pub- 
lished in  1880,  and  translated  in  New 
York  in  1885.  He  also  wrote 
Geschichte  des  Claviers;  and  Hand- 
book der  Tonkunst;  edited  the  Ton- 
halle  for  the  year  1869,  and 
Musikalisches  Wochenblatt  for  three 
months  in  1870;  contributed  to  the 
Miisikaliches  Conversation-Lexikon; 
and  was  critic  on  the  Leipziger  Tag- 

Paumann  (pow'-man),  Conrad.    1410- 


German  organist  and  composer  of 
organ-music;   born   blind   at    Nurem- 


burg.  His  name  is  sometimes  spelled 
Paulmann  or  Baumann.  He  was 
adopted,  educated  and  maintained  by 
the  burgher,  Ulrich  Grundherr,  and  his 
son,  and  was  highly  esteemed  as  an 
organist  throughout  Europe.  In  1467 
he  went  as  organist  to  Duke  Albricht 
III.  at  Munich,  where  he  remained 
until  his  death.  His  Fundamentum 
Organisandi,  dated  1452,  containing 
exercises  for  beginners,  and  composi- 
tions, some  of  them  written  by  other 
composers,  is  the  oldest  extant  book 
of  organ-music.  In  1867  it  was  pub- 
lished in  the  second  edition  of  Chrys- 
ander's  Jahrbucher.  The  manuscript 
was  obtained  by  the  library  at  Wer- 
nigerode  in  1858.  A  few  of  his  organ- 
pieces  are  found  in  an  organ  book  in 
the  Munich  Royal  Library.  To  him 
has  been  attributed  the  invention  of 
the  lute  tablature. 

Paur  (powrr),  Emil.     1855- 

Violinist  and  musical  conductor;  a 
native  of  Czernowitz,  Austria.  His 
father  first  taught  him  and  at  eight 
years  of  age  he  appeared  in  public 
as  a  violinist  and  pianist.  In  1866 
he  entered  the  Vienna  Conservatory, 
where  he  studied  the  violin  under 
Hellmesberger  and  composition  under 
Dessoff,  being  graduated  with  first 
prizes.  In  1870  he  became  first  violin 
at  the  Imperial  Opera  House,  but  six 
years  later  left  Vienna  to  become 
chapelmaster  conductor  of  Cassel, 
then  at  Konigsberg  and  Hanover.  In 
1880  he  went  to  Mannheim,  where  he 
directed  the  opera  and  conducted  the 
Subscription  concerts.  From  1891  till 
1893  he  conducted  the  opera  at  Leip- 
sic and  taen  came  to  America.  In 
1893  he  succeeded  Nikisch  as  director 
of  the  Boston  Symphony  Orchestra, 
and  in  1898  was  made  conductor  of 
the  New  York  Philharmonic  Society 
in  succession  to  Anton  Seidl.  At  New 
York  he  organized  an  orchestra  of 
his  own,  conducted  at  the  Metropoli- 
tan Opera  House  for  the  season  of 
1899  and  1900,  and  became  director 
of  the  National  Conservatory  in  1899. 
The  next  three  years  he  spent  abroad, 
appearing  sometimes  as  a  solo  pian- 
ist, conducting  German  Opera  at 
Covent  Garden,  London,  in  1900,  and 
concerts  there,  as  well  as  at  Berlin 
and  Madrid.  Returning  to  the  United 
States_  in  1904  he  became  director  of 
the  Pittsburg  Symphony  Orchestra. 
Mr.  Paur  has  composed  songs  and 



Pauwels  (pow'-vels),  Jean  Engelbert. 

German  violinist;  born  at  Brussels. 
Plis  father  was  a  musician,  and  Jean 
early  showed  his  musical  bent.  As  a 
boy  he  was  a  good  violinist,  and  after 
studying  in  his  native  city  he  went 
to  Paris  when  about  twenty  years 
old,  finishing  his  musical  education 
under  Lesueur.  He  played  the  violin 
in  the  Italian  Opera  at  the  Theatre 
Feydeau  at  Paris,  and  in  1790  led  the 
orchestra  at  the  Strasburg  Theatre. 
The  next  year  he  returned  to  Brus- 
sels, where  he  became  first  violin, 
and,  in  1794,  conductor  of  the  theatre. 
After  that  he  spent  much  time  com- 
posing, and  his  three  _  operas.  La 
Maisonette  dans  le  Bois;  L'Auteur 
malgre  lui;  and  Leontine  et  Penrose, 
a  four-act  opera,  considered  his  mas- 
terpiece, were  produced  successfully 
at  Brussels  between  1791  and  1800. 
He  also  wrote  concertos;  three  string 
quartets;  and  six  duets  for  violin;  be- 
sides symphonies;  violin  concertos; 
and  masses  in  manuscript.  He  died 
at  Brussels. 

Peace,  Albert  Lister.     1844- 

Well-known  English  organist;  also 
pianist  and  composer.  Born  at  Hud- 
dersfield.  He  early  shov/ed  remark- 
able musical  talent  and  before  he  was 
five  years  old  he  could  name  unfail- 
ingly any  note  he  heard.  At  six  he 
began  to  take  piano  lessons  from 
Henry  Horn,  and  later  studied  under 
Henry  Parratt.  When  only  nine  years 
old  he  was  appointed  organist  of 
the  Holmfirth  Parish  Church.  After 
holding  positions  in  a  number  of 
churches,  when  twenty-one  years  old, 
he  became  organist  at  Trinity  Con- 
gregational Church,  Glasgow.  He  was 
given  the  organship  of  Glasgow  Uni- 
versity four  years  later,  and  of  the 
Cathedral  in  1879.  He  also  appeared 
in  concerts  in  all  the  large  cities  and 
towns  in  the  kingdom  with  immense 
success.  In  1890  he  was  placed  on 
the  Council  of  the  Royal  College  of 
Organists,  and  in  1892  on  the  Ex- 
amining Board  of  that  society  as  well 
as  of  the  Royal  College  of  Music, 
Londpn.  Since  1897  he  has  held  the 
prominent  post^  of  organist  at  St. 
George's  Hall,  Liverpool.  Dr.  Peace's 
repertory  includes  nearly  all  organ 
literature,  a  range  made  possible  by 
the  use  of  the  extended  pedal  board. 
He  has  composed  a  setting  to  the 
138th  Psalm,  which  brought  him  the 


degree  of  Bachelor  of  Music  of  Ox- 
ford; a  cantata,  St.  John  the  Baptist, 
written  for  the  Doctor's  degree  in 
1875;  church  services;  anthems;  organ 
music;  and  some  orchestral  works. 

Pearce,  Stephen  Austen.     1836- 

Organist,  pianist  and  composer; 
born  at  London.  He  studied  music 
under  Hopkins  at  Cambridge,  and  in 
1859  took  the  degree  of  Bachelor  of 
Music  from  New  College,  Oxford,  and 
that  of  Doctor  of  Music  in  1864.  He 
visited  the  United  States  and  Canada 
in  1864,  and  on  his  return  was  made 
the  organist  of  two  large  London 
churches.  In  1872  he  came  to  the 
United  States  to  live  and  was  made 
professor  of  vocal  music  in  Columbia 
College,  New  York.  He  has  lectured 
on  the  theory  of  music  in  the  General 
Theological  Seminary,  on  the  music 
of  all  nations  at  Peabody  Institute, 
Baltimore,  and  on  classical  music  at 
the  Johns  Hopkins  University.  In 
1874  he  was  made  musical  editor  of 
the  New  York  Evening  Post.  From 
1879  to  1885  he  played  the  organ  at 
the  Fifth  Avenue  Collegiate  Church, 
New  York,  then  for  three  years  at 
the  Church  of  Zion,  and  afterwards 
at  the  Church  of  the  Ascension.  He 
has  appeared  at  many  recitals  and  has 
written  a  three-act  opera  for  chil- 
dren, La  belle  Americaine;  an  ora- 
torio. Celestial  Visions;  a  cantata, 
The  Psalm  of  Praise;  an  allegro 
agitato  in  D  minor,  played  by  the 
Thomas  Orchestra;  an  overture  in  E 
rninor;  songs;  sacred  chorales;  and 
piano  and  organ  music.  He  is  the 
author  of  a  Dictionary  of  Musical 
Terms  in  twenty-one  languages. 

Pearsall,  Robert  Lucas  de.    1795-1856. 

English  composer;  born  at  Clifton, 
near  Bristol.  He  was  educated  for 
the  law  and  practised  until  1825,  when 
he  went  to  Germany  and  made  May- 
ence  his  home.  There  under  Joseph 
Panny  he  studied  music,  in  which  he 
had  early  shown  ability  by  a  cantata, 
Saul  and  the  Witch  of  Endor,  written 
at  thirteen  years  of  age.  In  1829  he 
went  to  live  at  Carlsruhe,  where  he 
began  composing  in  earnest.  He  then 
lived  in  various  other  cities  of  Ger- 
many, having  studied  meanwhile  with 
Ett  of  Munich.  Finally,  in  1842  he 
settled  at  the  Castle  of  Wartensee,  on 
Lake  Constance,  where  he  spent  the 
rest  of  his  life.  He  published  a  num- 
ber of  treatises,  among  them  one  on 




Consecutive  Fifths  and  Octaves  in 
Counterpoint,  and  another  in  German 
on  the  English  Madrigal  Composers. 
He  wrote  a  great  many  compositions 
for  both  the  Catholic  and  Anglican 
Churches,  including  a  requiem,  psalms, 
and  anthems;  and  pubHshed  a  Catho- 
lic Hymn-book  based  on  that  of  St. 
Gall.  He  excelled  in  writing  madri- 
gals and  his  setting  of  the  ballad  of 
Sir  Patrick  Spens,  written  in  ten  parts 
is  wonderfully  fine.  He  also  wrote 
an  overture  to  Macbeth,  with  witches' 
chorus.  His  songs  number  about  one 
hundred,  some  sixty  of  them  being 
published,  and  their  originality, 
melody  and  spirit  make  them  still 
popular,  though  they  are  written  in 
an  old  style. 

Pease  (pez),  Alfred  Humphries.   1838- 

American  pianist  and  composer; 
born  at  Cleveland,  Ohio.  He  received 
his  education  at  Kenyon  College, 
Gambier,  Ohio,  and  then  went  to 
Berlin,  where  for  three  years  he 
studied  the  piano  under  Kullak,  com- 
position under  Wiierst,  and  scoring 
from  Wieprecht.  He  then  made  a 
short  stay  in  the  United  States,  but 
returned  to  Germany  to  study  the 
piano  for  another  three  years  under 
von  Billow,  and  on  his  return  to 
America^  he  was  well  received  as  a 
pianist  in  the  principal  cities  and 
towns.  Among  his  nearly  one  hun- 
dred songs  are  Blow,  Bugle,  Blow; 
Good  Night;  Stars  of  the  Summer 
Night;  Absence;  May  Bell;  Memory's 
Refrain;  Rock  Me  to  Sleep,  Mother; 
and  the  Song  of  Freedom.  He  also 
wrote  piano-pieces,  and  the  orches- 
tral works,  reverie  and  andante; 
andante  and  scherzo;  romance;  and 
a  concerto,  all  of  which  were  played 
by  the  Thomas  Orchestra. 

Pech  (peck),  James.    1839- 

Also  spelled  Peck.  Conductor, 
composer  and  lecturer;  born  at  Han- 
over, Germany,  but  living  at  present 
in  New  York.  He  received  his  gen- 
eral education  at  Rochester,  England, 
and  New  College,  Oxford,  from  which 
he  received  the  degree  of  Doctor  of 
Music.  H  was  a  pupil  of  the  London 
Academy  of  Music,  and  studied  also 
in  Germany,  Czerny,  Henselt  and 
Dohler,  being  his  teachers  in  piano, 
and  Friedrich  Schneider  of  Dresden 
in  organ  and  theory.  After  holding 
the  conductorship  at  the  Drury  Lane 


Theatre,  the  People's  Philharmonic 
Society  in  Exeter  Hall,  and  the  Lon- 
don Orchestral  Association,  jointly 
with  (Sir  Julius)  Benedict,  he  left 
London  for  America  in  1864.  He  was 
the  last  conductor  of  the  New  York 
Sacred  Harmonic  Society,  and  in  1866 
became  director  and  conductor  of  the 
Church  Music  Association  in  that 
city.  Later  conducted  in  opera  at  the 
old  Academy  of  Music.  He  has  lec- 
tured on  aesthetics,  history,  theory 
and  practice  of  music  in  numerous 
colleges  of  the  United  States  and 
Canada,  and  has  composed  music  for 
the  piano  and  organ  as  well  as  an- 
thems and  motets  to  Latin  words. 

Pechatschek    (pe-khat'-tchek),    Fran- 
Sois.  1793-1840. 

Violinist  and  composer;  born  at 
Vienna.  His  father  taught  him  the 
violin,  and  after  playing  at  court  and 
also  in  Prague  in  1803,  Frangois,  or 
Franz  as  he  is  also  called,  studied 
composition  under  Forster.  Having 
had  experience  as  assistant  manager 
of  the  Vienna  Theatre,  he  was  called 
to  Hanover  in  1818  to  become  leading 
violin  in  the  orchestra.  During  1824 
and  1825  he  successfully  concertized 
in  various  German  cities,  and  in  1826 
became  concertmaster  at  Carlsruhe- 
Baden,  where  he  remained  until  his 
death.  His  compositions  include  a 
concerto;  polonaises;  themes  varies; 
and  rondos;  string-quartets;  and  a 
duo  concertant  for  two  violins. 

Pedrell  (pa'-dhrel),  Felipe.    1841- 

The  most  notable  figure  in  the  mod- 
ern musical  world  of  Spain.  Born 
at  Tortosa.  His  only  instruction  in 
music  was  what  he  obtained  from  a 
careful  study  of  music  itself  and  long 
archaelogical  research.  He  wrote  for 
the  Illustracion  musical  Hispano- 
Americano;  edited  La  musica  re- 
ligiosa;  and  at  last  became  so  distin- 
guished as  a  critic  and  writer  that 
he  was  made  a  member  of  the  Acad- 
emy and  professor  of  musical  history 
and  aesthetics  at  the  Royal  Conserv- 
atory in  Madrid.  He  had  already 
composed  the  operas.  El  ultimo  Aben- 
cerrajo,  Quasimodo;  El  Tasso  a  Fer- 
rara;  Cleopatra;  and  Mazzepa.  But 
the  prophet  is  never  first  recognized 
in  his  own  country,  and  of  Cleopatra 
only  the  symphonic  extract  Invo- 
cazioni  alia  Notti  was  played  at  Bar- 
celona in  1885.  Pedrell's  great 
ambition  is  to  form  a  national  music, 




so  nothing  daunted  by  his  failures 
he  began  in  1891  his  great  trilogy,  Los 
Pireneos,  based  on  Victor  Balanger's 
poem,  and  in  three  months  had  it 
completed.  In  March,  1897,  the  So- 
cieta  Benedetto  Marcello  at  Venice 
produced  the  prologue  with  such  suc- 
cess that  Pedrell  gained  the  attention 
of  Italy  and  soon  of  all  Europe.  The 
entire  work  was  produced  at  Bar- 
celona in  1902.  In  speaking  of  this 
trilogy'  G.  Tabaldini,  in  Revista  Musi- 
cale  Italiana  says  that  a  conception 
so  grand,  so  original,  and  daring  the 
lyric  stage  has  not  produced  except 
in  the  case  of  Wagner's  music.  In 
1904  he  wrote  another  opera,  Celes- 
tine;  in  1905,  La  Matinada;  and  re- 
cently Le  Comte  d'Arnan.  He  has 
also  composed  a  mass;  a  symphonic 
scene;  piano-music;  and  songs.  But 
still  more  important  are  the  books 
which  he  has  edited,  especially  the 
Hispaniae  Schola  Musica  Sacra,  a  set 
already  comprising  eight  volumes, 
containing  various  works  from  the 
composers  from  the  Fifteenth  to  the 
Eighteenth  Centuries.  This  publica- 
tion was  begun  in  1894  and  contains 
many  works  hitherto  unknown.  The 
same  year  his  Diccionario  tecnico  de 
la  Musica  was  published.  He  has  also 
translated  Ritter's  book  on  Harmony; 
has  written  a  series  to  illustrate  his 
favorite  theory  that  a  national  music 
must  be  based  on  a  country's  folk- 
song; also  Practicas  preparatorias  de 
instrumentacion;  and  Emporio  cien- 
tifico  e  historico  de  Organografia 
musical  antiqua  espagnola. 

Pedrotti    (pa-drot'-te),    Carlo.      1817- 


Italian  composer  of  opera  buffa; 
born  at  Verona.  He  studied  under 
Domenico  Foroni  in  his  native  city, 
and  there  in  1840  produced  his  first 
opera,  Lina,  with  such  success  that 
he  was  immediately  appointed  con- 
ductor of  the  Italian  Opera  at  Ams- 
terdam, a  position  which  he  filled  for 
five  years.  During  this  time  he 
brought  out  two  of  his  operas.  Ma- 
tilde,  and  La  Figlia  dell  Arciere.  Re- 
turning to  Italy  he  remained  in 
Verona  until  1868,  composing  and  di- 
recting theatres,  and  from  there  he 
moved  to  Turin,  where  he  was  con- 
ductor of  the  Teatro  Regio,  and  in 
1870  he  brought  out  II  favorito,  one 
of  his  best  works.  He  was  also  ap- 
pointed director  of  the  Liceo  Musi- 
cale.    In  1882  he  was  phpsen  head  of 

Pena  y  Goni 
the  new  Liceo  Rossini  at  Pesara, 
where  he  taught  until  a  short  time  be- 
fore his  death.  Then  returning  to 
the  city  of  his  birth  he  drowned  him- 
self in  the  Adige.  Among  his  other 
operas  are  Clara  del  Mainland;  Romeo 
di  Monfort;  Fiorina;  II  Parrucchiere 
della  Reggenza;  Tutti  in  Maschera, 
considered  his  best;  Gelmina;  Geno- 
veffa  del  Brabante;  La  Guerra  in 
quattro;  Mazeppa;  Marion  Delorme; 
and  his  last  opera,  Olema  la  schiava. 
His  music  was  bright  and  lively,  but 
he  did  not  keep  abreast  of  the  times 
and  his  music  was  soon  neglected. 

♦Pembaur  (pam'-bowr),  Josef.    1848- 

Excellent  composer  and  teacher; 
born  at  Innsbruck,  Austria.  He  first 
studied  law  at  the  University  in  his 
native  town,  but  deciding  to  make 
music  his  life-work  went  to  the 
Vienna  Conservatory,  and  later  to  the 
Royal  Music  School  at  Munich,  where 
he  studied  under  Wullner,  Rheinber- 
ger  and  Cornelius.  In  1875  he  was 
appointed  director  and  principal 
teacher  of  the  School  of  the  Musical 
Society  at  Innsbruck,  a  position  which 
he  still  holds.  As  a  composer,  Pem- 
bauer  is  best  known  for  his  numerous 
songs  and  part-songs,  but  he  has  also 
written  some  larger  works,  notably 
"  God  the  Creator  of  the  Universe," 
for  male  chorus  and  orchestra;  the 
oratorio,  Walthers  von  der  Vogel- 
weide;  Klopstock;  the  Gravedigger's 
Wedding;  Harnerling;  the  Autumn 
Hymns;  the  plaintive  song;  the  opera 
Zigeunerleben  (Gypsy  Life),  given  in 
1898,  and  a  symphony,  In  Tirol;  also 
improvisation  for  the  organ,  and  a 
Festival  Mass  in  F.  tjber  das 
Dirigieren  and  Harmonie  und  Melo- 
dielehre  are  two  of  a  number  of  tech- 
nical works  written  by  Pembaur. 

Pena  y  Goni  (pan'-ya  e  go'-ne),  An- 
tonio.    1846-1896. 

Popular  Spanish  critic  and  writer 
on  musical  subjects.  Born  at  San 
Sebastian,  and  studied  under  Man- 
terola.  He  was  a  friend  of  Gounod 
and  many  of  the  contemporary 
French  musicians,  as  well  as  Wagner, 
whose  cause  he  championed  at  Mad- 
rid through  the  Imparcial,  a  paper  on 
which  he  was  musical  critic  for  more 
than  thirty  years.  He  is  the  author 
of  a  Historj'  of  Opera  in  Spain,  and 
has  composed  some  music,  including 
the  national  hymn,  Vida  Hernani;  a 
mass;  and  piano-pieces. 



Penfield,  Smith  Newell.    1837- 

Well-known  organist,  teacher  and 
composer.  Born  at  Oberlin,  Ohio. 
After  graduating  from  the  college 
there  and  studying  music  for  a  time 
under  James  Fhnt  in  New  York,  he 
went  to  Leipsic.  There  he  took  les- 
sons in  piano  from  Moscheles,  Pap- 
peritz  and  Reinecke,  organ  from 
Richter,  and  theory  and  composition 
from  Reinecke,  Richter  and  Haupt- 
mann.  Then,  after  a  period  of 
study  under  Delioux  at  Paris,  he  re- 
turned to  America  and  settled  in 
Rochester,  N.  Y.  From  there  he 
removed  to  Savannah,  Georgia,  where 
he  founded  the  Mozart  Society  and  es- 
tablished a  conservatory,  but  in  1882 
he  made  New  York  his  home.  He  re- 
ceived the  degree  of  Doctor  of  Music 
in  1883  from  the  New  York  University, 
organized  the  New  York  Harmony 
Society  in  1885,  and  set  up  the  Arion 
Conservatory  in  Brooklyn.  He  was 
once  elected  president  of  the  Music 
Teachers'  National  Association  and 
twice  president  of  the  Music  Teach- 
ers' Association  of  New  York  state. 
He  is  a  member  of  the  Manuscript 
Society  of  New  York,  is  organist  of 
the  Broadway  Tabernacle;  has  given 
numerous  recitals,  written  for  the 
fitude  and  other  musical  papers,  and 
has  composed  an  overture  for  full  or- 
chestra; a  string-quartet;  organ,  and 
piano-music;  a  cantata  to  the  18th 
Psalm;  anthems;  glees;  and  songs. 

Pepusch    (pa'-poosh),   John    Christo- 
pher.   1667-1752. 

Eminent  theorist  and  composer; 
born  in  Berlin.  His  father  was  a 
poor  Protestant  minister  and  could 
only  afford  to  give  his  son  a  year's 
tuition  under  Klingenberg  in  theory, 
and  Grosses  in  organ  playing.  At 
fourteen  the  boy  went  to  the  court  at 
Berlin,  where  he  continued  to  teach 
and  study  until  about  1697,  when  he 
left  the  court  and  went  to  Holland, 
and  hence  to  London  in  1700.  He  was 
immediately  engaged  at  Dniry  Larie, 
first  as  violinist,  then  as  accompanist 
and  composer,  in  which  capacity  he 
arranged  the  music  for  a  number  of 
plays.  In  1710  he  founded  the  Acad- 
emy of  Ancient  Music  for  the  study 
of  a  lost  art  in  which  he  vva.;  always 
deeply  interested,  and  from  1734  to 
1737  devoted  most  of  his  time  to  that 
institution.  He  was  for  a  number  of 
years  director  of  music  at  Lincoln's 
Inn  Fields  Theatre,  where  were  played 


his  masques,  Venus  and  Adonis: 
Apollo  and  Daphne;  The  Death  or 
Dido;  and  The  Union  of  the  Three 
Sister  Arts;  as  well  as  the  operas, 
Polly,  and  The  Wedding.  ^But  more 
important  than  any  was  Gay's  Beg- 
gar's Opera,  in  1727  or  1728,  for 
which  he  arranged  the  music  ironi 
old  English  and  Scotch  ballads,  and 
popular  songs  of  the  day.  Meanwhile 
he  had  married  the  noted  singer 
Margarita  de  I'Epine,  and  in  1724 
joined  Dr.  Berkeley's  unsuccessful 
project  of  forming  a  college  in  the 
Bermudas.  Pepusch,  who  had  been 
made  Doctor  of  Music  by  Oxford  in 
1713,  realized  that  he  lacked  variety  in 
his  compositions,  and  consequently 
devoted  himself  to  teaching  the  theory 
of  music.  He  attempted  to  revive 
Guido's  system  of  solmization  by  hexa- 
chords.  In  1737  he  became  organist 
of  Charter  House,  where  he  remained 
until  his  death,  and  where  he  lies 
buried,  with  a  tablet  near  by,  erected 
in  1757  by  the  Academy  of  Ancient 
Music.  His  last  works  were  theo- 
retical—  An  Account  of  the  Three 
Ancient  Genera,  and  a  Short  Account 
of  the  Twelve  Modes  of  Composition 
and  their  Progression  in  Every 
Octave.  He  scored  his  favorite, 
Corelli's  sonatas,  and  also  composed 
twenty-four  sonatas  for  violin  and 
bass  as  an  introduction  to  them. 
Twelve  cantatas,  in  two  sets,  pub- 
lished about  1716,  contained  his  best 
composition,  See,  from  the  Silent 
Grove.  Dr.  Pepusch's  knowledge  was 
vast  and  his  teaching  excellent,  but 
his  works  did  not  add  much  new 
material  to  the  science  of  music^ 

*  Perabo  (pa'-ra-bo),  Ernst.    1845- 

Distinguished  pianist,  native  of 
Wiesbaden,  Germany,  but  a  resident 
of  America  since  1852,  when  his  family 
settled  in  New  York.  He  was  one  of 
a  musical  family  and  began  to  study 
under  his  father  when  five  years  old. 
His  studies  were  continued  in  New 
York,  and  there  he  made  a  brilliant 
debut  at  nine  years  of  age.  At  Dover, 
New  Hampshire,  his  next  home,  he 
took  violin  lessons  from  William 
Schultze,  and,  on  his  removal  to  Bos- 
ton he  appeared  in  a  concert  at  the 
Music  Hall.  After  that  he  lived  in 
Chicago  and  Washington,  and  in  1858 
was  sent  to  Germany  by  Wm.  Scharf- 
enberg  and  other  New  Yorkers.  At 
first  he  studied  music  and  literature 
at  Hamburg,  then  for  four  years  with 


Professor  Andresen  at  Eimsbuttel,  anci 
in  1862  entered  the  Leipsic  Conserv- 
atory, where  he  took  lessons  in  piano 
from  Moscheles  and  Wcnzel,  in  har- 
mony from  Papperitz,  Hauptmann  and 
Richter,  and  m  composition  from 
Reinecke.  He  won  the  Helbig  prize 
and  played  at  the  public  examination 
in  1865.  That  year  he  returned  to 
America  and  gave  concerts  in  a  num- 
ber of  cities.  At  New  York  in  1866 
he  won  great  success,  and  has  since 
played  annually  at  the  Harvard  con- 
certs and  often  at  the  Boston  Synv 
phony  concerts,  i ' 
in   B'-'Cf'-'n,      f^f  'i 


I'lK   i-'-.i  -.•••/red  his 
His   operas    were 
a —  .,     .    .._uiber. 

•  Perfall  (p«r  -fall),  Karl  Freiherr  von, 

German  conductor  and  composer; 
bf.'rn  at  Munich.  He  studied  law  and 
Jiciti  a  government  position  in  Ba- 
varia. Then,  deciding  upon  music  as  a 
career,  he  finished  his  studies  under 
Hauptrnann  at  Leipsic,  and  resigning 
his  position  in  1850,  became  conductor 
c'    thp    Liedertafel   in   Iii?   native   city. 

j,RUQgIERO:  LE^Q^jb'A'^^.LLO 

Sullivan'^      ioi.i- 

compositions    include  ■  Moy ion t    .Must-       ^   ■_  ^"^^ic  oxc-ellent    ■''•"-!'>i  ,4  1+4   P^^'" 

cale;    waltz;    two    dBEtfftdfl  J^ftjW(€&;in  l&:>^;    1*16  fir^t©pera,DoInK%ghen, 

introduction  ff^d/nd^^;  pr^^RI\5e&d  fh=^^*iparf  "fii  ?8^^^d  ^^s  ^f^s 
lugutive  and  pensei^s  in  G^  minor;  Tor  fne  Koval  nvntrp  ivT  wnich 
Souvenir;    Stuiimmedii^eoatwjceas9r$o  ifiAlGhitadfa.thSttiit  made  his  repvHcer 

piano-pieces  p.^'^i^j^d  inrff^^bWWa'4'-s  s^d"  to -^  5'a^ed  on  afi  incident'so 
well  as  m  this  cc.nfrv  ^  ,  th.  Tjan^ssa,      Der 

in  ^he  composer's^  own  life.  .cval.    He  also 

Leoncavallo   was    i'  ,pei;former  on   the '  pliaiio  W'  '• 

his   early  days,  as   well  as   a  composer,  and   though 

his  fame  as  a  pianist  was  not  very  gteal,  his  playing 

enabled  him  to  earn  money  to  support  himself  while 

composing  some  of  his  operas. 


I  c.-runca  until   174^.      Hjs  iii'i 
Sir'c,     was     followed     by     L'ai^ 
L'Eroismo     di     Scipione;     Astaiica; 
Medea;     and    L'Isola    incantata;     La 
Clemenzo  di  Tito;  Semiramide;  and  a 
number  of  others  written  for  different 
Italian    theatres.      He   was   caller!    tn 
Lisbon  in  1752,  where  the  King 
hirn    Royal    chapelmaster.      Aft 
curing    the   best    singer?    of 
opened   the    new   Li.sbon     I 
1/55  wiith   a  magnificeri'    • 
of  his  Alessandro  nell'- 
same  year  produced  his   ,. 
don,  but  the  remainder  ot  i 
spent  at  Lisbon,  where,  desj 
ness  and  sickness,  he  dict?.tcd  works 
to    his    amanuensis.      He    composed 
considerable    excellent    church-music, 
messes,  motets  and  psalms,  his  Mat- 

ict      the  c:-te. 

/viiiung  his  in^w  uiii',iiia'    ivuik^^  arc  a 

concerto  in  C  minor  for  the  violin;  a 

serenade  in  B  flat  for  violoncello  and 

strings;  a  trio  serenade  in  G;  and  a 

quartet  in  A.     He  has  also  written  a 

•hrce-act    comic    opera,    Der    Richter 

on    Granada,    given    successfully    at 

vyne  in    1889,  and  the  vaudeville, 

Nothhelfer,  produced  at  Vienna 


olesi     (per-go-la'-se),     Giovanni 

tista.  1710-1736. 
■  spelled  Pergolese.  The  family 
ii.T»-><.  was  originally  Draghi,  but 
coming  from  Pergola,  they  were 
called  f  ergolesi.  Giovanni  was  born 
in  the  little  town  of  Jcsi,  near  An- 

-■jjc  ,1  i:;-  ,K7jqo  j-ri'tn  ain     .ocoi   ut  -tvi 

riK   efiv;   brii".  JLQ?8X   ni   n£liM   :''   hgouho^q  sbv   "JoDfiil 

1:    •'•   "   -■   !    '1  Dd  oJ  b.i^c  ci  Jiiaqo  ^rfT     .nortBl 

.'iVil  nv/o  e'-i:)fc;oqfnc)3  aril  nl 
iji    onck]   dth   ito   to  .    £    r.n-7/   onBYi;:;ii09J 

ffprjoffj   bnii  ,i3?.oqfr:oj   j;    -i.   Lbv/   er-  '     rhs-o   •i'lA 

-^jv\R[q  girl  ,lJS9'i^  ^{19V  ion  «r///  i^fn.,  -     arriBl:  sirl 

alirfv/  ilaamirl  iioqqLfe  ot  •'(^■jiiorn  niBS  ol  irrid  bsMfins 
.smoqo        ■  "  ■  -.  ■  ■ 




Professor  Andresen  at  Eimsbiittel,  and 
in  1862  entered  the  Leipsic  Conserv- 
atory, where  he  took  lessons  in  piano 
from  Moscheles  and  Wenzel,  in  har- 
mony from  Papperitz,  Hauptmann  and 
Richter,  and  in  composition  from 
Reinecke.  He  won  the  Helbig  prize 
and  played  at  the  public  examination 
in  1865.  That  year  he  returned  to 
America  and  gave  concerts  in  a  num- 
ber of  cities.  At  New  York  in  1866 
he  %von  great  success,  and  has  since 
played  annually  at  the  Harvard  con- 
certs and  often  at  the  Boston  Sym- 
phony concerts.  He  is  now  teaching 
in  Boston.  He  has  published  collec- 
tions of  piano-music  for  students; 
transcriptions  of  the  ballads,  The 
Dance  of  the  Dead;  Melek  at  the 
Spring;  and  The  Secluded;  all  by 
Lowe;  besides  concert  arrangements 
of  Rubinstein's  Dimitri  Donoskoi  and 
the  first  movement  of  his  Ocean 
symphony,  of  Schumann's  uncom- 
pleted symphony,  and  selections  from 
Sullivan's  lolanthe.  His  original 
compositions  include  Moment  Musi- 
cale;  waltz;  two  scherzos;  prelude; 
introduction  and  andante;  pensee 
fugutive  and  pensees  in  G  minor; 
Souvenir;  Studies;  and  other  short 
piano-pieces  published  in  Germany  as 
well  as  in  this  country. 

Perez  (pa'-reth),  Davide.  1711-1778. 
Operatic  and  church  composer; 
native  of  Naples,  but  of  Spanish 
blood.  He  went  to  the  Santa  Alar'ia 
di  Loreto  Conservatory,  studied  the 
violin  with  Antonio  Gallo,  and  coun- 
terpoint with  Francesco  Neancini,  and 
in  1739  was  appointed  chapelmaster  of 
the  Palermo  Cathedral,  where  he 
remained  until  1748.  His  first  opera, 
Siroe,  was  followed  by  L'amore; 
L'Eroismo  di  Scipione;  Astartea; 
Medea;  and  L'Isola  incantata;  La 
Clemenzo  di  Tito;  Semiramide;  and  a 
number  of  others  written  for  different 
Italian  theatres.  He  was  called  to 
Lisbon  in  1752,  where  the  King  made 
hirn  Royal  chapelmaster.  After  se- 
curing the  best  singers  of  Italy  he 
opened  the  new  Lisbon  Theatre  in 
1/55  -w^ith  a  mag^nificent  performance 
of  his  Alessandro  nelle  Indie,  and  the 
same  year  produced  his  Ezio  in  Lon- 
don, but  the  remainder  of  his  life  was 
spent  at  Lisbon,  where,  despite  blind- 
ness and  sickness,  he  dictated  works 
to  his  amanuensis.  He  composed 
considerable  excellent  church-music, 
masses,  motets  and  psalms,  his  Mat- 


tutini  de'  Morte  being  considered  his 
best  sacred  work.  His  operas  were 
about  thirty  in  number. 

*  Perfall  (per'-fall),  Karl  Freiherr  von. 


German  conductor  and  composer; 
born  at  Munich.  He  studied  law  and 
held  a  government  position  in  Ba- 
varia. Then,  deciding  upon  music  as  a 
career,  he  finished  his  studies  under 
Hauptmann  at  Leipsic,  and  resigning 
his  position  in  1850,  became  conductor 
of  the  Liedertafel  in  his  native  city. 
Four  years  later  he  founded  the  Ora- 
torio Society  there,  a  society  which 
is  still  flourishing,  although  he  gave 
up  the  conductorship  in  1864  to 
become  Court  conductor  to  King 
Ludwig  II.,  and  in  1867  director  of 
the  Court  Theatre,  a  position  which 
he  resigned  in  1893.  He  was  an  hon- 
orary member  of  the  German  Actors' 
National  Association,  and  president 
of  the  ^Munich  Royal  Academy  of 
Tonal  Art.  Among  his  compositions 
are  some  excellent  songs  and  part- 
songs;  the  cantatas,  Dornroschen, 
Undine,  and  Riibezahl,  and  operas 
for  the  Royal  Theatre,  of  which 
Sakuntula,  Raimondin,  and  Junker 
Heinz  are  the  most  important;  also 
the  melodramas  Barbarossa,  Der 
Friede,  and  Prinz  Karneval.  He  also 
published  a  History  of  the  Munich 

Perger  (per'-ger),  Richard  von.    1854- 

Composer  and  conductor;  native  of 
Vienna,  and  pupil  of  Brahms.  In 
1890  he  took  Gernscheim's  place  at 
the  head  of  the  Rotterdam  Conserv- 
atory, and  conducted  concerts  there, 
but  in  1895  returned  to  Vienna  to 
conduct  the  Gesellschaftsconcerte. 
Among  his  instrumental  works  are  a 
concerto  in  C  minor  for  the  violin;  a 
serenade  in  B  flat  for  violoncello  and 
strings;  a  trio  serenade  in  G;  and  a 
quartet  in  A.  He  has  also  written  a 
three-act  comic  opera,  Der  Richter 
von  Granada,  given  successfully  at 
Cologne  in  1889,  and  the  vaudeville. 
Die  Nothhelfer,  produced  at  Vienna 
in  1891. 

Pergolesi      (per-go-la'-se),     Giovanni 
Battista.     1710-1736. 

Also  spelled  Pergolese.  The  family 
name  was  originally  Draghi,  but 
coming  from  Pergola,  they  were 
called  Pergolesi.  Giovanni  was  born 
in  the  little   town   of  Jesi,   near  An- 




cona,  in  the  eastern  part  of  Italy, 
where  his  father  was  a  surveyor  and 
his  grandfather  a  shoemaker.  They 
are  said  to  have  been  very  poor;  but 
the  boy  studied  music  under  Santini 
and  Mondini  in  his  native  town  until 
he  was  sixteen.  Then  he  was  sent 
to  finish  his  education  at  Naples. 
There  he  continued  his  violin  lessons 
under  Matteis,  and  studied  counter- 
point under  Greco,  Durante  and  Feo. 
He  is  said  to  have  attracted  much 
attention  by  improvising  harmonic 
and  chromatic  passages  on  his  instru- 
ment, for  at  that  time  harmony  was 
as  yet  comparatively  unknown.  At  the 
close  of  his  student  life  he  wrote  an 
oratorio.  La  Conversione  di  San 
Guglielmo  d'Aquitania,  picturing  the 
struggle  between  good  and  evil  as 
personified  in  an  angel  and  a  demon. 
This  was  sung  w'ith  his  comic  inter- 
mezzo, II  Maestro  di  Musica,  at  Sant' 
Agnello  Maggiore  in  1731.  So  great 
was  the  success  of  this  performance 
that  the  Prince  of  Stigliano  immedi- 
ately took  the  young  composer  under 
his  protection  and  through  his  in- 
fluence Pergolesi's  first  serious  opera, 
La  Sallustia,  was  produced  soon  after 
with  considerable  success  at  the 
Teatro  Nuovo,  though  his  intermezzo, 
Nerino  e  Nibbia,  was  a  failure.  For 
the  same  theatre  he  wrote  his  next 
work,  the  serious  opera  Ricimero.  It 
failed  completely,  and,  greatly  dis- 
couraged, he  turned  to  other  kinds 
of  composition,  writing  for  his  patron, 
the  Prince,  thirty  terzets  or  trios  for 
two  violins  and  harpsichord,  twenty- 
four  of  which  were  afterward  pub- 
lished in  London;  and  a  mass  for  a 
double  chorus  and  orchestra,  which 
was  sung  as  an  offering  to  the  patron 
saint  of  Naples  after  the  earthquake 
of  1731.  This  mass,  though  not  in 
strict  polyphonic  style,  shows  an 
effective  use  of  chorus  against  chorus, 
and  greatly  enhanced  the  reputation 
of  its  composer.  The  failure  of  the 
three-act  serious  opera,  Ariano  in 
Seria,  in  1734,  was  mediated  by  the 
success  of  the  intermezzo,  Livietta  e 
Tracolo,  which  was  afterwards  played 
separately  as  La- Contadina,  II  finto 
pazza,  and  under  other  titles.  In  1734 
he  visited  Rome  in  the  train  of  the 
Duke  of  Maddaloni,  and  was  recalled 
to  that  city  the  next  year  to  write  an 
opera  for  the  Tordinona  theatre. 
Accordingly  he  set  Metastasio's 
L'Olympiade,  but  the  music  was 
beyond   its   hearers  and  after  a  few 


days  the  piece  was  jeered  off  the 
stage,  and  Pergolesi  returned  to  Na- 
ples downhearted.  After  the  failure 
of  L'Olympiade,  Pergolesi  devoted 
himself  to  church-music,  but  it  was 
not  long  before  failing  health  com- 
pelled him  to  go  to  Pozzuoli.  Con- 
sumption had,  however,  made  such 
terrible  headway  that  he  had  barely 
time  to  complete  a  Salve  Regina  and 
his  great  Stabat  Mater,  which,  even 
before  he  wrote  L'Olympiade,  had 
been  ordered  for  a  stipend  of  ten 
ducats,  something  over  eight  dollars, 
to  replace  the  one  by  Alexander 
Scarlatti  so  long  used  by  the  Confra- 
ternity of  San  Luigi  di  Palazzo,  before 
death  cut  short  his  career  at  twenty- 
six  years  of  age. 

During  his  life  his  successes  had 
not  been  many  or  great,  but  immedi- 
ately after  his  death  he  became  very 
popular.  L'Olympiade  was  enthusi- 
astically applauded  at  Rome,  and 
even  penetrated  as  far  as  London  in 
1742.  Most  of  his  operas  were  writ- 
ten in  the  Neapolitan  dialect,  and 
the  only  ones  which  attained  great 
European  celebrity  were  II  Maestro  di 
Musica  and  La  Serva  Padrona.  The 
former  was  given  at  Venice  'in  1743 
as  L'Orazio,  at  Florence  in  1760  as 
La  Scolara  alia  moda,  and  at  Paris 
in  1752  and  subsequently.  La  Serva 
Padrona  is  of  great  importance  in 
the  development  of  comic  opera, 
especially  in  France,  where  it  was 
introduced  by  a  company  of  Italian 
actors  at  the  Italiens  in  Paris  in  1746. 
It  is  written  for  two  singers,  Serpina, 
the  designing  servant,  and  Uberto,  the 
master,  whom  she  is  determined  to 
marry.  The  accompaniment  consists 
of  a  string  quartet,  which  is  fre- 
quently in  unison  with  the  voices,  yet 
the  music  is  so  natural  and  charming 
that  the  interest  is  sustained  through- 
out, and  in  comparison  with  the  stiff 
style  of  Lully's  school  at  was  a  wel- 
come relief.  Rousseau  and  others 
immediately  took  it  up  and  made  it 
the  model  for  opera  bouffe,  and  be- 
tween the  adherents  of  the  Italian 
and  French  styles  a  fierce  war 
sprang  up,  called  the  "  guerre  aux 
bouffons,"  which  ended  in  the  estab- 
lishment of  the  French  Opera  Co- 
mique  as  a  school  separate  from  the 
Grand  Opera.  Mozart,  too,  is  said  to 
have  drawn  inspiration  from  La 
Serva  Padrona.  Pergolesi's  orchestra 
usually  consisted  of  str*ings,  but 
occasionally  was  reinforced  by  horns 




and  a  trumpet.  The  work  by  which 
Pergolesi  is  known  today  is  his 
Stabat  Mater.  It  is  a  most  beautiful 
work,  full  of  grace,  sweetness  and 
melody,  but  learned  musicians  have 
condemned  it  as  too  dramatic.  It  was 
written  for  soprano  and  contralto 
with  the  accompaniment  of  a  string 
orchestra  and  organ,  but  later  Pai- 
siello  added  parts  for  wind  instru- 
ments, and  it  has  been  differently 
arranged  by  many  musicians.  It  has 
been  sung  all  over  the  world  and  fre- 
quently reprinted.  Besides  the  works 
already  mentioned  Pergolesi  wrote 
another  Oratorio,  La  Nativita;  the 
cantatas,  Orfeo,  for  solo  voice  and 
orchestra,  Giasone  for  five  voices; 
also  five  others  for  one  voice  and 
clavichord;  and  six  for  three  voices 
and  instruments;  many  masses;  the 
motets,  Conturbat  mentem  mean, 
Dies  Irse,  and  Domine  ad  Adjuvan- 
dum;  also  psalms;  a  Miserere;  and 
other  church-music.  He  also  wrote 
arias  and  scenes;  sonatas  and  con- 
certos for  the  violin  and  other  in- 
struments; two  sinfonia;  and  two  sets 
of  eight  lessons  for  the  harpsichord. 
Many  manuscript  scores  of  Pergolesi's 
works  are  preserved  in  Naples, 
Rome,  Paris,  London,  Brussels,  Ber- 
lin and  other  German  cities,  but  only 
a  few  are  available  in  modern  score. 
Over  his  grave  in  the  Cathedral  at 
Pozzuoli  are  the  words  Giovane  e 
Moribundo,  "  Young  and  Dying," 
and  in  consideration  of  the  fact  that 
all  his  works  were  written  before  his 
genius  had  had  time  to  mature,  some 
lenience  should  be  shown  in  comparing 
his  works  with  those  of  his  pred- 
ecessors and  contemporaries,  a  com- 
parison which  modern  critics  seem  to 
find  detrimental  to  his  former  high 
renown.  The  town  of  Jesi  is  pre- 
paring to  celebrate,  in  1910,  the  two- 
hundredth  anniversary  of  his  birth. 
Lazzari  has  been  commissioned  to 
build  a  monument  and  Radiocitte  has 
started  research  in  the  archives  in 
Naples,  preparatory  to  writing  a  com- 
plete monograph  of  the  life  and 
works  of  this  master,  whom  the  Ital- 
ians call  the  Raphael  of  music. 


Blasis,  Carlo  —  Biografica  di  Pergo- 
lese,  1817. 

Faustini-Fasini,  E.  —  Life  of  Pergo- 

Florimo,  Francesco  —  La  Scuola  Mu- 
§icale  di   Napoli  e   i   suoi   Conserv- 


atorii,  con  uno  squardo  sulla  storia 
della  Musica  in  Italy,  1882. 

Villarosa.  Marchese  —  Lettera  biog- 
rafica intorna  alia  patria  ed  alia  vita 
di  Giovanni  Battista  Pergolesi,  1831. 

Memorie  dei  compositiori  di  musica 
del  Regno  di  Napoli,  1840. 

Peri  (pa-re),  Jacopo.     1561- 

Florence  was  the  birthplace  of  the 
founder  of  Italian  Opera,  dubbed  II 
Zazzerino,  because  of  his  beautiful 
golden  ha'ir.  He  studied  music  under 
Malvezzi  of  Lucca,  and  became  chap- 
elmaster  to  Duke  Ferdinand  of  Tus- 
cany, later  to  Duke  Como,  and  in 
1601  to  the  Duke  of  Ferrara. 
Whether  his  claim  to  noble  birth  was 
real  or  not,  he  married  a  rich  lady  of 
the  Fortini  family  and  associated 
with  the  most  eminent  men  of  his 
time,  Count  Giovanni  Bardi,  the 
nobleman;  Jacopo  Corsi  and  Pietro 
Strozzi,  the  poet  Rinuccini,  and  the 
musician,  Vincenzo  Galilei,  and 
Emilio  Caccini,  who  called  themselves 
the  Academy  and  were  working  to 
revive  ancient  Greek  tragedy.  The 
first  step  was  the  monodies  of  Gali- 
lei, and  in  1594,  according  to  Peri's 
preface  to  Euridice,  aided  by  Cac- 
cini, Peri  wrote  the  first  opera,  Dafne, 
to  a  poem  by  Rinuccini.  This  opera 
was  performed  privately  at  the  house 
of  Corsi,  Per^  taking  the  part  of 
Apollo.  In  this  work  the  recitative 
or  stile  rappresentativo,  as  it  was 
then  called,  was  used  probably  for 
the  first  time,  though  the  invention 
of  that  style  is  also  claimed  for  Cac- 
cini and  Cavalieri.  Dafne  was  so 
successful  that  in  1600  both  Peri  and 
Caccini  were  commissioned  to  write 
music  to  Rinuccini's  Euridice;  for  the 
marriage  ceremony  of  Henry  IV.  of 
France  and  Maria  de'  Medici.  Peri's 
was  chosen,  and  he  was  thus  the 
author  of  the  first  opera  ever  given 
in  public.  It  was  mostly  recitative, 
with  two  or  three  choruses,  and  an 
orchestral  interlude  for  three  flutes. 
It  was  immediately  printed,  and  was 
reprinted  in  1683,  and  again  in  1688. 
The  only  extant  copy  of  the  original 
edition  is  in  the  museum  of  the  New- 
berry Library,  Chicago,  and  in  the 
preface  Peri  tells  of  his  work  in  de- 
veloping a  style  between  singing  and 
ordinary  speech,  which  he  believed 
must  have  been  used  by  the  Greeks. 
He  also  gives  the  names  of  those  who 
took  part  in  Euridice,  and  the  players 
and  instruments  forming  the  orcheg- 




tra  (a  harpsichord,  guitar,  flute  and 
viol),  which  played  behind  the  scenes. 
He  also  states  that  in  the  presenta- 
tion some  of  Caccini's  music  was 
used,  though  the  edition  is  printed  as 
he  originally  composed  it.  The  Brit- 
ish Museum  has  a  copy  of  the  second 
edition  of  Euridice,  but  of  Dafne  the 
only  traces  that  remain  are  the  frag- 
ments furnished  by  Caccini  and 
printed  in  his  Nuovo  Musiche,  at 
Florence,  in  1602.  Though  the  suc- 
cess of  these  two  "dramas  per  music" 
was  great,  Peri  wrote  no  more  operas, 
and  after  the  publication,  at  Florence, 
of  La  varie  Musiche  de  Signor  Jacopo 
Peri,  no  further  mention  of  him 

♦Perkins,  Henry  Southwick.    1833- 

American  teacher,  writer,  composer 
and  conductor;  born  in  Stockbridge, 
Vermont.  His  father  was  a  singing- 
rnaster,  and  his  mother  a  soprano 
singer  of  merit.  He  entered  the  Bos- 
ton Music  School  in  1857.  There  he 
studied  voice  with  B.  F.  Baker,  J.  Q. 
Wetherbee  and  Dr.  Chas.  A.  Guil- 
mette;  piano,  harmony  and  composi- 
tion with  John  W.  Lufts  and  J.  D.  C. 
Parker;  violin  with  Wm.  Schultze; 
and  was  graduated  with  the  highest 
honors  in  his  class  in  1861.  He  began 
his  career  as  a  teacher  of  voice,  piano 
and  composition.  For  five  years, 
from  1867,  he  was  professor  of  music 
in  the  Iowa  State  University  and 
director  of  the  Normal  Academy  of 
Music  at  the  same  place.  From  1870 
to  1874  he  held  the  position  of  di- 
rector of  the  Kansas  Normal  Acad- 
emy of  Music  at  Leavenworth.  For 
twenty-five  years  much  of  his  time 
was  devoted  to  conducting  musical 
festivals  and  conventions  in  all  parts 
of  the  country.  He  also  conducted 
normal  music  schools.  In  1875  he 
went  to  Europe  to  observe  teaching 
methods,  and  studied  voice  with 
Wartel  in  Paris  and  Vannuccini  in 

In  1876  he  was  one  of  the  organ- 
izers and  a  charter  member  of  the 
Music  Teachers'  National  Association, 
of  which  he  has  been  secretary-treas- 
urer since  1887.  His  history  of  this 
Association  is  a  work  of  authority. 
In  1887  the  Western  College  of  Iowa 
conferred  upon  him  the  degree  of 
Doctor  of  Music.  In  1886  he  was  the 
leading  organizer  of  the  Illinois 
Music  Teachers'  Association,  and 
served  as  its  president  for  the  first 


ten  consecutive  years.  Dr.  Perkins 
has  delivered  many  lectures  upon 
musical  subjects  before  the  National 
and  State  Music  Teachers'  Associa- 
tions and  other  educational  bodies. 
His  musical  works  include  thirty 
books  and  considerable  music  in  sheet 
form.  Among  the  books  are  The 
Church  Bell;  College  Hymn  and  Tune 
Book;  The  Song  Echo;  The  Advance; 
The  Headlight;  Convention  Choruses; 
The  New  Century  Glee  and  Chorus 
Book;  Graded  Music  Readers;  Per- 
kins' Graded  Anthems;  The  Song 
Wave;  Festival  Choruses;  and  The 
Song  Indicator.  In  1891  Dr.  Perkins 
organized  the  Chicago  National  Col- 
lege of  Music,  since  which  time  he 
has  been  its  president  and  director. 

Perkins,  William  Oscar.    1831-1902. 

American  teacher,  composer  and 
writer;  brother  of  preceding;  born  at 
Stockbridge,  Vermont.  He  continued 
in  Boston  the  study  of  music  begun 
with  his  father,  and  then  went  to 
London,  where  he  took  lessons  in 
voice  culture  from  Wetherbee,  and 
later  of  Perini  in  Milan.  On  return- 
ing to  Boston  he  gave  private  les- 
sons, and  taught  in  the  summer 
normal  music  schools;  lectured,  and 
wrote  on  music,  and  conducted  choral 
societies  and  concerts.  He  conducted 
many  conventions  in  the  Northern 
States  and  Canada.  After  two  visits 
to  Europe  he  finally  settled  in  Boston. 
He  did  excellent  work  as  a  teacher, 
and  was  made  Doctor  of  Music  in 
1879  by  Hamilton  College,  New 
York.  His  compositions  are  included 
in  over  forty  collections  of  songs  and 

Peme  (parn),  Frangois  Louis.     1772- 

Learned  French  writer  and  teacher; 
born  at  Paris.  He  was  first  taught 
music  when  he  was  a  chorister.  In 
1792  he  became  one  of  the  tenors  in 
the  chorus  of  the  Opera,  but  in  1799 
he  played  the  doublebass  in  the 
orchestra  of  that  theatre.  After  writ- 
ing some  minor  instrumental  pieces 
he  produced  a  grand  funeral  mass  in 
1800.  Having  studied  deeply  into  the 
theory  of  music,  he  was  rewarded  by 
the  position  of  professor  of  harmony 
at  the  Paris  Conservatory  in  succes- 
sion to  Catel,  in  1811.  In  1816,  when 
the  Conservatory  was  reopened  after 
the  political  troubles,  he  became  gen- 
eral inspector,  and  in   1819  librarian. 




Perne's  works  include  a  few  masses 
in  manuscript  at  the  Conservatory 
library;  a  triple  fugue  which  can  be 
sung  backwards  by  reversing  the 
page,  showing  great  technical  skill; 
six  easy  sonatas  for  the  piano;  a  book 
of  piano  variations;  two  piano 
methods;  a  course  in  harmony  and 
accompaniment,  and  writings  on 
ancient  Greek  music,  and  the  songs  of 
the  troubadours.  His  masses  were  left 
to  the  Institute,  of  which  he  was  a 
member,  and  his  sacred  manuscripts 
are  now  in  the  Brussels  Royal  Library. 

Perosi     (pa-ro'-se),     Don     Lorenzo. 

The  most  prominent  Italian  church 
composer  of  the  day.  Born  at  Tor- 
tona,  where  his  father,  Giuseppe,  was 
chapelmaster  at  the  Cathedral.  His 
family  are  musical,  his  father  being 
not  only  an  excellent  organist  and 
maestro  but  a  composer  of  enough 
repute  to  be  honored  by  a  decoration 
from  the  Pope.  Lorenzo  began  to 
study  the  piano  at  six  years  of  age. 
In  1888  he  received  a  diploma  from 
the  Musical  Lyceum  at  Rome.  After 
studying  under  Saladino  at  the  Milan 
Conservatory  he  entered  the  Monas- 
tery of  Monte  Casino.  There  he 
showed  such  marked  talent  that  the 
monks  and  his  father  persuaded  him 
to  go  to  Ratisbon  to  finish  his  educa- 
tion at  the  sacred  music  school  of 
Franz  Haberl.  In  1897  he  went  to 
Venice  to  become  chapelmaster  of  St. 
Mark's,  and  was  ordained  a  priest. 
He  is  a  rapid  and  prolific  composer, 
and  it  was  not  long  after  conceiving 
the  idea  of  picturing  Christ's  life  in 
twelve  oratorios,  that  his  first  large 
work,  the  sacred  trilogy.  The  Pas- 
sion of  Christ,  was  given  before  the 
Italian  Congress  for  Sacred  Music  at 
Milan  in  1897.  The  three  parts  are 
The  Last  Supper,  The  Sermon  on  the 
Mount,  and  The  Death  of  the  Re- 
deemer, and  the  work  excited  great 
enthusiasm.  In  1898  The  Trans- 
figuration of  Christ  was  sung  in 
Venice;  and  The  Raising  of  Lazarus 
was  presented  in  the  same  city.  The 
Resurrection  of  Christ  was  intro- 
duced at  Rome,  and  so  much  atten- 
tion did  these  works  elicit  that  Pope 
Pius  XII.  made  Perosi  honorary  mas- 
ter of  the  Papal  Choir.  In  1899 
another  oratorio.  The  Birth  of  The 
Redeemer,  was  given  for  the  first 
time,  and  later  that  year  he  was 
called    to    Rome    to    become    deputy 


master  of  the  Sistine  Chapel.  In  1902 
he  became  head  master  of  the  Papal 
Chapel.  He  has  brought  about  a 
great  change  in  the  chapel,  setting  it 
upon  a  modern  basis.  Among  his 
oratorios  are  Moses;  The  Last  Judg- 
ment; The  Massacre  of  the  Inno- 
cents; Anima;  and  Transitus  Animse. 
He  has  also  written  a  sacred  drama, 
Leo  the  Great;  and  many  masses; 
besides  two  orchestral  suites,  Rome, 
and  Venice.  His  music  combines 
modern  methods  with  old  principles, 
and  shows  a  blending  of  the  styles  of 
Palestrina,  Bach  and  Wagner.  His 
works  are  greatly  admired  in  Italy, 
and  many  of  the  oratorios  have  been 
sung  in  Vienna,  Paris,  London, 
America  and  elsewhere,  but  critics 
disagree  as  to  their  real  worth. 

Perry,  Edward  Baxter.    1855- 

Noted  American  pianist;  born  at 
Haverhill,  Mass.  By  an  accident, 
when  he  was  about  six  years  old,  he 
became  blind,  but  nevertheless  he 
obtained  a  literary  education  at  Per- 
kins' Institution  for  the  Blind  in 
South  Boston.  Later  he  took  up 
music,  studying  the  piano  under  Hill, 
and  in  1875  went  to  Germany,  where 
his  teachers  were  Kullak  at  Berlin, 
Pruckner  at  Stuttgart,  and  Liszt  at 
Weimar.  After  making  a  concert  tour 
of  Germany  he  returned  to  America. 
On  a  later  trip  abroad  he  studied  for 
about  two  years  under  Clara  Schu- 
mann at  Frankfort.  He  has  toured 
throughout  the  United  States  many 
times,  giving  lecture  recitals,  of 
which  he  was  the  originator,  his  sea- 
sons averaging  a  hundred  recitals 
each.  He  has  composed  some  piano- 
music,  including  the  fantasia,  Loreley; 
The  Lost  Island,  and  The  Portent; 
and  songs.  Has  also  contributed  to 
Music  and  other  musical  periodicals 
and  written  a  Descriptive  Analysis  of 
Piano  Works.  For  a  few  years  he 
taught  at  the  Oberlin  Conservatory, 
and  in  1885  he  became  one  of  the 
faculty  of  the  Tremont  School  at 
Boston,  which  city  is  his  home. 

Perry,  George  Frederick.    1793-1862. 

English  organist  and  composer,  of 
considerable  talent.  Born  at  Nor- 
wich. After  studying  the  violin, 
piano  and  theory  he  went  to  London 
in  1822  and  immediately  became  di- 
rector of  music  at  the  Haymarket 
Theatre.  Later  he  was  made  organist 
of    Quebec    Chapel,    but    in    1846   he 




resigned  this  position  to  go  to  Trinity 
Church,  Gray's  Inn  Road.  He  also 
led  the  orchestra  of  the  Sacred  Har- 
monic Society  from  1832  to  1847,  and 
the  next  year  was  for  a  short  time 
conductor,  leaving  the  society  soon 
after.  His  compositions  include  an 
overture,  The  Persian  Hunters;  the 
oratorios,  Elijah  and  the  Priests  of 
Baal,  The  Fall  of  Jerusalem,  The 
Death  of  Abel,  and  Hezekiah;  a  can- 
tata, Belshazzar's  Feast;  the  opera, 
Morning,  Noon  and  Night;  anthems; 
songs;  and  some  piano-pieces. 

Persaini   (per-si-a'-ne),  Fanny.    1812- 

Celebrated  Italian  operatic  soprano; 
born  at  Rome.  She  was  taught  by 
her  father,  the  noted  tenor,  Niccolo 
Tacchinardi,  and  when  eleven  years 
old  appeared  at  the  private  theatre 
in  his  Conservatory;  three  years  later 
singing  in  public  concerts  and  the- 
atricals. But  she  had  no  thought  of 
the  stage,  and  in  1830  married  Signor 
Persiani,  composer  and  conductor,  and 
settled  at  her  father's  home.  In  1832 
she  took  part  in  Fournier's  Francesca 
di  Rimini,  at  Leghorn,  and  soon  re- 
ceived oflfers  from  Milan  and  Flor- 
ence. Her  reputation  was  assured  on 
her  appearance  at  Venice  in  1833. 
After  playing  at  La  Scala,  Milan,  and 
at  Rome,  where  Misantropea  e  Pen- 
timento  and  I  promessi  sposi  were 
written  for  her,  she  created  Donizetti's 
Lucia  di  Lammermoor,  at  Naples  in 
1835.  It  was  in  this,  her  favorite  role, 
that,  after  playing  in  Genoa  and  else- 
where in  Italy,  she  made  her  Paris 
debut  in  1837,_  at  the  Theatre  des 
Italiens,  and  with  her  performance  of 
Carolina  in  II  Matrimonio  Segreto, 
she  became  the  idol  of  the  Parisians. 
In  1838  she  appeared  in  London,  first 
as  Amina  in  La  Sonnambula,  then  as 
Lucia,  Linda,  Elvira  and  other  hero- 
ines, and  for  the  next  ten  years,  with 
the  exception  of  a  short  engagement 
at  Brussels  and  Wiesbaden,  she  was 
in  Paris  and  London.  In  1849  she 
began  a  tour  of  Holland  and  Russia, 
gave  concerts  in  Germany,  France, 
Spain  and  the  British  Isles,  and  after 
one  last  appearance  at  Drury  Lane, 
in  1858,  retired  to  Paris,  where  she 
was  seen  for  the  last  time  as  Zerlina 
in  Don  Giovanni.  Her  appearance 
was  not  striking,  but  her  voice,  though 
rather  thin,  was  clear  and  brilliant. 
Her  register  was  wide  and  her  vocal- 
ization remarkable. 

Persuis  (per-swes),  Louis  Luc  Loiseau 

de.    1769-1819. 

French  conductor  and  composer; 
born  at  Metz.  His  father  was  a  vio- 
linist and  composer,  and  he  taught  his 
son.  Louis'  first  appointment  was  vio- 
linist at  the  theatre  in  Metz.  In  1787 
he  went  to  Paris  and  played  at  the 
Concerts  Spirituels,  becoming  in  1790 
first  violin  at  the  Theatre  Montansier, 
and  in  1793  at  the  Opera.  From  1795 
to  1802  he  had  violin  classes  at  the 
Conservatory,  and  in  the  latter  year 
becam.e  assistant  conductor  of  Na- 
poleon's band  and  conductor  of  the 
Court  concerts.  His  position  at  the 
Opera  was  raised  in  1804  to  chef  du 
chant,  and  in  1810  he  succeeded  Rey 
as  conductor  of  the  orchestra.  From 
1810  to  1815  he  directed  the  orchestra 
at  the  Academic,  and  meantime,  in 
1814,  he  was  appointed  general  inspec- 
tor of  the  Opera  and  chapelmaster  to 
Louis  XVIII.  His  last  position,  and 
the  one  in  which  he  made  his  name, 
was  director  of  the  Opera  from  1817 
till  his  death.  Besides  twenty  operas, 
including  La  Nuit  Espagnole,  Phanor 
et  Angola,  Fanny  Morna,  Le  Fruit 
Defendu,  his  masterpiece,  Jerusalem 
delivree,  and  others  in  collaboration; 
Le  Carnival  de  Venise,  etc.,  he  wrote 
many  ballets;  two  cantatas,  Chant  de 
victor,  to  Napoleon,  and  Chant  fran- 
?ais;  and  a  few  sacred  works  in  manu- 
script which  are  in  the  Conservatory 

Perti  (per'-te),  Jacopo  Antonio.   1661- 

Important  composer  of  the  Seven- 
teenth Century  Italian  School.  Born 
and  died  at  Bologna.  He  was  edu- 
cated at  the  Jesuit  School  at  Bologna, 
and  studied  music  first  with  his  uncle, 
Lorenzo  Perti,  and  later  under  Padre 
Petronio  Franceschini.  In  1679  his 
first  opera,  Atide,  was  produced  in  his 
native  city;  the  next  year  his  first 
mass  was  given  under  his  direction  at 
San  Petronio;  and  in  1681  he  became 
a  member  of  the  Accademia  Filar- 
monica,  of  which  he  was  afterwards 
many  times  president.  Two  more 
operas,  Oreste,  and  Flavio,  were  given 
at  Bologna,  and  Marzio  Coriolano  was 
brought  out  at  Venice  in  1683.  In 
1690  he  became  chapelmaster  of  San 
Pietro,  Bologna,  and  six  years  later 
was  appointed  to  the  same  position  at 
San  Petrono,  in  which  office  he 
remained  until  his  death.  His  operas, 
twenty-one    in   number,   were   nearly 




all  given  at  Venice,  notably,  Rosauro, 
and  L'incoronazione  di  Dario;  Brenno 
in  Efeso,  L'inganno  scoperto  per  ven- 
detta, Furio  Camillo,  Nerone  Fatto 
Cesare,  and  Laodicea  e  Berenice.  His 
sacred  compositions  include  several 
Passions;  the  oratorios,  Abramo  vin- 
citor  de  propri  aflfetti,  Giesti  al  sepul- 
cro,  and  La  Morte  di  Giesu;  a  cantata, 
morali  e  spirituali;  motets;  masses; 
and  many  choruses. 

Peschka     (pesh'-ka),     Minna.     1839- 

Popular  Austrian  coloratura  so- 
prano; born  at  Vienna.  She  studied 
first  under  Proch,  and  made  her  debut 
at  Breslau  as  Agatha  in  1856.  From 
1857  to  1861  she  sang  at  Dessau,  and 
in  the  latter  year  married  Dr.  M. 
Peschka,  and  left  the  stage  for  two 
years.  In  1863  she  appeared  in 
Vienna,  and  while  there  studied  under 
Madame  Bockholtz-Falconi.  In  1865 
she  played  at  Darmstadt,  and  from 
1868  to  1876,  then  at  her  prime,  she 
was  in  Leipsic,  singing  in  opera  and 
concert  with  brilliant  success.  In 
1872  she  appeared  at  the  Crystal  Pal- 
ace and  at  the  London  Philharmonic, 
and  in  the  fall  came  to  America  for 
the  Peace  Jubilee  at  Boston.  In  1881 
she  made  her  second  visit  to  the 
United  States.  From  the  time  of  her 
retirement  in  1887  until  her  death  she 
made  Wiesbaden  her  home.  Her 
voice  was  full  and  flexible,  and  her 
compass  wide,  but  she  lost  much  of 
her  charm  before  she  retired.  Her 
acting  was  excellent,  and  among  her 
roles  were  Marguerite  of  Valois, 
Isabel,  Almira  in  Handel's  opera,  and 
Eglantine  in  Euryanthe. 

Pessard   (pes-sar),  fimile  Louis  For- 
tune.    1843- 

French  composer;  born  at  Mont- 
martre,  a  suburb  of  Paris.  He  was 
educated  in  music  at  the  Paris  Con- 
servatory, studying  harmony  under 
Bazin,  organ  with  Benoist,  piano  with 
Laurent,  and  composition  under 
Carafa,  and  in  1862  took  the  first  prize 
in  harmony.  In  1866  his  cantata, 
Dalila,  won  the  Grand  Prize  of  Rome. 
From  1878  to  1880  he  was  inspector 
of  singing  in  the  public  schools;  in 
1881  became  professor  of  harmony  at 
the  Conservatory;  and  since  1895  has 
been  musical  critic  of  L'fivenement. 
He  is  an  officer  of  the  Legion  of 
Honor  and  director  of  musical  in- 
struction   for    that    society.      Besides 


songs;  masses;  motets;  orchestral 
suites;  piano  and  chamber-music;  he 
has  composed  the  following  operas: 
La  Cruche  Cassee,  and  Le  Char,  both 
in  one  act;  Le  Capitaine  Fracasse; 
Tabarin;  Les  Folies  amoreuses; 
Mam'zelle  Carabin;  Le  Muet;  and  La 
Dame  de  Trefle.  He  also  wrote  inci- 
dental music  to  Tartarin  sur  les  Alpes 
in  1887  and  Une  Nuit  de  Noel  in  1893. 

Petersilea     (pa-ter-se'-la-a),     Carlyle. 


Eminent  American  pianist  and 
teacher;  born  in  Boston.  His  mother 
was  English,  and  his  father  a  Gerrnan 
musician;  a  pioneer  in  the  profession 
in  America.  He  gave  Carlyle  such 
thorough  instruction  that  at  seven 
years  of  age  the  boy  himself  gave 
music  lessons.  When  only  twelve  he 
appeared  lin  public.  In  1862  he  en- 
tered the  Leipsic  Conservatory,  study- 
ing under  Plaidy,  Moscheles  and 
Wenzel  in  piano,  and  Reinecke,  Richter 
and  Hauptmann  in  theory.  On  grad- 
uating in  1865  he  received  the  Helbig 
prize.  He  afterward  studied  with 
von  Biilow.  A  short  but  successful 
concert  tour  preceded  his  return 
home;  then,  settling  in  Boston,  he 
became  known  as  a  virtuoso  and 
teacher.  In  1871  he  founded  the 
Petersilea  Academy  of  Music,  but 
closed  it  in  1886  to  become  one  of  the 
faculty  of  the  New  England  Conserv- 
atory, where  he  taught  until  his  re- 
tirement. In  1884  he  had  been  with 
Liszt  at  Weimar,  and  gave  a  concert 
at  the  Berlin  Singakademie.  He  has 
been  a  frequent  performer  at  the  Bos- 
ton Philharmonic  and  the  Harvard 
Symphony  concerts,  and  was  pianist 
of  the  Boylston  Club,  Boston.  Ill 
health  forced  him  to  retire,  and  after 
spending  several  years  in  Europe  he 
went  to  California  in  1892,  and  made 
his  home  at  Tropico,  near  Los  An- 
geles, in  which  city  he  was  for  some 
time  pianist  at  the  Burbank  Theatre. 
He  died  of  paralysis  in  1903.  Mr. 
Petersilea  was  a  remarkable  sight- 
reader  and  possessed  an  excellent 
technique  and  a  very  retentive  mem- 
ory. He  wrote  technical  studies  for 
the  piano  and  educational  works, 
greatly  valued  in  Europe  as  well  as  in 

Peterson,  Franklin  Sievewright.    1861- 

Scotch  professor  and  writer;  born 
at  Edinburgh.  Franklin's  musical 
education  was  received  principally  at 




Dresden,  where  C.  A.  Fisher  was  his 
organ  teacher.  In  1891  he  was  grad- 
uated Bachelor  of  Music  from  Oxford, 
receiving  the  same  degree  later  from 
the  University  of  Melbourne,  where, 
since  1900,  he  has  been  Ormond  Pro- 
fessor of  Music.  He  has  lectured  at 
Edinburgh  and  other  universities; 
been  examiner  at  the  University  in 
his  native  city,  at  the  Royal  College 
of  Music  in  London,  and  elsewhere. 
He  founded  and  was  president  of  the 
Edinburgh  Bach  Society.  He  has 
been  a  frequent  contributor  to  the 
Musical  Times,  the  Musical  Monthly 
Record,  and  other  papers;  wrote 
nearly  all  the  musical  articles  in  the 
new  edition  of  Chamber's  Encyclo- 
pedia, and  is  the  author  of  several 
educational  works.  Elements  of  Music; 
An  Introduction  to  the  Study  of 
Theory;  Pianists'  Handbook;  Hand- 
book of  Form;  Catechism  of  Music; 
and  has  written  some  anthems,  songs, 
and  part-songs. 

Petrella    (pa-trel'-la),    Errico.     1813- 


Italian  operatic  composer;  born  at 
Palermo.  He  studied  from  1822  to 
1830  under  Costa,  Bellini,  Furnio, 
Ruggi  and  Singarelli,  taking  violin 
lessons  from  Guidice  as  well.  His 
maiden  opera,  II  diavolo  color  di 
rosa,  written  while  he  was  still  study- 
ing at  the  Conservatory  of  San 
Pietro  a  Majella,  was  played  at  the 
Conservatory,  and  he  was  soon  second 
only  to  Verdi  in  the  opinion  of  the 
Italians.  Yet  even  before  his  death, 
which  occurred  at  Genoa,  his  reputa- 
tion had  begun  to  decline.  Of  his 
operas,  which  number  twenty  or  more, 
lone,  and  Giovanni  II  di  Napoli  are 
perhaps  the  best.  Mention  may  also 
be  made  of  Le  Miniere  di  Freiberg; 
Le  precauzione;  Manfredo;  Marco 
Viconti;  Elnave,  I'Assedio  di  Leyda; 
his  best  serious  opera;  La  contessa 
d'Amalfi;  and  Bianca  Orsini,  his  last 

*  Petri  (pa'-tre),  Henri  Wilhelm.  1856- 
Excellent  contemporary  violinist; 
born  near  Utrecht,  Holland,  and  came 
from  a  musical  family.  He  began  the 
study  of  music  under  his  father,  a 
fine  oboe  player,  and  after  his  death 
studied  under  Dahmen  At  fifteen  years 
of  age  he  was  sent  to  Berlin  at  the 
expense  of  King  William  III.  He 
later  spent  a  year  and  a  half  at  Brus- 
sels, but  w'ith  that  exception  studied 


under  Joachim  until  1876,  when  he 
accompanied  him  to  London,  appear- 
ing in  that  city  with  success.  In  1877 
he  was  appointed  concertmaster  of 
the  Court  Orchestra  at  Sonders- 
hausen,  and  during  the  four  years  in 
which  he  held  this  position  he  ad- 
vanced greatly  in  the  knowledge  of 
the  orchestra  and  benefited  by  inter- 
course with  Max  Erdmannsdorfer,  the 
conductor.  From  1881  to  1883  he  was 
conductor  of  the  Royal  Theatre  in 
Hanover;  then  for  six  years  was 
leader  of  the  Gewandhaus  concerts 
at  Leipsic,  and  since  1889  has  been 
concertmaster  of  the  Court  Orches- 
tra at  Dresden.  Besides  his  duties 
in  the  orchestra  he  teaches  violin- 
playing  at  the  Dresden  Conservatory. 
With  A.  Spitzner,  E.  Warwas,  and 
G.  Wille  he  has  organized  a  string 
quartet,  which  has  toured  a  number 
of  European  countries,  besides  play- 
ing annually  a  series  of  concerts  at 
Dresden.  He  has  published  a  great 
number  of  instructive  works,  besides 
composing  numerous  pieces  for  the 
violin  and  many  songs. 

Petrucci    (pa-troot'-che),    Ottavio    da 

Fossombrone.    1466-1539. 

Italian  printer;  born  at  Fossom- 
brone, whence  he  has  taken  his  name. 
He  went  to  Venice  in  1491,  and  in 
1498  was  given  the  exclusive  right 
to  print  music  in  Venice  for  twenty 
years.  There  he  worked  from  1501 
to  1511.  He  then  turned  over  his 
business  to-  others  and  went  back  to 
Fossombrone,  where,  under  a  patent 
from  Pope  Leo  X.,  giving  him  the 
sole  right  to  print  music  in  the  Papal 
States  for  fifteen  years,  he  worked 
from  1513  to  1523.  He  then  retired, 
but  lived  until  1539.  Petrucci  is  con- 
sidered the  inventor  of  metal  type 
music-printing.  He  used  a  double 
method,  first  printing  the  lines  of 
the  staff  and  then  the  notes,  which 
thus  fell  exactly  on  the  lines,  making 
the  work  nearly  perfect.  He  was 
immediately  followed  by  German  and 
Flemish  printers,  but  his  was  the 
expensive  process  and  was  soon  gen- 
erally replaced  by  the  single  impres- 
sion method.  His  first  publication, 
Harmonice  Musices  Odhecaton  A, 
came  out  from  1501,  the  second  and 
third  parts,  Canti  B  and  Canti  C 
being  printed  in  1502  and  1503.  This 
work  contains,  in  all,  some  three 
hundred  part-songs  and  about  fifteen 
motets    by    Sixteenth    Century    com- 




posers.  The  last  known  work  of  his 
press  was  three  choral  masses,  in 
1523.  Many  of  his  books  are  care- 
fully preserved  in  Rome,  Bologna, 
Vienna,  Munich,  Berlin,  and  at  the 
British  Museum,  London. 

Pevernage     (pu-ver-nazh),     Andreas. 

This  contrapuntist  ancf  composer 
of  sacred  music  was  born  at  Court- 
rai,  Flanders,  where  he  was  chapel- 
master  until  1574.  A  few  years  later 
he  removed  to  Antwerp  to  become 
chapelmaster,  or  choirmaster,  at  Notre 
Dame  Cathedral,  a  position  which  he 
held  until  his  death.  He  was  one  of 
the  first,  if  not  the  first,  to  give  pri- 
vate recitals,  introducing  the  works 
of  the  best  composers  of  the  Nether- 
lands and  foreign  countries.  He  com- 
posed and  edited  much  sacred  musit, 
some  of  it  being  published  after  his 
death,  which  occurred,  according  to 
some  authorities,  in  1589,  but  1591  is 
a  more  authentic  date.  His  works 
comprise  five  books  of  chansons;  a 
book  of  motets;  a  collection  of  mad- 
rigals; and  masses.  A  gloria  in  Excel- 
sis;  and  O  virgo  generosa,  a  hymn 
to  St.  Cecilia,  written  for  his  opening 
concert,  have  been  printed  in  modern 

PfeiflFer  (pfif'-fer),  Georges  Jean.  1835- 

French  pianist  and  composer;  born 
at  Versailles.  His  father's  family 
were  piano-makers  and  his  mother 
had  studied  under  Kalkbrenner  and 
Chopin.  She  taught  him  the  piano, 
and  he  studied  harmony  and  compo- 
sition under  Maleden  and  Damcke. 
In  1862  he  made  his  debut  with  great 
success  at  the  concerts  of  the  Paris 
Conservatory  and  later  visited  Lon- 
don. He  is  one  of  the  directors  of 
the  Plej'el-Wolff  Piano  concern  and 
vice-president  of  the  French  Society 
of  Composers.  He  has  written  a  sym- 
phony; a  symphonic  poem,  Jeanne 
d'Arc;  and  an  overture  to  Le  Cid; 
three  concertos;  trios;  a  quintet;  sona- 
tas; mazurkas;  melodies;  etudes;  etc.; 
also  an  oratorio,  Agar;  an  operetta, 
Captaine-Roche;  and  a  comic-opera, 

*  Pfitzner     (pfits'-ner),    Hans     Erich. 

German  conductor,  composer  and 
teacher;  born  at  Moscow.  His  father 
was  violinist  and  conductor  at  the 
Stadttheatre  in  Frankfort,  and  from 
him    he     had     his     first     instruction. 


Studied  under  Kwast  in  piano  and 
Iwan  Knorr  in  composition  at  the 
Frankfort  Royal  Conservatory  and 
taught  piano  and  theory  at  the  Co- 
blentz  Conservatory.  In  1894  he  went 
to  Mayence  to  conduct  the  theatre 
there,  and  brought  out  his  music- 
drama,  Der  Arnie  Heinrich,  with  great 
success.  Later  he  was  third  musical 
director  at  Mannheim,  and  in  1897 
became  a  member  of  the  faculty  of 
Stern  Conservatory  in  Berlin,  also 
conducting  the  Theater  des  Westens. 
He  has  recently  been  elected  director 
of  the  Strasburg  Conservatory.  As 
a  composer  he  is  known  for  his  suc- 
cessful operas,  the  one  already  men- 
tioned, and  Die  Rose  vom  Liebesgarten 
(The  Rose  from  Love's  Garden).  He 
has  also  written  incidental  music  to 
Ibsen's  Fest  auf  Solhaug;  a  sonata 
for  cello  and  piano;  the  ballads,  Herr 
Oluf,  and  Die  Heinzelmannchen;  over- 
ture to  Marchspiel  Christ-Elflein;  a 
piano-trio,  and  other  chamber  compo- 
sitions; some  thirty  songs,  and  other 
works,  a  number  of  which  are  still 
in  manuscript. 

Pflughaupt   (pflookh'-howpt),  Robert. 

German  pianist;  born  at  Berlin.  He 
studied  under  Dehn  at  Berlin  and 
Henselt  at  St.  Petersburg.  Married 
the  pianist,  Sophie  Stschepin,  in  1854. 
He  completed  his  studies  under  Liszt 
at  Weimar,  which  city  was  his  home 
from  1857  to  1862.  He  then  removed 
to  Aix-la-Chapelle,  where  his  wife 
died  in  1867.  He  survived  her  only 
four  years,  leaving  his  fortune  to  the 
Allgemeine  deutscher  Musikverein, 
with  which  a  Beethoven  scholarship 
was  founded.  He  composed  songs  and 

Phelps,  Ellsworth  C.    1827- 

American  composer;  born  at  Mid- 
dletown.  Conn.  He  was  his  own 
teacher,  and  became  organist  in  New 
London  when  only  nineteen.  He 
taught  not  only  there  but  in  Syra- 
cuse and  New  York  with  great  suc- 
cess, and  in  1857  went  to  Brooklyn, 
where  he  has  been  organist  and 
teacher  in  public  schools  for  over 
thirty  years.  He  has  written  some 
two  hundred  works,  including  two 
comic  operas;  a  sacred  opera,  David; 
four  symphonic  poems;  two  sym- 
phonies, Hiawatha,  and  Emancipa- 
tion; two  concert  overtures;  an  elegie; 
145th  Psalm;  and  military  band-music. 



Philidor    (fe-li-dor),   Andre    Danican. 

Member  of  a  family  of  French  musi- 
cians, founded  by  Jean  Danican,  1620- 
1679,  to  whose  elder  brother,  Michael 
Danican,  of  Dauphine,  a  remarkably 
fine  hautboy  player,  King  Louis 
XIII.  gave  the  name  Philidor,  because 
his  playing  resembled  that  of  the  Ital- 
ian Filidori.  Michael  had  no  children 
but  Jean,  who  was  in  the  King's  mil- 
itary band,  had  three  sons;  Andre, 
the  eldest,  and  Jacques,  1657-1708,  the 
youngest,  being  well  known.  Like  all 
the  rest  of  the  family,  Andre  played 
the  instruments  on  which  his  father 
and  uncle  had  performed.  He  was 
also  one  of  Louis  XIV.'s  chamber- 
musicians.  He  composed  a  number  of 
military  marches,  fanfares,  bugle  calls, 
divertissements,  and  masques  in  com- 
petition with  Lully;  and  ballet  operas, 
Le  canal  de  Versailles,  Le  mariage  de 
la  Couture  avee  le  gross  Cathos,  La 
Princesse  de  Crete,  La  vaisseau  mar- 
chand,  Mascarade  des  Savoyards,  and 
Mascarade  du  roi  de  la  Chine.  He 
was  librarian  of  the  Royal  Musical 
Library  at  Versailles,  and  amassed  a 
collection  of  all  the  music,  both  sacred 
and  secular,  that  had  been  produced 
at  the  court  since  the  reign  of  Fran- 
cois I.  Part  of  the  Philidor  Collec- 
tion has  been  lost,  but  the  rest  is 
still  at  the  Paris  Conservatory,  the 
National  Library,  and  the  Library  of 
Versailles.     Andre  died  at  Dreux. 

His  brother  Jacques,  also  in  the 
service  of  the  King,  had  four  sons  who 
were  musicians,  Jacques,  junior  (1686- 
1709),  Frangois  II  (1695-1726),  Nicolas 
(1699-1769),  and  Pierre,  the  eldest  and 
most  important  (1681-1731).  Andre's 
children  were  more  prominent.  The 
eldest  son,  Anne  (1681-1726),  a  fine 
flutist  and  oboist,  was  born  and  died 
in  Paris.  He  took  his  father's  position 
in  the  King's  band  and  chamber  in 
1702,  and  in  the  Chapelle  in  1704.  He 
published  a  number  of  piieces  for  flute, 
oboe,  and  violin;  produced  the  pas- 
toral operas,  L'amour  vainqueur, 
Diane  et  Endymion,  and  Danae;  and 
conducted  the  Concerts  Spirituels. 
Another  son,  Francois  (1689-1717  or 
1718),  was  a  player  in  the  King's  serv- 
ice, and  composed  a  few  pieces  for 
the  flute. 

Philidor,    Frangois    Andre    Danican. 

Youngest  son  of  the  preceding,  and 
the    most    celebrated    of    the    family. 

Born  at  Dreux,  and  at  six  years  of 
age  became  a  page  in  the  Royal 
Chapel  at  Versailles,  where  he  received 
an  excellent  education  in  music  from 
Campra.  Went  to  Paris,  where  he 
became  a  music-teacher  and  copier; 
but,  finding  the  work  discouraging, 
turned  to  chess,  which  he  had  learned 
during  his  leisure  hours  at  the  chapel. 
He  was  remarkably  skilled  in  this 
game,  and  in  1745  started  on  a  tri- 
umphal tour,  defeating  the  best  play- 
ers of  Holland,  Germany  and  England, 
and  while  at  Aix-la-Chapelle,  in  1748, 
he  wrote  his  Analyse  de  jeu  d'echecs, 
which  he  published  on  going  to  Lon- 
don in  1749.  In  1754  he  wrote  a 
motet,  Lauda  Jerusalem,  in  hope  of 
becoming  superintendent  of  the  King's 
music.  Failing,  he  turned  to  dramatic 
composition,  and  brought  out  the  first 
of  his  twenty-one  operas,  most  of 
which  were  played  at  the  Theatre  de 
la  Foire,  Saint  Laurent,  Diable  a. 
quatre,  and  La  retour  du  printemps,  in 
1756.  These  failed,  but  his  Blaise  le 
Savetier,  lin  1759,  was  an  immense 
success.  L'huitre  et  les  plaideurs; 
Le  quiproquo,  or  Le  volage  fixe;  Le 
soldat  magicien;  Le  jardinier  et  son 
seigneur  are  all  one-act  plays.  He 
then  ventured  on  a  two-act  comedy, 
Le  marechal  ferrant.  This  made  his 
name  famous,  but  he  returned  to  one- 
act  pieces  in  Sancho  Panga,  and  Le 
biicheron  or  Les  trois  Souhaits.  Then 
came  two  of  his  best  light  operas, 
Le  sorcier  and  Tom  Jones.  His  first 
grand  opera,  and  one  of  the  first  of 
the  class  in  France,  Ernelinde  Prin- 
cesse de  Norvege,  was  given  at  the 
Opera,  and  revived  in  1773  as  Sando- 
mir.  Prince  de  Danemark.  In  1768 
Le  Jardinier  de  Sidion  was  produced, 
and  L'amant  deguise.  La  rosiere  de 
Salevey;  La  nouvelle  ecole  des  femmes; 
Le  bonfils;  and  Les  femmes  vengees 
followed.  He  went  to  England,  where, 
on  account  of  the  Revolution,  he  was 
not  allowed  to  return  to  Paris,  and 
had  to  remain  in  London  the  last 
three  years  of  his  life.  His  grand 
operas,  Persee,  and  Themistocle  were 
not  very  successful.  His  last  work, 
a  grand  opera,  Belisaire,  was  finished 
by  Berton.  He  also  composed  motets; 
quartets;  L'art  de  la  modulation;  and 
Ariettes  periodiques.  He  was  one  of 
the  most  learned  musicians  of  his 
time,  one  of  the  founders  of  the  mod- 
ern French  comic  opera,  and  his  com- 
positions are  considered  superior  to 
those  of  his  rivals  in  originaHty,  har- 




mony  and  orchestration,  but  not  so 
good  in  melody  and  dramatic  excel- 
lence. His  Le  marechal  was  the  first 
stage-piece  to  contain  descriptive  airs, 
and  in  Tom  Jones  he  introduced 
for  the  first  time  an  unaccompanied 

Philipp,  Isidor  Edmond.    1863- 

Pianist  and  teacher;  born  at  Buda- 
pest, but  a  naturalized  citizen  of 
France.  He  was  a  pupil  of  Mathias 
at  the  Paris  Conservatory;  won  first 
prize  for  piano  in  1883,  and  later 
had  instruction  from  Heller,  Ritter 
and  Saint-Saens.  He  played  in  the 
Lamoureux  and  Colonne  concerts  as 
well  as  at  the  Conservatory.  In  1890, 
with  the  aid  of  Berthelier  and  Loeb, 
he  founded  a  Chamber-music  Society 
in  Paris  and  in  1896  he  revived  the 
Wind-instrument  Society.  He  became 
president  of  the  Societe  d'Art,  and 
since  1893  has  been  teaching  at  the 
Conservatory.  His  reputation  as  a 
pianist  is  also  high  and  his  works 
include  Practising  Exercises;  Daily 
Exercises;  a  book  of  selections  from 
the  works  of  Bach  and  Handel  to 
those  of  himself  and  his  contempo- 
raries; fitudes  d'Octaves;  and  a  vast 
number  of  other  educational  studies 
for_  developing  technique  and  accent- 
uation; also  arrangements  from  Cho- 
pin and  other  masters. 

Philips,  Peter. 

English  contrapuntist;  born  about 
1560;  known  also  as  Petrus  Philppus 
and  Pietro  Filippo.  In  1591  he  pub- 
lished, at  Antwerp,  Melodia  Olympica 
di  Diversi  Eccellentissum  Musici. 
Three  books  of  madrigals  followed. 
He  was  organist  in  the  vice-regal 
chapel  of  Archduke  Albert,  Governor 
of  the  Low  Countries.  His  Canones 
Sacrae,  for  five  voices,  was  printed  in 
1612,  and  the  next  year  a  like  book 
for  eight  voices,  as  well  as  Gemmulae 
Sacrae,  for  two  and  three  voices. 
Among  his  later  works  are  Litanies, 
and  the  Paradisus  Sacris  Cantionibus. 
Burney  gives  him  the  credit  of  writ- 
ing the  first  regular  fugue,  which  is 
contained  in  Queen  Elizabeth's  Vir- 
ginal Book  in  the  Fitzwillian  Library 
at   Cambridge,   England. 

Phillips,  Philip.     1834-1895. 

American  singer  and  hymn-writer; 
born  in  Chautauqua  County,  New  York. 
He  studied  music  under  Lowell  Mason 
and  others,  and  in  1853  taught  sing- 
ing-school    in     Alleghany     and     the 


neighboring  New  York  towns.  In 
1860  his  first  collection  of  hymns. 
Early  Blossoms,  was  published,  and 
had  an  immense  sale,  as  did  Musical 
Leaves,  published  in  1863  in  Cincin- 
nati. Mr.  Phillips  not  only  visited 
all  parts  of  this  country  and  Can- 
ada, but  made  a  tour  of  the  world, 
singing  in  five  hundred  and  seventy- 
four  performances.  Among  his  works 
are  also  the  American  Sacred  Song- 
ster; Song  Life;  Hallowed  Song;  Song 
Ministry;  Song  Sermons;  Interna- 
tional Song-Service;  and  numerous 
other  collections  and  singing-books- 

Phillipps,  Adelaide.     1833-1882. 

Contralto  singer;  born  at  Stratford- 
on-Avon.  The  family  moved  to  Can- 
ada, and  hence  to  Boston,  when 
Adelaide  was  seven  years  old.  She 
studied  music  w'ith  Thomas  Comer 
and  Mme.  Arnouldt,  and  in  1850  sang 
before  Jenny  Lind  and  was  advised  to 
devote  herself  to  music.  A  subscrip- 
tion was  raised.  Miss  Lind  and  Jonas 
Chickering  being  the  chief  contribu- 
tors, and  in  1852  Adelaide  went  to 
London,  where  she  studied  under 
Manuel  Garc'ia,  and  finished  in  Italy, 
where  she  made  her  first  appearance 
at  Brescia  as  Arsace  in  Semiramide. 
She  made  her  real  debut  at  Milan  as 
Rosina  in  the  Barber  of  Seville.  In 
1855  she  came  back  to  the  United 
States,  and  sang  in  Boston  in  English 
Opera,  concert  and  oratorios;  appeared 
in  Italian  Opera  at  the  Academy  of 
Music,  New  York,  in  1856,  in  her 
favorite  part,  Azucena  in  II  Trovatore. 
She  went  to  Europe  in  1861,  and 
appeared  in  Paris,  Hungary,  Holland 
and  London.  From  1863  to  1881  she 
toured  the  United  States,  singing 
with  the  Handel  and  Haydn  Society 
and  at  the  Peace  Jubilee  in  1869  at 
Boston.  In  1876  she  formed  a  com- 
pany of  her  own,  but  from  1879  to 
1881  she  sang  in  the  Boston  Ideal 
Opera  Company.  She  died  at  Carls- 
bad, Germany,  and  was  buried  at 
Marshfield,  Mass. 

Philp  (flip),  Elizabeth.     1827-1885. 

English  vocalist  and  composer; 
born  at  Falmouth  and  died  in  London. 
She  took  vocal  lessons  from  Manuel 
Garcia  and  harmony  and  counterpoint 
from  Hiller,  studying  also  under  Mme. 
Marchesi.  Her  works  include  Tell 
Me,  the  Summer  Stars;  six  songs 
from  Longfellow;  and  numerous  part- 
songs  and  songs,  notably,  Bye  and 
Bye,  River  Ran  Between  Them,  Vio- 




lets  of  the  Spring,  Wrecked  Hope, 
Water  Babies,  Mrs.  Browning's  Inclu- 
sions, Hugo's  Chant  des  lavandieres, 
and  Sully  Prudhomme's  Le  Soupir. 
She  also  wrote  How  to  Sing  English 
Ballad,  published  in   London. 

Philpot,  Stephen  Rowland. 

English  composer;  studied  with 
Macfarren  at  the  Royal  Academy  of 
Music,  and  has  written  the  operas, 
Dante  and  Beatrice;  Zelica;  and  La 
Gitana;  also  piano  and  string  music; 
and  songs. 

Piatti  (pe-at'-te),  Alfredo  Carlo.  1822- 

Probably  the  greatest  violoncellist 
of  recent  times.  Born  and  died  at 
Bergamo,  Italy.  His  father  was  a 
violinist  of  note,  leader  of  the  town 
orchestra,  and  his  great-uncle,  Zanetti, 
was  an  excellent  musician.  At  five 
years  of  age  Alfredo  began  to  study 
the  cello  under  his  uncle,  and  advanced 
so  rapidly  that  at  the  end  of  two  years 
he  played  in  the  orchestra  with  his 
father,  and  .after  the  first  season  took 
his  uncle's  place.  When  ten  years 
old  he  entered  the  Milan  Conserva- 
tory, where  he  studied  for  five  years, 
and  where,  in  1837,  he  made  his  debut 
as  a  soloist,  playing  one  of  his  own 
concertos.  He  then  returned  to  his 
old  post  at  Bergamo,  and  from  there 
made  frequent  visits  to  the  neighbor- 
ing towns.  Going  to  Paris  in  1844, 
he  played  both  in  public  and  private, 
met  Habeneck,  and  received  a  fine 
Amatis  cello  from  Liszt.  He  made 
his  London  debut  at  a  concert  in 
Her  Majesty's  Theatre.  He  played  at 
the  Dohler  concerts  and  elsewhere, 
and  visited  Moscheles,  where  he  met 
Mendelssohn.  The  great  composer 
immediately  recognized  his  genius, 
and  just  before  his  death,  in  1847, 
started  to  write  a  concerto  for  him, 
the  manuscript  of  which  is  lost.  In 
1846  he  returned  to  London,  which 
henceforth  was  his  winter  home. 
There  he  appeared  with  Sainton, 
Ernst,  Sivori  and  Vieuxtemps.  He 
took  part  in  a  concert  given  by 
the  Beethoven  Quartet  Society  to 
Mendelssohn,  and  was  often  soloist 
at  the  National  concerts  at  Her  Ma- 
jesty's Theatre.  In  1851  he  became 
a  member  of  the  Sacred  Harmonic 
Society;  in  1852  first  cello  of  the 
New  Philharmonic  Society,  and  that 
year  performed  Bennett's  Sonata  Duo 
in   A   minoi    for   the   first   time  at   a 


concert  of  the  Quartet  Association. 
He  also  introduced  at  the  Philhar- 
monic, in  1853,  the  concerto  which 
Molique  had  composed  for  him,  and, 
at  the  Crystal  Palace  in  1866,  a  con- 
certo written  for  him  by  Sullivan.  He 
spent  his  summers  in  Italy  at  his  villa 
on  Lake  Como.  He  was  always  very 
fond  of  England  and  was  equally  be- 
loved there.  He  was  also  honored  by 
King  Umberto  of  Italy  with  the 
Order  of  the  Crown. 

His  technique  was  perfect,  his  play- 
ing refined  and  artistic,  the  tone  pure 
and  large,  the  intonation  true,  and  the 
phrasing  beautiful,  while  his  interpre- 
tation was  intellectual  and  poetic. 
Like  Joachim,  he  shone  not  only  as 
a  violinist  but  as  a  quartet  player,  his 
ensemble  work  nearing  perfection.  In 
composition  Molique  was  his  teacher, 
and  his  works  are  excellent.  They 
include  Introduction  et  variations  sur 
un  theme  de  Lucia  di  Lammermoor; 
Une  Priere;  Chant  Religieux; 
Souvenir  d'Ems;  Souvenire  de  La 
Sonnambula;  Mazurka  Sentimentali; 
Fantasie  Russe;  Air  Baskyr;  Souvenir 
de  I  Puritani;  Amour  et  Caprice;  Fan- 
tasie; La  Suedois,  caprice;  Divertis- 
sement sur  un  air  Napolitain; 
Souvenir  de  Linda  di  Chamounix; 
Theme  varie;  Bergamasca;  Serenade 
Italienne;  Siciliana;  nocturne;  con- 
certo; Dodici  Capricci;  concerto; 
concertino;  Fantasia  Romanesca;  ser- 
enata;  songs  with  cello  obligato, 
among  them  Tennyson's  O  Swallow, 
Swallow,  Flying  Forth;  and  tran- 
scriptions and  arrangements.  Piatti 
led  a  simple  life,  being  a  quiet  and 
modest  man.  His  daughter  married 
Count  Lochis,  and  at  her  home,  near 
Bergamo,  he  spent  the  last  few 
months  of  his  life.  He  was  buried 
with  state  ceremonies  in  the  private 
chapel  of  the  Lochis  family. 

Piccinni    (pit-chin'-ne),   Luigi.     1766- 


Son  of  Nicola  Piccinni;  sometimes 
called  Ludovico.  He  was  born  at 
Naples,  and  received  his  musical  edu- 
cation from  his  father,  whom  he  fol- 
lowed to  Paris  'in  1783.  His  first  work 
was  a  number  of  sonatas  with  a  toc- 
cata for  piano;  but  in  1^84  he  started 
his  unsuccessful  career  as  an  operatic 
composer  with  the  comic  opera,  Les 
amours  de  Cherubin,  and  two  or  three 
others,  at  Paris.  In  1791  he  returned 
to  Naples,  and  there  his  Gli  Accidenti 
inaspetati  was  given  in  1792.     Other 




operas  and  a  dramatic  cantata,  Ero  e 
Leandro,  were  given  at  Venice,  Genoa 
and  Florence.  In  1796  he  became 
chapelmaster  to  the  court  at  Stock- 
holm, and  there  produced  II  sonnam- 
bulo,  but  in  1801  he  returned  to  Paris. 
He  still  brought  out  operas,  and  though 
Hippomene  et  Atalante,  given  at  the 
Opera  in  1810,  was  a  flat  failure,  he 
produced  La  Raucune,  his  last,  in  1819, 
but  it  was  only  played  once.  He 
died  on  his  way  from  Paris  to  his 
home  at  Passy. 

Piccinni,  Louis  Alexandre.    1779-1850. 

Son  of  Giuseppe  Piccinni,  eldest 
son  of  Nicola.  Born  and  died  at 
Paris.  Studied  piano  under  Haus- 
mann  and  composition  from  Lesueur 
and  his  grandfather,  and  was  accom- 
panist at  the  Theatre  Feydeau,  and 
from  1802  at  the  Opera.  From  1803 
to  1816  he  was  conductor  of  the  Thea- 
tre de  la  Porte  Saint-Martin.  From 
1804  to  1818  he  was  accompanist  to 
the  court.  He  taught  singing  and 
piano  at  Paris  until  1836,  when  he 
removed  to  Boulogne  to  teach  and 
direct  the  Conservatory.  He  gave  up 
this  appointment  to  go  to  Strasburg, 
and  during  his  residence  there 
directed  the  Baden-Baden  concerts, 
but  returned  finally  to  Paris  in  1849. 
He  wrote  melodramas:  Romulus,  and 
Robinson  Crusoe;  ballets;  vaudeville 
airs;  cantatas;  romances;  sonatas;  and 
piano-music;  besides  numerous  operas, 
notably,  L'amoureux  par  surprise, 
Avis  au  public,  lis  sont  chez  eux.  La 
maison  en  loterie,  Le  petite  lampe 
merv  eilleuse,  Alcibiade  solitaire,  and 
Le  prise  de  Jericho. 

Piccinni,  Niccolo.    1728-1800. 

Italian  operatic  composer;  born  at 
Bari,  in  Naples.  His  father,  who  was 
a  musician,  wanted  Niccolo  to  be  a 
priest,  but  his  musical  taste  asserted 
itself.  The  Bishop  of  Bari  advised 
his  father  send  him  to  a  Conserva- 
tory. At  fourteen  years  of  age  he 
entered  San  Onofrio  in  Naples..  He  at 
first  paid  little  heed  to  his  studies,  but 
spent  his  time  composing;  but  Leo 
soon  took  him  in  hand,  and  when 
Leo  died  Durante  became  Piccinni's 
master,  and  grew  so  fond  of  him 
that  he  spoke  of  him  as  his  son.  On 
leaving  the  Conservatory  he  made  an 
operatic  debut  with  Le  Donne  dis- 
pettose.  Le  Gelosie,  the  next  year, 
won  equal  favor,  as  did  II  Curioso  del 
proprio  danno,  also  in  the  comic  vein. 


In  1756  he  wrote  Zenobia  for  the  San 
Carlo  Theatre,  and  proved  that  his 
genius  was  as  great  in  serious  as  in 
buffa  composition.  He  continued  to 
enhance  his  reputation  in  Italy  until 
he  had  become  the  idol  of  his  country. 
La  Cecchina,  ossa  La  Buona  Figlia, 
was  the  most  popular  opera  buffa 
ever  written,  and  was  played  to  highly 
enthusiastic  audiences  all  over  Europe. 
The  next  year  he  produced  six  operas, 
notably,  Olympiade,  and  his  success 
continued  unabated  until  1773,  when 
his  former  pupil,  Anfossi,  caught  the 
public  ear,  and  Piccinni's  opera  failed 
So  greatly  did  this  affect  his  sensitive 
nature  that  he  accepted  the  offers 
from  Gluck's  opponents  in  Paris,  ten- 
dered him  by  the  French  Ambassa- 
dor, and  went  to  Paris  in  1776.  There 
Marmontel  taught  him  the  language 
and  arranged  Quinault's  tragedies  for 
his  use,  and  in  1777  he  produced  Ro- 
land with  great  success.  He  gave 
singing  lessons  to  Marie  Antoinette, 
but  received  no  remuneration,  not 
even  his  traveling  expenses.  In  1778 
he  was  made  director  of  the  Italian 
Opera,  which  played  every  other  night 
at  the  Grand  Opera  House,  and  there 
he  brought  out  some  of  his  old  plays, 
Le  finte  Gemelle,  and  La  Buona  Fi 
glia  in  1778,  and  II  Vago  disprezzato, 
and  La  buona  Figliuola  maritata  in 
1779.  The  war  between  his  followers 
the  Piccinnists,  and  the  Gluckists  had 
been  raging  bitterly,  society  dividing 
to  uphold  the  old  style  on  one  hand 
or  the  reformed  method  on  the  other. 
The  loving  and  peaceable  Piccinni  had 
held  aloof  from  the  struggle,  keeping 
busy  at  work  and  the  bitterness  was 
subsiding,  when  the  manager  of  the 
Opera  arranged  to  have  both  com- 
posers set  Iphigenie  en  Tauride.  Pic- 
cinni had  the  promise  of  the  first 
performance  and  set  to  work,  but  the 
intriguing  managers  had  given  him  a 
wretched  libretto,  and  though  Gin- 
guene  partially  rewrote  it,  it  was 
enough  to  make  even  a  genius  fail. 
Meanwhile,  in  1779,  Gluck  produced 
his  opera  with  great  success,  and  the 
hopes  of  his  rival  fell.  The  next  year 
Gluck  left  Paris  and  Piccinni  brought 
out  Atys.  In  January,  1781,  Iphigenie 
was  produced,  and  though  the  opera 
was  played  for  a  short  time  it  proved 
a  failure.  Adele  de  Pontineu  also 
failed,  but  Didon,  in  1783,  played 
before  the  Court  of  Fontainbleau  and 
later  at  the  Grand  Opera,  was  so 
popular  that  it  was  played  for  over 




forty  years.  Le  Dormeur  eveille  and 
I.e  faux  Lord  also  appeared  with  suc- 
cess in  1783,  and  the  next  year  Pic- 
cinni was  appointed  principal  teacher 
in  the  Royal  Singing  School.  Jealousy 
and  intrigue,  however,  now  again 
sprang  up,  and  at  the  outbreak  of  the 
Revolution  he  returned  to  Naples, 
leaving  behind  his  scores,  which  were 
sold  and  scattered.  At  Naples  he  was 
well  received  until,  in  1792,  the  mar- 
riage of  his  daughter  to  a  French 
republican  caused  the  report  that  he, 
too,  belonged  to  that  party.  His 
Hercules  was  scoffed  at  and  he  gladly 
accepted  an  offer  to  go  to  Venice, 
where  he  produced  Greselda,  and  II 
serva  onorata  with  success.  On  his 
return  to  Naples  he  and  his  family 
were  held  in  confinement  for  four 
years,  and  on  their  release,  in  1798, 
they  were  advised  by  friends  to  return 
to  Paris.  There  his  wife  and  daughters 
sang  his  operas  in  the  charming,  sim- 
ple style  he  loved.  He  was  given 
five  thousand^  francs  for  his  needs  and 
a  small  pension,  but  it  was  not  paid 
regularly.  A  place  as  sixth  inspector 
of  the  Conservatory  was  created  for 
him,  but  the  anxiety  had  been  too 
much  for  him  at  seventy  years  of  age, 
and  he  died  at  Passy,  near  Paris. 

Piccinni  was  a  remarkably  prolific 
composer.  Besides  operas  he  wrote 
songs;  romances;  and  much  sacred 
music,  including  psalms,  and  masses, 
by  which  he  made  a  meager  living 
during  the  time  of  his  confinement  at 
Naples.  His  friend,  Ginguene,  gives 
the  number  of  his  operas  as  one  hun- 
dred and  sixt}^-three,  but  in  the  com- 
plete list  of  his  works,  in  the  8th 
volume  of  the  Rivista  Musicale  Ital- 
iana  (1901),  Alberto  Carmetti  notes 
one  hundred  and  thirty-nine.  Pic- 
cinni's  music  is  charming  and  melo- 
dious. While  his  works  lack  the 
strength  of  Gluck's,  nevertheless  they 
show  their  composer  to  have  been  a 
man  of  great  genius. 

Piccolomini  (pik-k6-16'-me-ne).  Mari- 
etta.    1834-1899. 

Italian  operatic  mezzosoprano,  who 
introduced  the  rapid,  canary-bird 
style.  She  was  also  called  Maria. 
She  was  born  at  Sienna,  of  noble  fam- 
ily, the  date  of  her  birth  being  given 
as  1834  or  1836.  She  studied  under 
Mazzarelli  and  Romani,  and  in  1852 
made  her  debut  as  Lucrezia  Borgfa 
at  the  Pergola  of  Florence.  She  after- 
ward sang  at  Sienna,  Rome,  Bologna 


and  other  towns,  and  in  1855  at  the 
Carignan  Theatre  in  Turin  sang  Vio- 
letta  in  II  Traviata.  The  next  year 
she  played  at  Her  Majesty's  Theatre, 
London,  and  at  the  Theatre  des  Ital- 
iens  in  Paris,  and  spent  1857  and  1858 
in  London,  coming  from  there  to 
America,  where  she  was  very  success- 
ful. In  1859  she  was  at  Drury  Lane, 
and  in  1860  made  her  farewell  appear- 
ance at  Her  Majesty's  Theatre,  mar- 
ried Marchese  Gaetani,  and  retired, 
but  returned  to  London  in  1863  to 
sing  at  a  benefit  for  her  old  manager, 
Lumley.  Her  best  role  was  Violetta. 
Her  intonation  was  rather  uncertain 
and  her  compass  not  very  great,  but 
she  was  a  charming  actress.  Arlene 
in  the  Bohemian  Girl,  Adina  in  L'EH- 
sir  d'Amour,  Maria  in  La  Figlia  di 
Regimento,  Norma,  and  Luisa  Miller 
were  among  her  other  parts. 

Pichel  (pesh-'l),  Wenzel.    1741-1805. 

Also  spelled  Vaclay  Pichl.  An  able 
violinist  and  prolific  composer;  well 
known  in  his  day.  Born  in  Bohemia, 
at  Bechin,  Tabor,  he  began  at  seven 
years  of  age  to  study  the  violin  under 
Pokomy.  He  also  studied  counter- 
point under  Segert.  He  entered  the 
service  of  the  Bishop  of  Grosswardein, 
for  whom  he  composed  much  church- 
music;  masses;  psalms;  motets;  grad- 
uals;  and  misereres.  He  became 
director  of  music  to  Count  Louis  von 
Hartig  about  1769,  but  after  two  years 
left  Prague  and  went  to  Vienna,  where 
he  joined  the  orchestra  of  the  National 
Theatre.  In  1775  he  entered  the  serv- 
ice of  Archduke  Ferdinand  of  Milan. 
The  French  invasion  in  1796  drove  the 
Duke  and  his  retainers  to  Vienna, 
and  there  Pichel  remained  until  his 
sudden  death  from  a  stroke  of  apo- 
plexy. He  translated  Mozart's  Zau- 
berflote  into  Bohemian  and  wrote  over 
seven  hundred  compositions,  includ- 
ing eighty-eight  symphonies;  more 
than  a  dozen  serenades;  a  concertino; 
and  an  immense  number  of  chamber- 

Pierne     (p'yer-na),     Henri    Constant 

Gabriel.    1863. 

French  pianist  and  composer;  born 
at  Metz.  In  1871  he  entered  the  Paris 
Conservatory,  where  he  studied  under 
Marmontel,  Franck  and  Massenet,  and 
received  the  prize  for  solfege  in  1879 
and  those  for  piano,  counterpoint  and 
fugue  and  organ  in  1879,1881  and  1882, 
respectively.    Was  awarded  the  Grand 




Prize  of  Rome  in  1882.  He  took 
Franck's  place  at  the  organ  at  Sainte- 
Clotilde  in  1890.  He  is  known  as  a 
composer  of  light  operas  and  inciden- 
tal music.  In  1894  he  wrote  inci- 
dental music  for  Izeil.  In  1895  his 
lyric  episode,  Nuit  de  Xoel,  and  Sa- 
lome, La  Princesse  Lointaine,  and  La 
Coupe  Enchantee,  also  appeared.  In 
1897  he  wrote  La  Samaritaine,  and 
Vendee.  La  Fille  de  Tabarin  appeared 
in  1901.  He  is  the  author  of  Pandora, 
and  of  the  oratorio.  The  Children's 
Crusade.  His  instrumental  works  in- 
clude a  scherzo-caorice;  a  fantaisie 
ballet;  a  concerto  for  piano  and 
orchestra;  and  other  music  for  the 

Pierre   (pi-ar'),   Constant  Victor  De- 
sire.    1855- 

French  musical  journalist  and  bas- 
soon player;  born  at  Passy.  Going 
to  Paris,  he  studied  music  at  the  Con- 
servatory, of  which  he  became  assist- 
ant secretary.  He  has  been  bassoon 
player  in  a  number  of  Paris  orches- 
tras, but  his  work  is  chiefly  literary. 
He  contributes  to  many  periodicals, 
and  is  at  present  editor  of  Le  Monde 
Musical.  His  works  include  Les  Noels 
populaires;  La  Marseillaise  and  its 
variations;  History  of  the  orchestra  of 
the  Paris  Opera;  La  Facture  des  In- 
struments a  I'Exposition  de  1889;  and 
Les  Facteurs  d'Instruments  des  Mu- 
sique  et  les  luthiers;  Magasin  de 
decors  de  I'Opera;  L'ficole  de  Chant 
de  L'Opera;  B.  Sarette  et  les  origines 
du  Conservatoire;  Notes  inedites  sur 
la  musique  de  la  Chapelle  royale;  Le 
Conservatoire  National  de  musique  et 
declamation,  and  Le  Concert  Spirituel: 
and  Les  Hymns  et  Chansons  de  la 

Pierson,  Henry  Hugo.     1815-1873. 

English  composer,  organist  and 
pianist;  born  at  Oxford.  His  real 
name  was  Henry  Hugh  Pearson,  but 
he  changed  it  on  going  to  Germany 
to  live.  His  father  was  Dean  of 
Salisbury.  Henry  was  educated  at 
Harrow  and  at  Trinity  College,  Cam- 
bridge. While  a  student  he  published 
a  set  of  songs,  called  Thoughts  of 
Melody,  to  Byron's  words.  He  studied 
under  Attwood,  Walmisley  and  Corfe. 
In  1839  he  went  to  Germany,  studied 
under  Rinck,  Tomaschek  and  Reis- 
siger,  came  into  contact  with  Men- 
delssohn, and  met  Meyerbeer,  Spohr 
and  Schumann.     In  1844  he  returned 

and  became  Reid  professor  of  music 
at  Edinburgh  University,  in  succession 
to  Sir  Henry  Bishop,  but  soon  re- 
signed and  went  back  to  Germany. 
He  lived  at  Vienna,  then  Hamburg, 
and  later  Leipsic,  where  he  died.  He 
paid  little  heed  to  form  in  composi- 
tion, but  was  thoroughly  original,  and 
while  his  reputation  in  Germany  was 
high  he  was  criticized  in  England. 
His  first  important  work  was  the 
opera,  The  Elves  and  the  Earth  King; 
then  followed  Leila,  and  other  works, 
under  the  nom  de  plume  of  Edgar 
Mansfeldt.  He  also  wrote  two  other 
operas,  Contarini  and  Fenice.  Jeru- 
salem, an  oratorio,  is  his  best  work. 
He  left  parts  of  another  oratorio, 
Hezekia.  For  his  music  to  the  sec- 
ond part  of  Faust  he  received  the 
gold  medal  of  Art  and  Science  from 
Leopold  I.  of  Belgium.  He  wrote 
five  overtures,  Romantique;  and  to 
Julius  CjEsar;  As  You  Like  It; 
Romeo  and  Juliet;  and  Macbeth.  A 
Funeral  March  for  Hamlet;  a  dirge. 
Salve  seternum;  songs,  both  sacred 
and  secular;  and  part-songs,  among 
them  Ye  Mariners  of  England,  are 
also  among  his  works.  Thelka's 
Lament,  Now  the  Bright  Morning 
Star,  Claribel,  and  The  White  Owl, 
are  examples  of  his  lyric  style. 

Pilotti    (pe-16t'-te),    Giuseppe.      1784- 

Italian  composer  and  teacher;  born 
and  died  at  Bologna.  His  father  was 
an  organist  and  organ-builder.  Giu- 
seppe followed  this  trade  and  played 
the  organ  at  Bologna  and  the  nearby 
towns  to  support  the  family,  after  his 
father's  death.  He  studied  counter- 
point under  Mattei,  and  in  1805  he 
was  admitted  to  the  Accademia 
Filarmonica.  He  wrote  compositions 
for  the  church  and  their  merit  ob- 
tained him  the  mastership  of  the 
Cathedral  at  Pistoja.  He  succeeded 
Mattei  as  master  of  San  Petronio  in 
Bologna,  and  later  became  professor 
of  counterpoint  at  the  Liceo  Filar- 
monica, where  he  remained  until  his 
death.  He  published  a  treatise  on 
instrumentation.  His  opera,  L'ajo 
nell'imbarrazzo,  his  psalms  and  his 
Dies  Irse,  are  the  best  known  of  his 

Pinelli  (pin-el'-le),  Ettore.     1843- 

Italian  violinist  and  composer;  born 
at  Rome.  After  studying  under 
Ramaciotti   he   went   to   Hanover  to 




take  lessons  of  Joachim,  and  on  his 
return  to  Rome  founded  a  society 
for  classical  chamber-music,  in  con- 
junction with  Sgambati.  He  also 
started  a  violin  and  piano  school  at 
the  Accademia  di  Santa  Cecilia,  later 
the  Liceo  Musicale,  of  which  he  has 
been  the  violin  teacher  since  1877. 
He  founded,  and  became  conductor 
of  the  Orchestral  Society  of  Rome  in 
1874,  which  has  brought  out  St.  Paul; 
The  Creation;  The  Seasons;  Bee- 
thoven's symphonies  and  many  Ger- 
man masterpieces.  Alternately  with 
Sgambati  he  directs  the  Court  con- 
certs. His  works  include  an  orches- 
tral overture;  an  Italian  rhapsodic; 
and  a  string  quartet. 

Pinsuti     (pin-soo'-te).     Giro.      1829- 


An  Italian  composer  and  singing- 
teacher;  born  at  Sinalunga.  When 
ten  years  old  he  appeared  in  public 
as  a  pianist,  and  the  next  year  was 
made  an  honorary  member  of  the 
Accademia  Filarmonica  at  Rome.  Mr. 
Henry  Drummond  took  him  to  Lon- 
don, where  he  studied  the  piano 
under  Cipriani  Potter  and  the  violin 
under  Balgrove.  In  1845  he  returned 
to  Italy,  entered  the  Bologna  Con- 
servatory, and  studied  privately  under 
Rossini.  In  1848  he  returned  to  Eng- 
land and  taught  singing  in  London. 
In  1856  he  was  appointed  professor 
in  the  Royal  Academy  of  Music.  He 
trained  many  voices  and  assisted  by 
his  advice,  such  artists  as  Bosio, 
Graziani,  Grisi,  Maro,  Patti  and  Ron- 
coni.  He  represented  Italy  in  the 
Exhibition  at  London  in  1871,  for 
which  he  wrote  a  hymn,  O  People  of 
this  Favored  Land,  to  Lord  Hough- 
ton's words,  and  in  1878  was  made 
Cavaliere  of  the  Order  of  the  Italian 
Crown.  He  was  a  member  of  the 
orders  of  St.  Maurice  and  St.  Lazarus. 
He  died  at  Florence.  His  composi- 
tions include  the  operas,  II  Mercante 
di  Venezia,  Mattia  Corvino  and  Mar- 
gherita;  a  Te  Deum,  celebrating  the 
acquisition  of  Tuscany  by  the  Italian 
crown;  nearly  two  hundred  and  fifty 
English  and  Italian  songs,  notably,  I 
love  my  love;  I  fear  no  foe;  The 
Outposts;  Swallow;  and  Fly  forth,  O 
gentle  dove. 

Pinto,  George   Frederick.     1786-1806. 

English  violinist  and  composer; 
born  at  Lambeth.  His  real  name  was 
Sauters,  but  he  took  the  name  of  his 


grandfather  Thomas,  an  excellent 
violinist.  George  inherited  the  tal- 
ent of  his  predecessor.  He  studied 
with  Salomon  and  played  at  concerts 
and  in  1802  accompanied  Salomon  to 
Scotland  and  later  went  to  Paris.  He 
was  also  an  excellent  pianist,  and 
sang  well.  Pinto  might  have  been  a 
second  Mozart  -if  it  had  not  been  for 
the  excesses  which  brought  his  bril- 
liant career  prematurely  to  a  close 
at  Little  Chelsea.  A  Shepherd  Loved 
a  Nymph  so  Fair;  It  Was  a  Winter's 
Evening;  Little  Warbler;  and  Nature, 
Sweet  Mistress  are  mentioned  as 
among  Pinto's  works. 

Pirani  (pe-ra-ne),  Eugenic.     1852- 

Italian  pianist  and  composer;  born 
at  Bologna  and  studied  at  the  Liceo 
Musicale  at  Bologna;  took  lessons  in 
composition  from  Kiel,  and  in  piano 
from  Kullak,  in  whose  school  he 
taught  piano  from  1870  to  1880.  He 
toured  Germany,  France,  Italy  and 
Russia,  visited  England  several  times, 
and  on  retiring  from  Kullak's  Acad- 
emy went  to  live  at  Heidelberg;  but 
in  1895  he  returned  to  Berlin.  He  is 
a  contributor  to  numerous  German 
and  Italian  periodicals,  was  chairman 
of  the  committee  frorn  Germany  at 
the  Exposition  of  Music  at  Bologna 
in  1888,  is  a  member  of  the  Philhar- 
monic Societies  of  Florence,  Bologna 
and  Rome,  and  of  a  number  of  orders. 
His  compositions  include  an  orches- 
tral suite.  In  a  Heidelberg  Castle; 
Venetian  Scenes,  for  piano  and  or- 
chestra; an  orchestral  ballad;  songs 
and  duets;  and  much  piano-music. 

Pisari     (pe-sa'-re),    Pasquale.      1725- 

Italian  church  composer,  whom 
Martini  called  the  Palestrina  of  the 
Eighteenth  Century.  Son  of  a  mason. 
Born  and  died  at  Rome.  His  voice 
was  cultivated  by  Gasparino,  and 
from  1752  till  his  death  he  was  a 
supernumerary  in  the  Papal  Chapel, 
but  he  devoted  his  time  chiefly  to 
composition,  in  which  Giovanni 
Biordi  was  his  teacher.  His  poverty 
prevented  his  works  from  being  pub- 
lished, but  most  of  them  are  pre- 
served in  manuscript  in  the  Papal 
Chapel,  and  several  are  in  the  Santini 
collection.  They  include  a  nine-part 
miserere;  masses;  eight-part  motets; 
psalms;  and  Te  Deums.  His  best 
works  are  a  Dixit  and  a  collection 
of  motets  for  the  church  year. 



Pisaroni     (pe-sa-ro'-ne),     Bennedetta 

Rosamunda.     1793-1872. 

Probably  the  best  Italian  contralto 
of  her  time.  Born  and  died  at  Pia- 
cenza.  After  studying  with  Pino, 
Moschini  and  Marchesi,  she  appeared 
at  Bergamo,  in  1811,  in  Griselda, 
Camilla,  and  other  high  soprano 
parts,  but  lost  her  high  notes  during 
an  illness  at  Parma  in  1813.  After 
having  cultivated  a  rich  and  powerful 
contralto  she  reappeared;  created 
Meyerbeer's  Romilda  e  Costanzo,  sang 
in  the  same  composer's  L'Esule  di 
Granata,  and  in  Themistocles,  written 
for  her  by  Pacini.  In  1827  she  made 
her  Paris  debut  as  Arsace  in  Semi- 
ramide  and  also  played  Malcolm  in 
La  Donna  de  Lago,  one  of  her  favor- 
ite roles.  Her  face  was  disfigured 
with  smallpox  and  her  figure  un- 
gainly, yet  her  wonderful  voice  and 
fine  acting  won  warm  admiration  for 
her,  and  she  shone  brilliantly  in 
rivalry  with  Malibran  and  Sontag. 
Her  London  season  in  1829  was  a 
failure  and  she  returned  to  Italy.  The 
next  two  years  were  spent  at  Cadiz. 
She  retired  in   1835. 

Pischek    (pe'-shek),    Johann    Baptist. 


Bohemian  barytone  singer;  born  at 
Melnick.  In  1835  he  made  his  debut 
in  Prague.  Later  appeared  at  Briinn, 
Presburg,  Vienna  and  Frankfort.  He 
sang  in  London  with  great  success, 
especially  in  ballad,  and  introduced 
I-indpainter's  Standard  Bearer  into 
England,  as  well  as  numerous  other 
excellent  songs.  Sang  Elijah  in  the 
Birmingham  Festival  of  1849,  and 
took  part  in  the  concert  of  the  New 
Philharmonic,  in  1853.  He  was  a 
favorite  in  all  the  principal  towns  of 
Germany,  particularly  in  Frankfort, 
where  he  sang  every  year  up  to  1848. 
From  1844  to  1863  he  was  Court 
singer  to  the  King  of  Wurtemburg 
at  Stuttgart.  His  repertory  included 
operas  and  songs  by  Beethoven, 
Donizetti,  Herold  Mozart  and  Weber. 

Pisendel  (pe'-zent-el),  Georg  Johann. 

German  violinist;  born  at  Carls- 
burg.  As  a  choir-boy  he  was  taught 
by  Pistocchi  and  Torelli.  At  fifteen 
he  was  made  violinist  of  the  chapel, 
but  in  1709  he  went  to  Leipsic  to 
study  at  the  University.  He  took 
Melchior  Hofmann's  place  as  chapel- 
master.    In  1712  he  entered  the  serv- 


ice  of  the  Elector  in  the  orchestra 
at  Dresden.  In  1714  he  was  sent  to 
Paris,  and  studied  with  Vivaldi  in 
Venice  in  1716,  and  with  Montanari 
at  Rome  in  1717.  He  succeeded  Volu- 
mier  as  concertmaster  at  Dresden 
about  1730,  and  from  1731  until  his 
death  he  led  the  orchestra  at  the 
opera.  He  was  an  able  conductor 
and  one  of  the  best  violinists  of  his 
time.  He  composed  a  number  of 
compositions,  among  them  a  sym- 
phony; eight  violin  concertos;  two 
violin  and  bass  solos;  concertos  and 
two  concerti  grossi. 

Pistocchi      (pes-tok'-ke),      Francesco 
Antonio.     1659-1726. 

Italian  singing-master  and  com- 
poser; born  at  Palermo,  and  died  at 
Bologna.  He  published  his  Capricci 
puerili  variamente  compositi  in  40 
modi  sopra  un  basso  in  1667,  at  eight 
years  of  age.  He  studied  under  Vas- 
tamigli  and  Monari,  and  became 
chapelmaster  of  San  Giovanni  in 
Monte.  He  was  a  chorister  at  San 
Petronio  in  1670.  When  less  than 
twenty  years  of  age  he  went  on 
the  stage,  but  as  he  did  not  succeed 
he  joined  the  priests  of  the  Oratorian 
Order.  About  1697  he  became  chapel- 
rnaster  at  Ansbach.  In  1700  estab- 
lished his  famous  School  of  Singing 
at  Bologna,  followed  by  others  in 
various  cities  of  Italy.  He  estab- 
lished the  modern  style  of  singing. 
In  1708  and  1710  he  was  president  of 
the  Bologna  Accademia  Filarmonica. 
Pistocchi's  works  include  the  operas, 
Leandro,  II  Girello,  Narciso,  and  Le 
rise  di  Democrito;  Scherzi  musicali; 
the  oratorios,  II  Martirio  di  S.  Adri- 
ano,  Maria  Virgine  addolorata,  and 
La  fuga  di  S.  Teresia.  He  also  wrote 
duos    and     trios    and    much    church- 

Pitoni  (pe-to'-ne),  Giuseppe  Ottavio. 


Musician  of  the  Roman  School; 
born  at  Rieti  and  died  at  Rome.  At 
five  years  of  age  he  began  to  study 
music  at  Pompeo  Natale's  School  in 
Rome,  and  later  was  a  choir-boy  at 
San  Giovanni  de'  Fiorentini  and  at 
the  SS.  Apostoli.  He  received  les- 
sons in  counterpoint  from  Foggia. 
In  1673  he  was  appointed  chapel- 
master of  Terra  di  Rotondo,  and 
later  in  the  same  capacity  at  Assisi 
scored  Palestrina's  works  in  order  to 
study  his  style.     In  1676  he  returned 




as  chapelmaster  to  his  birthplace, 
but  the  next  year  went  back  to  Rome 
to  take  his  place  at  the  Collegio  di 
San  Marco,  where  he  remained  until 
his  death.  He  also  conducted  the 
music  of  San  Apollinare  and  San 
Lorenzo  in  Damasco,  San  Giovanni 
in  Laterano  and  St.  Peter's.  A  large 
number  of  his  works  in  manuscript 
are  still  preserved  in  the  different 
Italian  libraries,  and  in  Proske's 
Musica  Divina  are  found  a  mass  and 
requiem;  six  motets;  a  psalm;  a 
hymn;  and  a  Christus  fatus  est.  His 
Dixit  is  given  every  year  at  St. 
Peter's  during  Holy  Week.  He  also 
wrote  a  service  book  for  the  entire 
year  for  St.  Peter's,  many  masses  and 
psalms  and  a  history  of  the  chapel- 
masters  of  Rome  from  1500  to  1700. 
As  a  teacher  Pitoni  was  renowned, 
and  among  his  pupils  were  Durante, 
Leo  and  Feo,  all  great  teachers  in 
their  time. 

♦Pitt,  Percy.    1870- 

English  organist,  composer,  pianist 
and  conductor.  Born  in  London,  but 
educated  abroad,  receiving  some  of 
his  musical  instruction  at  Paris.  In 
1886  he  went  to  Leipsic,  where  for 
two  years  he  studied  under  Jadas- 
sohn and  Reinecke,  and  then  went  to 
Munich,  where  Rheinberger  was  his 
teacher.  In  1893  he  returned  to  Lon- 
don and  devoted  himself  to  composi- 
tion. In  1895  he  was  chorusmaster 
of  the  Mottl  concerts,  given  at 
Queen's  Hall,  and  the  next  year  was 
made  organist  and  accompanist  there. 
In  1902  he  became  connected  with 
the  Royal  Opera  at  Covent  Garden, 
first  as  pianist,  then  adviser  of  the 
Syndicate,  assistant  conductor  in  1906, 
and  in  1907  director  of  the  Covent 
Graden  Opera.  Mr.  Pitt  is  skilful 
in  technique,  broad  minded  and 
sympathetic,  and  is  an  excellent  pro- 
gram analyst.  Besides  much  cham- 
ber-music; piano  compositions;  songs 
and  part-songs;  he  has  written  a  num- 
ber of  orchestra  suites;  a  concerto; 
and  a  Coronation  march;  an  Oriental 
rhapsody;  overture  to  The  Taming 
of  the  Shrew;  a  symphonic  poem,  Le 
San^  des  Crepuscules;  instrumental 
music  to  Paolo  and  Francesca,  by 
Stephen  Philips;  to  Alfred  Austin's 
Flodden  Field,  and  for  Tree's  per- 
formance of  Richard  II.;  Hohenlin- 
den,  a  ballad  for  male  voices  and 
orchestra;  The  Blessed  Damozel,  and 
Schwerting,  the  Saxon. 


Pittrich  (pit'-trikh),  George  Washing- 
ton.    1870- 

German  composer  and  conductor; 
born  at  Dresden,  where  he  attended 
the  Conservatory,  studying  under 
Braunroth,  Draeseke,  Hagen,  Hopp- 
ner,  Kirchner  and  Roth.  After  gradu- 
ating with  honors  he  was  made 
chorusmaster  of  the  Court  Opera  at 
Dresden,  and  also  taught  singing  at 
the  Conservatory.  During  1898  and 
1899  he  was  director  of  the  Hamburg 
Opera,  and  in  September,  1899,  went 
in  the  same  capacity  to  Cologne.  He 
wrote  incidental  music  to  Jungfrau 
von  Orleans;  As  You  Like  It;  Blonde 
Kathrein;  and  Meister  von  Clarinet; 
a  fantasia  for  piano,  strings  and  or- 
chestra; numerous  songs;  and  orches- 
tral music.  His  opera,  Marga,  was 
given  at  Dresden  in  1894. 

Piutti    (pe-oot'-te),    Karl.      1846-1902. 

German  organist  and  composer; 
born  at  Elgersburg,  Thuringia.  Studied 
at  the  Conservatories  of  Cologne  and 
Leipsic,  and  after  1875  was  professor 
in  the  latter  Conservatory.  In  1880 
he  took  Rust's  place  as  organist  of 
St.  Thomas'  Church.  His  organ 
works  comprise  six  fantasias;  eight 
preludes,  and  five  choral  preludes;  ten 
choral  improvisations;  three  inter- 
ludes; five  character-pieces;  wedding 
sonata;  and  a  Pentecost  Celebration. 
He  has  also  composed  some  piano- 
msuic  and  songs.  He  is  the  author 
of  Regeln  und  Erlauterungen  zum 
Studium  der  Musiktheorie. 

Piutti,  Max.     1852-1885. 

German  musician,  born  at  Luisen- 
hall.  Studied  in  Leipsic  and  Stutt- 
gart. Came  to  the  United  States  in 
1874,  and  became  a  teacher  at  Wells 
College,  Aurora,  New  York,  of  which 
he  was  for  nine  years  director.  He 
died  at  Jackson,  Michigan,  while 
writing  a  study  of  the  Folk-songs 
of  the  Nations. 

Pixis  (pex'-es),  Johann  Peter.     1788- 


German  pianist,  composer  and 
teacher,  and  was  born  at  Mannheim. 
His  father  was  an  organist,  under 
whose  tutelage  Johann  became  an 
excellent  pianist,  and  made  tours  with 
his  father  and  brother.  In  1809  he 
went  to  Munich,  but  in  1825  settled 
in  Paris,  and  adopted  Francilla  Gohr- 
inger,  whom  he  educated  as  an  opera 
contralto,  and  toured  Germany  and 
Italy  with  her.     He  later  settled  at 




Baden-Baden  and  spent  the  rest  of 
his  life  in  giving  private  lessons  at 
his  villa  there.  He  composed  over  a 
hundred  and  fifty  pieces,  including  a 
symphony;  concertos;  sonatas,  trios, 
quartets  and  quintets,  fantasias,  ron- 
dos; caprices;  variations  and  other 
piano-music,  as  well  as  the  operas, 
Bibiana,  and  Die  Sprache  des  Herzens. 

Plaidy  (pli'-de),  Louis.     1810-1874. 

German  pianist,  teacher  and  writer; 
born  at  Hubertsberg,  in  Saxony.  He 
was  a  pupil  of  Agthe  in  piano  and 
Haase  in  violin,  and  first  appeared 
as  a  violinist  jn  Dresden.  In  1831 
he  went  to  Leipsic,  and  took  lessons 
in  piano  technique  and  teaching.  In 
1843  Mendelssohn  appointed  him 
teacher  of  piano  at  the  Leipsic  Con- 
servatory, where  he  remained  until 
1865,  and  where  he  made  himself 
famous  by  his  ability  to  teach  the 
technique  of  piano-playing.  The 
last  part  of  his  life  was  spent  in  giv- 
ing private  lessons.  The  results  of 
his  knowledge  and  experience  are 
preserved  in  his  valuable  book  Tech- 
nische  Studien  fiir  das  Pianofortespiel. 
He  is  also  the  author  of  a  pamphlet, 
Das  Clavierlehrer,  translated  into 
English  by  F.  L.  Ritter  and  John  S. 
Wight  as  the  Pianoforte  Teacher's 
Guide  and  the  Piano  Teacher.  He 
was  a  simple  and  modest  man, 
honored  and  loved  by  all  who  knew 
hjm.  He  died  at  Grimma.  Among 
his  pupils  were  Arthur  Sullivan,  and 
the  Americans,  Dudley  Buck,  Charles 
C.  Converse,  James  C.  D.  Parker  and 
Frederick    Grant    Gleason. 

Plangon  (plan-son),  Pol  Henri.  1854- 
French  basso  profundo;  born  at 
Fumay.  He  came  of  a  musical  family 
and  sang  remarkably  well  when  but 
four  years  old.  He  began  the  study 
of  music  at  the  ficole  Duprez.  Later 
Sbriglia  was  his  teacher.  He  made 
his  debut  as  St.  Bris  in  Les  Hugue- 
nots, at  Lyons,  in  1877,  with  such 
success  that  he  was  engaged  for  two 
years.  Going  to  Paris,  he  sang  in 
the  Lamoureux  concerts,  and  in  1883 
sang  in  the  role  of  Mephistopheles. 
For  ten  years  he  sang  at  the  Opera, 
in  the  meantime  making  his  London 
debut  at  Covent  Garden  in  1891,  in 
his  favorite  role  Mephisto,  which  he 
has  sung  more  than  a  hundred  times. 
From  1891  until  1904  he  visited  Lon- 
don annually.  His  first  trip  to 
America,  in   1893,  was  attended  with 

such  success  that  he  has  returned 
every  winter.  His  repertory  includes 
the  bass  parts  of  nearly  all  the  stand- 
ard operas.  He  has  created  Francis 
I  in  Saint-Saen's  Ascanio,  as  well  as 
Pittacus  in  Gounod's  Sapho,  Don 
Gormas  in  Le  Cid,  by  Massenet,  and 
Norfolk  in  Henry  VIII.  He  has 
sung  in  Alda,  Romeo,  Tannhauser, 
Lohengrin,  Die  Meistersinger,  La 
Favorita,  etc.,  also  as  General  Gar- 
rido  in  La  Navarraise,  and  Phanuel  in 
Salome,  Ariofarne  in  Ero  e  Leandro 
by  Mancinelli,  the  Friar  in  Stanford's 
Much  Ado  About  Nothing,  and  the 
King  in  Princesse  Osra. 

Planquette    (plah-ket),    Jean    Robert. 


French  operatic  composer;  born 
and  died  at  Paris.  Studied  under 
Duprato  at  the  Conservatory,  and 
made  his  essay  in  composition  with 
chansonettes  and  songs  for  the  Cafes- 
concerts.  These  made  him  popular 
and  he  soon  brought  out  his  first 
operettas,  Le  serment  de  Madam 
Gregoire  and  Le  Paille  d'Avoine,  in 
1874.  His  best  known  operetta,  Les 
Cloches  de  Corneville  or  The  Chimes 
of  Normandy,  appeared  at  the  Folies 
Dramatique  in  1877.  At  first  it  was 
a  failure  but  it  suddenly  became  popu- 
lar and  was  such  an  immense  success 
that  it  was  played  successively  four 
hundred  times.  Then  followed  Le 
Chevalier  Gaston;  Les  Voltigeurs  de 
la  32me;  Rip  Van  Winkle;  Nell 
Gwynne,  or  Colombine;  La  Cremail- 
lerie;  Surcouf;  La  Cocarde  Tricolore, 
and  Le  Talisman,  Panurge,  and 
Mam'zelle  Quat'  Sous.  The  Old 
Guard  and  Paul  Jones  were  written 
expressly,  where  they  appeared  in 
1887  and  1889.  Planquette's  music  is 
clever,  melodious  and  charming.  His 
Marche  des  Sambre  et  Meuse  was 
added  to  the  list  of  songs  of  a  number 
of  regiments.  He  left  an  operetta, 
Paradis  de  Mahomet,  found  among 
his  papers  and  recently  performed  at 
Paris  with  great  success. 

Plantade    (plan-tad),    Charles    Henri. 


French  teacher,  conductor  and  com- 
poser; born  at  Pontoise.  He  learned 
to  sing  and  play  the  violoncello  at 
the  school  for  the  King's  pages,  which 
he  entered  at  the  age  of  eight.  Later 
he  took  lessons  in  composition  from 
Langle,  piano  from  Hullmandel,  and 
harp   under   Petrini.     In   1797  he  be- 



came  singing-teacher  in  the  Campan 
School  at  Saint-Denis.  In  1802  he 
was  made  professor  at  the  Conserv- 
atory, later  went  to  Holland  as  Court 
chapelmaster,  but  retnrned  to  Paris 
in  1810.  In  1816  he  became  chapel- 
master to  Louis  XVIII.,  from  whom 
he  had  received  the  cross  of  the 
Legion  of  Honor  in  1814,  but  in  1818 
he  returned  to  the  Conservatory  and 
there  remained  until  1828.  Having 
lost  all  his  appointments  by  the  Revo- 
lution of  1830  he  retired  to  Batign- 
olles,  but  removed  again  to  Paris 
shortly  before  his  death.  His  first 
operetta,  Les  Deux  Soeurs,  appeared 
in  1791,  and  was  followed  by  twelve 
others,  among  them  Les  souliers 
mordores;  Romagnesi;  Bayard  a  la 
Ferte;  Palma;  Zoe;  Le  Mari  de  Cir- 
constance.  From  1812  to  1815  he 
was  stage  director  at  the  Opera. 

Plante  (plah-ta),  Frangois.    1839-1898. 

French  pianist;  born  at  Orthes,  in 
the  Basses  Pyrenees,  and  died  at 
Perigueux.  He  studied  first  under 
Madame  Saint-Aubert,  and  when  only 
ten  he  became  a  pupil  of  Marmontel 
at  the  Conservatory  in  Paris,  and 
won  the  first  prize  within  seven 
months.  Spent  three  years  in  con- 
cert playing,  but  in  1853  went  back 
to  the  Conservatory  and  took  lessons 
in  harmony  and  figured  bass  from 
Bazin.  He  then  retired  to  his  home 
for  ten  years  and  did  not  return  to 
Paris  until  1872,  a  finished  virtuoso. 
He  made  successful  tours  on  the  Con- 
tinent, and  in  1878  visited  London. 
His  style  was  intelligent,  reposeful 
and  charming,  his  repertory  wide,  and 
his  few  compositions,  transcriptions 
of  the  classics,  carefully  written.  He 
was  a  Chevalier  of  the  Legion  of 

Platel  (pla-tel),  Nicolas  Joseph.  1777- 

French  violoncellist  and  composer; 
born  at  Versailles.  Studied  under 
Duport  and  Lamare  and  in  1796  was 
engaged  at  the  Theatre  Feydeau,  but 
the  next  year  he  followed  a  singer 
to  Lyons  and  did  not  return  to  "Paris 
till  1801.  For  five  years  he  was  at 
the  head  of  the  Paris  cellists.  In  1805 
started  on  a  concert-tour  which  took 
him  through  France  and  in  1813  to 
Antwerp,  where  he  became  cellist  at 
the  Opera.  In  1824  he  went  to  Brus- 
sels and  there  played  at  the  Opera  and 
taught  cello  at  the  Royal  School  of 


Music.  Batta,  Demunck  and  Servais 
were  among  his  pupils.  His  published 
works  include  some  six  concertos; 
three  sonatas;  six  romances;  caprices; 
and  eight  variations  for  the  cello; 
and  six  duets  and  three  trios  for  cello 
and  viohn.     He  died  at  Brussels. 

Piatt,  Charles  Easton.    1856- 

Teacher  and  composer;  born  of 
American  parents,  at  Waterbury, 
Connecticut.  He  took  organ  lessons 
from  Eugene  Thayer  in  Boston  in 
1875  and  1876,  and  was  a  pupil  of 
the  New  England  Conservatory  of 
Music.  He  studied  the  piano  under 
Hills  and  Lang,  and  harmony  from 
Emery.  Returning  to  Waterbury  he 
continued  his  organ  study  with  Julius 
Baier,  junior,  and  in  1877  went  to 
Germany  to  study  under  Haupt  for 
organ,  Ehrlich,  Kullak  and  Raff  for 
piano,  and  in  theory  and  composition 
had  Kiel,  Bargiel  and  Neumann  for 
teachers,  and  spent  two  summers  with 
Liszt  at  Weimar.  Since  his  return  to 
the  United  States  in  1882  he  has  been 
one  of  the  faculty  of  the  Detroit  Con- 
servatory and  a  member  of  the  Music 
Teachers*  National  Association.  He 
has  written  theme  and  variations  in 
B  minor,  for  piano,  violin  and  cello; 
variations  in  D  minor  for  strings;  a 
piano  sonata;  in  four  movements; 
nocturnes;  waltzes;  and  mazurkas. 

Playford,  Henry.     1657-1710. 

Son  of  John  Playford,  whom  he 
succeeded  in  business  in  1684.  Born 
and  died  in  London.  Was  a  partner 
of  Richard  Carr  at  the  Middle  Tem- 
ple Gate,  opposite  St.  Dunstan's 
Church,  but  later  became  proprietor. 
The  date  of  his  death  is  uncertain. 
He  continued  the  publication  of  his 
father's  works,  and  himself  issued  the 
Theatre  of  Musick;  Banquet  of 
Musick;  Blow's  Ode  on  the  Death  of 
Purcell;  ten  sonatas,  and  a  Te  Deum, 
and  Jubilate  for  St.  Cecilia's  Day, 
both  by  Purcell;  Purcell's  Orpheus 
Britannicus;  Blow's  Amphion  Angli- 
cus;  a  collection  of  original  Scotch 
tunes.  The  publication  of  The  Pleas- 
ant Musical  Companion  resulted  in 
the  organization  of  a  club  which  gave 
concerts  three  times  a  week  at  a  Lon- 
don coflFee-house  and  one  which  met 
weekly  at  Oxford. 

Playford,  John.  1623-1687. 

An     English  music-publisher     and 

composer;    son  of  John    Playford   of 

Norwich.      He  was    a    bookseller    in 



1648,  and  in  1650  published  The  Eng- 
lish Dancing  Master,  containing  rules 
for  country  dances,  with  music  to 
them  for  the  treble  violin.  This 
work  went  through  seventeen  edi- 
tions up  to  1728,  after  his  death  being 
brought  out  by  Henry  Playford  and 
later  by  William  Pearson  and  William 
Young.  Playford's  shop  was  near  the 
Temple  Church,  of  which  he  was 
clerk  from  1653.  He  was  an  indus- 
trious worker,  popular  with  the 
prominent  men  of  his  day,  who  called 
him  Honest  John  Playford,  and  his 
works  include  all  the  prominent  pub- 
lications up  to  1685,  when  he  was 
succeeded  by  his  son  Henry.  The 
first  edition  of  his  Introduction  to  the 
Skill  of  Musick  was  published  in 
1654.  For  almost  a  hundred  years 
this  was  the  standard  text-book  and 
from  it  many  had  their  musical  train- 
ing. Other  books  published  were 
Psalms  and  Hymns  in  Solemn 
Musick;  The  Whole  Booke  of  Psalms 
with  the  usual  Hymns  and  Spiritual 
songs;  Hilton's  Catch  that  Catch 
Can;  The  Musical  Companion;  Courtly 
Masquing  Ayres;  Musick's  Recreation 
pn  the  Viol,  Harp-way;  Musick's  De- 
light of  the  Cither;  Musick's  Hand- 
maide,  new  lessons  for  the  Virginals 
and  harpsichord;  Apollo's  Banquet, 
and  many  others. 

Pleyel  (pli'-el),  Camille.    1788-1855. 

Son  of  Ignaz  Pleyel;  born  at  Stras- 
burg,  and  died  at  Paris.  His  father 
and  Dussek  were  his  teachers,  and 
for  a  time  he  resided  in  London  but 
returned  to  Paris  and  became  a  part- 
ner of  his  father's  in  the  piano-house. 
On  his  death  he  was  succeeded  by 
Auguste  Wolff.  He  composed  a  few 
pieces  for  piano,  some  with  strings; 
duets;  trios;  quartets;  sonatas;  fan- 
tasias; nocturnes;  etc.,  and  was  a  good 

Pleyel,  Ignaz  Joseph.     1757-1831. 

Composer  and  founder  of  the  firm 
of  Pleyel,  Wolf  et  Cie.,  the  famous 
Paris  piano-makers.  Born  at  Rup- 
persthal,  near  Vienna.  He  studied 
piano  under  Vanhall  and  lived  for  five 
years  with  Haydn,  whose  favorite 
pupil  he  was.  In  1777  he  became 
chapelmaster  to  Count  Erody,  but 
was  allowed  to  go  to  Italy,  where  he 
spent  four  years  in  study.  In  1781 
he  returned  to  Vienna,  but  went  to 
Strasburg  in  1783  as  assistant  chapel- 
master of  the  Cathedral.     In  1791  he 


was  invited  to  conduct  the  Profes- 
sional concerts  in  London,  where  he 
was  a  friendly  rival  of  his  old  master, 
Haydn.  He  returned  to  Strasburg, 
but  revolutionary  troubles  caused  him 
to  settle  in  Paris  in  1795.  Here  he 
entered  business  as  a  music  publisher, 
and,  in  1807,  founded  a  piano  factory. 
He  gave  up  composing  and  retired 
from  active  life  to  spend  his  last  years 
on  his  estate,  near  Paris.  His  compo- 
sitions _  were  extremely  popular  for 
some  time  and  he  promised  to  be  a 
worthy  successor  of  Haydn,  but  his 
work  was  so  prolific  that  his  inven- 
tion failed.  His  later  compositions 
are  only  arrangements  of  the  former 
ones,  and  consequently  his  better 
works  are  now  neglected.  He  wrote 
twenty-nine  symphonies;  two  con- 
certos; duets,  trios,  quartets,  quin- 
tets, sextets  for  strings;  a  septet;  six 
grand  sonatas;  songs;  church-music, 
and  two  operas,  Ifigenia  en  Aulide 
and  Die  Fee  Urgele.  His  pianos  are 
famous  for  their  easy  action  and  sing- 
ing tone.  Chopin  made  his  debut  in 
Pleyel's  rooms  in  1831. 

Pleyel,  Marie  Felicite  Denise.     1811- 


Wife  of  preceding.  Born  in  Paris; 
studied  piano  under  Moscheles,  Harz 
and  Kalkbrenner,  and  became  a  cele- 
brated pianist  when  only  fifteen.  She 
played  in  Belgium,  Germany,  Austria, 
Russia  and  England,  as  well  as  in  her 
native  land,  and  was  highly  regarded 
by  Mendelssohn,  Schumann,  Liszt, 
Fetis  and  Thalberg.  From  1848  to 
1872  she  taught  piano  at  the  Brussels 
Conservatory.  Her  death  occurred  at 
St.  Josse-ten-Noode,  near  Brussels. 

Poglietti     (pol  -  ya'  -  te),    Alessandro. 


Seventeenth  Century  composer  of 
program  music,  _  organist  of  St. 
Steven's  chapel,  Vienna,  from  1661  to 
his  death,  which  occurred  during  the 
Turkish  invasion  in  1683.  Nothing 
else  has  yet  been  found  about  his 
career.  His  name  was  formerly 
thought  to  be  Polietti  and  he  is  some- 
times considered  of  German  birth, 
but  he  was  probably  an  Italian  of 
the  Venetian  School,  as  his  works 
attest.  His  compositions,  chiefly  for 
the  organ  and  clavier,  have,  for  the 
most  part,  remained  in  manuscript. 
His  best  known  work  is  twelve 
ricerari  for  the  organ,  strikingly 
similar    to    Bach's    fugues.      Of    his 




clavier  music  four  suites  have  been 
published.  Certain  movements  ^  of 
these  suites  are  descriptive,  imitating 
the  cackling  of  a  hen,  the  crowing  of  a 
cock,  and  the  song  of  a  nightingale. 
Other  numbers  bear  such  titles  as  the 
Bohemian  Bagpipes,  Dutch  Flageolet, 
Hungarian  Fiddles,  and  Juggler's 
Rope-dance.  Three  of  these  suites 
have  been  published  recently  in  the 
Denkmaler  der  Tonkiinst  in  Oester- 

Pohl    (pol),    Karl    Ferdinand.      1819- 

Learned  German  critic  and  biog- 
rapher; born  at  Darmstadt,  of  a  mu- 
sical family.  In  1841  he  went  to 
Vienna,  where  he  studied  under  Sech- 
ter,  and  from  1849  to  1855  was  organist 
at  the  Protestant  Church  in  Gum- 
pendorf,  a  suburb  of  Vienna.  In  1862 
his  interesting  history  of  the  glass 
harmonica  appeared,  and  in  1863  he 
went  to  London,  where  for  three  years 
he  hunted  the  material  used  in  his 
valuable  work,  Mozart  and  Haydn  in 
London,  which  was  published  at  Vi- 
enna in  1867.  Then,  at  the  instance  of 
Otto  Jahn,  he  began  to  collect  infor- 
mation for  a  biography  of  Haydn,  the 
first  and  second  volumes  of  which 
came  out  in  1875  and  1882,  but  he 
died  before  it  was  completed,  leaving 
the  work  to  Mandyczewski  to  finish. 
On  his  return  to  Vienna  he  had  been 
appointed  archivist  and  librarian  of 
the  Society  of  the  Friends  of  Music 
and  filled  the  post  ably  until  his  death. 
He  also  published  Die  Gesellschaft 
der  Musikfreunde  und  ihr  Conserva- 
torium  in  Wien,  and  was  correspond- 
ent for  several  periodicals. 

Pohl,  Richard.    1826-1896. 

German  writer  of  note,  and  strong 
advocate  of  the  Wagner  cause.  He 
was  born  at  Leipsic,  and,  after  study- 
ing philosophy  and  music  at  Gottingen 
and  Leipsic,  taught  for  a  short  time 
at  Gratz  University,  and  in  1852  went 
to  Dresden.  Two  years  later  he  set- 
tled in  Weimar,  where  his  intimacy 
with  Liszt  made  him  a  champion  of 
the  new  school  of  music.  In  1864  he 
he  moved  to  Baden-Baden  and  there 
remained  until  his  death.  He  was  an 
editor  of  the  Neue  Zeitschrift  fur 
Musik  and  published  many  pamphlets, 
and  articles  in  the  musical  periodicals, 
at  first  under  the  name  Hoplit.  His 
works  include  a  German  translation 
of  the  collected  writings  of  Berlioz; 


Richard  Wagner,  in  Waldersee's  Vor- 
trage;  Richard  Wagner,  Studien  und 
Kritiken;  Franz  Liszt;  Hector  Ber- 
lioz, Studien  und  Erinnerungen;  and 
Die  Hohenziige  der  Musikalischen 
Entwickelung.  He  also  wrote  the 
connecting  text  to  Schumann's  Man- 
fred and  to  Schumann's  Prometheus, 
besides  the  comedy  Musikalische  Lei- 
den, and  Gedichte.  His  songs,  ballads 
and  male  choruses  are  pleasing  and 
he  has  also  composed  a  melodrama, 
Die  Wallfahrt  nach  Kevelaar;  a  rev- 
erie, Abendlied,  for  string  orchestra; 
and  a  nocturne,  Wiegenlied,  for  piano 
and  violin. 

Poise  (pwaz),  Jean  Alexandre  Ferdi- 
nand.    1828-1892. 

French  operatic  composer;  born  at 
Nimes.  He  studied  at  the  Paris  Con- 
servatory under  Adam  and  Zimmer- 
mann  and  won  the  second  Grand  Prize 
of  Rome,  in  1852.  His  music  flows 
easily  and  melodiously  and  has  won 
popularity.  His  first  opera,  Bonsoir, 
voisin,  was  played  for  a  hundred 
nights  at  the  Theatre  Lyrique,  in  1853. 
Les  Deux  Billets;  La  Surprise  dc 
I'Amour;  and  L' Amour  Medecin,  are 
among  his  best.  He  is  also  the 
author  of  Les  Charmeurs;  Le  The 
de  Polichinelle;  Le  Roi  Don  Pedre; 
Le  Jardinier  Galant;  Les  Absents; 
Corricolo;  Les  Trois  Souhaits;  Joli 
Gilles,  and  Medecin  Malgre  Lui,  his 
last,  played  in  1887;  and  some  four- 
part  music.  His  opera,  Carmosine, 
has  not  been  given.  His  oratorio, 
Cecilie,  was  performed  in  1888.  He 
died  at  Paris. 

Poisot  (pwa-z6),  Charles  fimile.  1822- 
A  French  pianist,  composer,  and 
writer;  born  at  Dijon.  He  studied  the 
piano  under  Senart,  Adam,  Stamaty, 
and  Thalberg;  counterpoint  from  Le- 
borne,  and  composition  at  the  Con- 
servatory under  Halevy  from  1844  to 
1848.  He  returned  to  Dijon  and 
founded  the  Conservatory,  where  he 
has  been  the  director  since  1868.  A 
few  years  later  he  established  a  sa- 
cred and  classical  musical  society 
at  Dijon,  and  he  is  also  one  of  the 
promoters  of  the  Society  of  Compos- 
ers at  Paris.  He  has  written  an  Essai 
sur  les  Musiciens  Bourguignons,  and 
Histoire  de  la  Musique  en  France, 
and  many  articles  for  the  numerous 
musical  periodicals  with  which  he  has 
been  connected;  also  biographical 
notices  of  several  great  musicians,  as 



well  as  treatises  on  harmony  and 
counterpoint.  Among  his  composi- 
tions are  the  operas,  Le  Paj-san;  Le 
Prince  de  Galles;  Les  Spendlers; 
Francesco,  and  several  parlor  operas; 
the  cantata,  Jeanne  d'Arc;  motets;  a 
Stabat  Mater;  a  requiem;  and  other 
church-music;  piano  and  string  duets 
and  trio;  fantasies;  a  scherzo;  and 
Exercises  de  Mecanisme,  for  the 

Polaroli.     See  Pollarolo. 

Pole,  William.     1814-1900. 

English  amateur  composer,  organ- 
ist and  writer  of  considerable  note; 
born  at  Birmingham.  Although  by 
profession  a  civil  engineer,  he  held 
the  post  of  organist  at  St.  Mark's, 
London,  from  1836  to  1866.  In  1860 
he  took  the  degree  of  Bachelor  of 
Music  from  Oxford,  and  in  1867  the 
Doctor's  degree.  From  1878  to  1890 
he  was  examiner  of  musical  degrees 
in  London  University.  His  composi- 
tions are  few,  a  cantata  on  the  hun- 
dredth psalm;  some  organ-music;  and 
four-hand  piano  accompaniments  to 
classical  songs.  He  has  written  many 
excellent  articles  for  musical  and 
other  periodicals,  and  a  report  on  the 
musical  instruments  in  the  Exhibition 
of  1851.  His  most  valuable  works  are 
the  Philosophy  of  Music,  and  the 
Story  of  Mozart's  Requiem. 

Polidoro  (p6-li-d6'-r6),  F  e  d  e  r  i  g  o . 


Italian  teacher,  lecturer  and  writer; 
born  at  Naples.  He  studied  singing 
and  piano  with  his  father,  and  theory 
and  composition  with  Lillo  and  Conti. 
He  became  a  noted  lecturer  in  Naples, 
and  since  1874  has  been  professor  of 
aesthetics  and  musical  history  at  the 
Naples  Conservatory.  Under  the  nom 
de  plume  Acuti,  he  has  contributed 
much  to  the  Gazzetta  Musicale  of 
Milan,  and  the  Neapolitan  Journal  of 
Philosophy  and  Letters.  He  has 
written  excellent  biographical  and 
critical  sketches  of  great  composers. 
His  compositions  are  sacred  and 
chamber-music;  but  most  of  them 
have  not  been  printed. 

Polko  (p61'-k6),  Elise.    1823-1899. 

A  mezzosoprano  singer;  born  at 
Leipsic.  She  studied  under  Garcia  at 
Paris,  and  sang  in  opera  at  Frankfort 
for  a  short  time,  but  on  marrying 
Eduard  Polko,  she  retired  from  the 
stage.     After   her   husband   died   she 


settled  at  Munich,  where  she  remained 
until  her  death.  Many  of  her  books 
are  intimately  connected  with  music 
and  have  been  approved  in  spite  of 
their  sentimentality,  Ein  Frauenleben 
and  Unsere  Pilgerfahrt  as  examples. 
Other  works  are  Musikalische  mar- 
chen;  Faustina  Hasse;  Die  Bettel- 
roper;  Alte  Herren,  dealing  with  the 
six  predecessors  of  Bach  at  St. 
Thomas'  Church;  Verklungene  Ak- 
korde;  Erinnerungen  an  F.  Mendels- 
sohn-Bartholdy;  Niccolo  Paganini  und 
die  Geigenbauer;  Vom  Gesang;  and 
Aus  der  Kunstlerwelt.  Many  of  these 
have  been  translated  into  English, 
and  nearly  all  printed  twice  or  more. 

Pollarolo  (p61-la-r6'-16).  Carlo  Fran- 
cesco.    1653-1722. 

Italian  composer.  Born  at  Brescia. 
Died  at  Venice.  He  studied  under 
Legrenzi,  and  in  1665  entered  St. 
Mark's  Cathedral,  Venice,  as  a  chor- 
ister; became  second  organist  in  1690; 
and  from  1692  till  his  death  was  as- 
sistant chapelmaster  there.  His 
works  include  some  sixty-eight  operas, 
dating  from  1684  to  1721,  ten  of 
which  are  extant  —  Le  Pazzie  degli 
amanti;  Genuinda;  Gl'inganni  felici; 
Roderico;  La  Forza  Delia  Virin; 
Ottone;  Faramondo;  Semiramide; 
Marsia  deluso;  and  Ariodante. 

Polledro   (pol-la'-dro),  Giovanni  Bat- 

tista.     1781-1853. 

Noted  Italian  violinist,  conductor 
and  composer.  Born  and  died  at 
Piova,  near  Turin.  After  studying 
under  lesser  masters  he  had  lessons 
for  a  while  from  Pugnani,  through 
whom  he  obtained  a  place  in  the 
Court  Theatre.  He  made  his  debut 
in  1797;  went  to  Milan  in  1801,  and  in 
1804  was  appointed  first  violinist  at 
the  theatre  in  Bergamo.  Shortly  after 
he  left  for  Russia,  and  after  living  at 
Moscow  for  five  3'ears  visited  St. 
Petersburg  and  Warsaw.  Became 
leader  of  the  Dresden  Orchestra  in 
1814.  Ten  years  later  he  gave  up  that 
position  to  become  director  of  the 
King's  orchestra  at  Turin,  and  in  1844 
retired  to  Piova.  Works:  For  violin, 
eight  concertos,  variations,  duets, 
trios  and  solo  studies;  for  orchestra, 
a  pastoral  symphony,  a  bassoon  con- 
certo, and  a  mass  and  miserere. 

Pollini    (p61-le-ne),    Francesco    Giu- 
seppe.    1763-1846. 
Italian  pianist  and  composer;  born 

at    Laibach,   in    Illyria.     Took   piano 



lessons  from  Mozart  in  Vienna,  and 
in  1793  went  to  Milan,  where  he  stud- 
ied under  Z'ingarelli.  Was  made  pro- 
fessor of  piano  at  the  Milan  Conserv- 
at9ry  in  1809.  In  1820  he  published 
thirty-two  Esercizi  in  forma  di  toc- 
cata, dedicated  to  Meyerbeer,  in 
which  the  first  use  of  three  staves 
was  made,  thus  enabling  the  melody 
to  be  sustained  in  the  middle  region 
of  the  instrument,  while  each  hand 
plays  elaborate  passages  above  and 
beneath  it,  producing  nearly  the  same 
effect  as  four  hands.  This  method 
was  later  employed  by  Liszt  and 
Thalberg.  Bellini  dedicated  his  La 
Sonnambula  to  Pollini.  Pollini  was  a 
fine  executant  and  held  in  great 
esteem  by  the  musicians  of  his  time. 
He  wrote  a  method  for  piano,  as  well 
as  sonatas;  caprices;  variations;  toc- 
catas; fantasias;  rondos;  a  Stabat 
Mater;  a  cantata;  and  stage  pieces. 

PoUitzer  (p61-lits-er),  Adolphe.    1832- 

Hungarian  violinist  and  teacher; 
born  at  Budapest.  He  early  went  to 
Vienna,  studied  the  violin  under 
Bohm,  and  composition  under  Preyer, 
and  took  the  first  violin  prize  at  the 
Conservatory  in  1846.  He  later  had 
instruction  from  Alard  at  Paris.  In 
1851  he  went  to  London  and  there 
remained  the  rest  of  his  life,  for  many 
years  leading  the  orchestra  of  Her 
Majesty's  Theatre;  also  the  New  Phil- 
harmonic and  the  Royal  Choral 
Society.  His  reputation  was  made, 
however,  as  professor  of  violin  at  the 
London  Academy  of  Music,  where  he 
was  engaged  from  1861  to  the  time  of 
his  death,  becoming  director  of  that 
institution  in  1890.  His  original  com- 
positions include  ten  caprices  for  the 
violin,  and  several  small  works  for 
violin  and  piano. 

Ponchielli     (pon-ki-cl'-le),     Amilcare. 

Italian  operatic  composer  of  con- 
siderable talent;  in  his  day  ranked 
next  to  Verdi  by  the  Italians.  Born 
at  Paderno  Fasolara,  near  Cremona. 
Was  a  pupil  of  the  Milan  Conserv- 
atory from  1843  to  1854.  For  a  time 
he  was  organist  at  Cremona,  and 
there  in  1856  brought  out  his  first 
opera,  I  promessi  sposi,  but  the 
libretto  being  poor  it  failed.  In  1861 
he  produced  La  Savojarda,  later  re- 
vised as  Lina.  Roderico,  re  de'  Goti, 
La  Stella  del  Monte,  and  Bertrand  de 


Born  followed;  but  his  name  was  not 
made  until  1872,  when  he  was  g'iven 
funds  to  revise  and  reproduce  his  first 
opera  at  the  Teatro  dal  Verme  in 
Milan.  Its  success  was  immediate. 
In  1873  he  wrote  a  seven-act  ballet, 
Le  due  gemelle,  for  La  Scala,  and 
followed  it  by  the  operas,  I  Lituani; 
La  Gioconda;  II  Figliuol  Prodigo;  and 
Marion  Delorme.  The  opera,  I  Mori 
Valenza,  was  found  after  his  death, 
which  occurred  at  Milan.  The  text 
of  La  Gioconda,  his  best  work,  was 
written  by  Arrigo  Boito,  and  is  based 
on  Hugo's  tragic  story,  Angelo,  Tyran 
de  Syracuse.  It  was  given  in  London 
in  1883,  and  had  its  first  production 
at  New  York  the  same  year.  Pon- 
chielli's  style  is  unconventional  for 
Italian  Opera,  being  more  like  that  of 
Wagner.  His  music  is  melodious, 
fanciful  and  dramatic.  Besides  operas 
and  the  ballet  already  mentioned  he 
brought  out  another  ballet,  Clarina; 
the  scherzo  or  farce,  II  parlatore 
eterno;  a  cantata  to  the  memory  of 
Donizetti;  II  29  maggio,  a  funeral 
march  for  Manzoni;  a  hymn  for  Gari- 
baldi; and  music  for  the  Cathedral  at 
Piacenza,  of  which  he  was  made 
chapelmaster  in  1881. 

Poniatowski  (po-ni-a-tof'-shki),  Prince 
Joseph  Michel  John.    1816-1873. 

Also  given  Josef  Michel  Xavery 
Franijiszek  Jan.  Composer  and  singer; 
born  at  Rome.  His  father,  Stanislas 
II.,  was  the  last  King  of  Poland.  His 
uncle,  Prince  Poniatowski,  died  at  the 
battle  of  Leipsic  in  1812.  Joseph  be- 
came a  naturalized  Tuscan,  and  in  1848 
was  created  Prince  of  Monte-Rotondo 
by  the  Grand  Duke  Leopold  II.,  who 
sent  him  as  plenipotentiary  to  Paris. 
He  settled  there  in  1854  and  was 
made  a  naturalized  citizen  by  an  Im- 
perial decree,  afterwards  becoming  a 
senator.  He  was  a  music  pupil  of 
the  Lyceo  at  Florence,  studied  also 
under  Ceccherini,  and  made  his  debut 
as  a  tenor-singer  at  the  Pergola 
Theatre  in  that  city.  He  took  the 
title  role  in  Giovanni  da  Procida,  his 
first  opera,  on  its  production  at 
Lucca,  and  after  that  wrote  many 
operas  for  Italian  and  French  theatres, 
including  Don  Desiderio;  Ruy  Bias; 
Bonifazio;  I  Lambertazzi;  Malek 
Adel;  Esmeralda;  La  Sposa  d'  Abido; 
Piene  de  Medicis;  Au  travers  du  Mur; 
L'Aventurier;  and  La  Contessina.  He 
also  brought  out  Gelmina,  and  Au 
travers  du  Mur  in  London.  Selections 




from  his  mass  in  F  were  also  sung  at 
His  Majesty's  Theatre  in  1873.  Among 
his  songs  the  Yeoman's  Wedding 
Spng  is  popular.  His  music  is  tech- 
nically good,  but  lacks  the  touch  of 
genius.  He  died  at  Chiselhurst,  Eng- 
land, whither  he  followed  Napoleon 
III.  into  exile. 

Poole,  Elizabeth.     1820-1906. 

English  mezzosoprano  singer;  born 
and  died  in  London.  When  seven 
years  old  she  played  in  pantomime 
at  the  Olympic  Theatre,  and  repre- 
sented the  Duke  of  York  with  Mr. 
Kean  as  Richard,  Albert  to  Mr.  Ma- 
cready's  Tell,  Ariel,  and  other  child 
parts.  In  1834  she  made  her  operatic 
debut,  and,  after  visiting  in  America 
in  1839,  was  engaged  at  Drury  Lane 
in  1841.  From  that  time  until  her 
retirement  in  1870  she  sang  'in  opera, 
appearing  in  Don  Giovanni;  Maid  of 
Artois;  Maritana;  Bohemian  Girl,  in 
which  she  introduced  into  her  part  of 
the  gypsy  queen  the  song,  'Tis  Gone, 
the  Past  is  All  a  Dream,  written  for 
her  by  Mr.  Balfe;  Daughter  of  the 
Regiment;  and  the  Huguenots.  She 
was  very  popular  in  concerts,  espe- 
cially for  her  ballad  singing.  Her 
voice  was  rich  and  sympathetic,  her 
compass  wide,  and  her  acting  simple 
and  charming.  She  died  at  Langley, 

Popper  (pop'-per),  David.    1846- 

Violoncellist;  born  at  Prague.  He 
received  his  musical  training  at  the 
Conservatory  in  his  native  city,  under 
Goltermann.  In  1863  he  toured 
through  Germany.  Von  Bulow  played 
in  concerts  with  him  and  obtained  for 
him  the  title  of  chamber  virtuoso  to 
Prince  Hohenzollern.  Continued  his 
tour  through  Holland,  Switzerland, 
and  England,  and  on  returning  to 
Austria  in  1867  made  his  Vienna  debut. 
For  five  years  he  was  solo  cellist  at 
the  Court  Opera,  but  in  1873  he  re- 
signed and  resumed  his  journey,  visit- 
ing the  principal  European  cities,  and 
touring  the  provinces,  Ireland  and 
Scotland.  Since  1896  he  has  been 
professor  at  the  Royal  Conservatory 
in  Budapest.  Popper  is  one  of  the 
greatest  of  contemporary  cellists.  He 
plays  in  a  polished,  classical  style, 
though  full  of  expression,  and  his  tone 
is  large.  His  numerous  works  for 
his  instrument  are  excellent  and  popu- 
lar. They  include  Sarabande  and 
Gavotte;  Drei  Stiicke;  Spinning  Song; 


and  suite  in  A;  polonaise;  serenade; 
suite,  Im  Walde;  concertos  in  C  and 
B  minor;  Scottish  fantasie,  etc.; 
besides  forty  studies,  published  in 
four  volumes,  called  The  Monumental 
Violoncello  School. 

Porges    (por'-ges),    Heinrich.     1837- 

Bohemian  musical  journalist  and 
conductor;  born  at  Prague,  and  died 
at  Munich.  Studied  piano  under 
Muller,  harmony  under  Rummel,  and 
counterpoint  under  Zwonar.  He  com- 
posed some  songs,  taught  in  the  Royal 
School  of  Music  at  Munich,  and  di- 
rected the  King's  music,  after  1871,  as 
well  as  the  Porgesschen  Gesang- 
verein,  which  he  founded  in  1886.  He 
was  one  of  the  editors  of  the  Neue 
Zeitschrift  fiir  Music  in  1863,  and  of 
the  Siiddeutsche  Presse  at  Munich, 
and  zealously  championed  Wagner 
and  his  cause.  He  also  wrote  some 
songs,  and  numerous  essays,  among 
them  Uber  die  Auflfiihrung  von  Bee- 
thovens  9  symphonic  unter  Wagner, 
and  Die  Buhnenproben  zu  den  1876er 

Porpora     (p6r-p6'-r6),    Niccolo    An- 
tonio.    1686-1766. 

Italian  teacher  and  composer;  born 
and  died  in  Naples.  He  always  wrote 
his  name  Niccola,  but  in  his  works  it 
is  printed  Niccolo.  His  father  was 
a  bookseller  and  Niccolo  was  well 
educated.  His  musical  training  was 
received  from  Padre  Gaetano  of 
Perugia,  and  Mancini  at  the  Conserv- 
atorio  de  San  Loreto.  He  became 
chapelmaster  to  the  Portuguese  am- 
bassador, and  produced  his  first  opera, 
Basilio,  re  di  Oriente,  in  1709,  at  the 
Fiorentini  Theatre  in  his  native  city, 
and  in  1710  wrote  the  opera,  Berenice, 
for  the  Capranica  Theatre  at  Rome. 
About  two  years  later  he  set  up  his 
famous  singing  school  at  Naples,  and 
in  1719  he  became  one  of  the  faculty 
of  the  Conservatory  at  San  Onofrio. 
He  is  considered  the  greatest  singing- 
teacher  that  ever  lived,  and  his 
pupils,  Farinelli,  Caffarelli,  Mingotti, 
Uberti,  Tosi,  and  other  famous  sing- 
ers, bear  witness  to  his  perfect  tech- 
nical training.  He  started  for  Vienna 
in  1725,  but  stopped  en  route  at  Ven- 
ice, where  he  taught  at  La  Pieta,  one 
of  the  schools  for  girls,  and  later  at 
the  Conservatorio  degli  Incurabili. 
In  1728  he  went  to  Dresden,  where  he 
taught  Princess  Marie  Antoinette  and 




was  director  of  the  Court  Opera.  His 
compositions  up  to  that  time  include 
the  operas,  Flavio  Anicio  Olibrio; 
Faramondo;  Eumene;  Issipile;  Ade- 
laida;  Semiramide;  Imeneo  in  Atene; 
Siface;  Meride  e  Selinunte;  and 
Ezzio.  In  1729  he  was  given  leave  of 
absence  to  go  to  London,  where  he 
was  placed  in  rivalry  with  Handel. 
The  next  year  he  obtained  a  lease  of 
the  King's  Theatre,  displacing  Han- 
del, and  by  introducing  Far'inelli  he 
nearly  conquered  his  rival,  but  on  the 
departure  of  Farinelli  in  1736  Porpora 
was  forced  to  close  his  house  with 
almost  as  heavy  loss  as  Handel  sus- 
tained, when  a  few  weeks  later  he 
became  a  bankrupt.  He  now  settled 
at  Venice  and  shortly  became  director 
of  the  Ospedaletto  Conservatory. 

In  1745  he  moved  to  Vienna  in  the 
retinue  of  the  Venetian  ambassador, 
and  stayed  there  for  three  years, 
spending  part  of  his  time  in  teaching 
Haydn.  From  1748  to  1751  he  was  in 
Dresden.  He  returned  to  Naples 
between  1755  and  1760,  and  there 
spent  the  remainder  of  his  life  as 
chapelmaster  of  the  Cathedral,  and 
head  of  the  Conservatory  of  San 
Onofrio.  At  his  death  he  was  so 
poor  that  a  subscription  had  to  be 
raised  for  his  burial  expenses.  His 
operas  are  almost  entirely  devoid  of 
dramatic  interest  and  are  but  elabo- 
rately ornamented  pieces  showing  the 
qualities  of  the  singers.  His  six  ora- 
torios are  also  forgotten.  He  shows 
real  ability  in  his  cantatas.  He  also 
wrote  many  masses  and  other  church- 
music.  Biographies  of  him  by  Mar- 
chese  Villarosa  and  Clement  are  in- 
cluded in  Memorie  dei  Compositore 
and  in  Musiciens  Celebres. 

Porta      (p6r'-ta),     Constanzo.     1530- 

Franciscan  monk;  known  for  his 
church-music  and  madrigals.  Born  at 
Cremona,  Italy;  he  studied  at  Venice 
under  Willaert,  and  there  in  1555  pub- 
lished his  first  work,  a  book  of  mo- 
tets, which  were  followed  by  four 
other  books  up  to  1585,  containing 
motets.  He  was  chapelmaster  at  the 
Cathedral  in  Osima  from  1552  to 
1564;  at  the  Franciscan  Chapel  in 
Padua  from  1565  to  1567;  at  the  lead- 
ing church  in  Ravenna  till  1575;  then 
at  Santa  Casa  in  Loreto,  but  again 
at  Ravenna;  and  finally  back  to 
Padua,  where  he  was  at  the  Cathedral 
in    1585,   and   at   San   Antonio   again 


from  1595  until  his  death.  Porta  pub- 
lished two  volumes  of  introitus  and 
a  book  of  masses.  He  also  wrote 
psalms,  hymns,  lamentations,  madri- 
gals, and  a  treatise  on  counterpoint. 
In  Hawkins'  History  is  a  piece  for 
four  voices,  published  in  1600  in 
L'Artusi  Overo  delle  Imperfettioni 
della  moderna  musica  by  Artusi  of 
Bologna,  which  may  be  sung  back- 
wards and  upside  down. 

*  Porter,  Frank  Addison.    1859- 

Teacher  and  composer;  born  at 
Dixmont,  Maine.  When  eleven  years 
old  he  began  to  study  music  in  his 
native  place,  later  studied  in  Bangor, 
Maine,  where  he  sang  in  St.  Mary's 
Catholic  Church,  and  occasionally 
played  the  organ.  Going  to  Boston 
he  entered  the  New  England  Con- 
servatory of  Music  in  1879,  taking 
lessons  in  piano,  organ,  voice,  har- 
mony, theory,  counterpoint  and  con- 
ducting from  Turner,  Emery,  Tam- 
burello,  Parker,  Chadwick  and  Zer- 
rahn.  In  1885  he  was  appointed  pro- 
fessor of  piano,  and  in  1892  organizer 
and  superintendent  of  the  Piano  Nor- 
mal Department  of  the  Conservatory, 
a  position  which  he  still  retains.  In 
1893  he  went  to  Germany  to  finish  his 
studies  under  Hofmann,  Freitag  and 
others  at  Leipsic.  He  has  composed 
much  piano-music,  including  prelude 
and  fugue,  and  prelude  and  fughetta; 
two  mazurkas;  a  nocturne;  romance; 
melody;  To  the  Woodlands,  contain- 
ing seven  numbers  in  different  forms; 
In  the  Springtime;  a  sonatina;  Four 
Easy  Pieces;  Practical  Finger  Exer- 
cises; the  New  England  Conservatory 
Course  for  Piano;  two  books,  and 
thirty-five  other  selected  pieces  with 
some  original  ones,  and  a  number  of 
songs  for  solo  voice,  as  well  as  seven 
short  responses  for  quartet  or 
chorus.  He  has  given  occasional  con- 
certs in  Boston.  Mr.  Porter  does  not 
confine  his  activities  to  the  Conserv- 
atory but  gives  private  lessons  at  his 
studio  in  Steinert  Hall,  Boston.  He 
ranks  high  among  teachers  of  music, 
and  his  works  are  of  great  value  to 
teachers  as  well  as  pupils. 

Portogallo  (por-to-gal'-lo)  (Portugal), 
Marcus  Antonio.  1762-1830. 
A  Portuguese  operatic  composer, 
whose  real  name  was  Marcus  Antonio 
da  Foseca.  Born  at  Lisbon;  he  was 
educated  at  a  seminary,  where  the 
priests  gave  him  his  first  lessons  in 




music.  Borselli,  the  opera  singer,  was 
his  vocal  teacher,  and  he  studied  com- 
position under  the  chapelmaster  at 
the  Cathedral.  In  1782  Borselli 
obtained  for  him  a  post  as  accom- 
panist in  the  Opera  at  Madrid,  but  in 
1787  he  was  sent  to  Italy  to  study 
by  the  Portuguese  ambassador.  His 
operas  were  L'Eroe  cinese;  La  Bac- 
chetta  portentosa;  II  Molinaro; 
L'Astuto,  ossia  La  Vedova  raggira- 
trice.  In  1790,  on  returning  to  Lisbon, 
he  was  created  chapelmaster  to  the 
court.  The  next  nine  years  he  spent 
in  Italj',  where  he  produced  about 
twenty-five  operas.  Fernando  in 
Messico,  written  for  Mrs.  Billington 
and  played  at  Rome  in  1798  is  con- 
sidered by  some  his  masterpiece. 
From  1799  to  1810  he  wielded  the 
baton  at  the  San  Carlos  Theatre  m 
Lisbon,  where  for  some  time  Catalini 
sang;  then,  following  the  Royal  family 
to  Brazil,  he  was  appointed  general 
director  of  music  in  1811.  In  1813 
the  Royal  Theatre  was  opened  at  Rio 
de  Janeiro,  and  the  same  j-ear  he  and 
his  brother,  Simao,  a  church  com- 
poser, were  placed  in  charge  of  the 
new  Conservatory  at  Vera  Cruz.  Two 
years  later  he  made  a  last  visit  to 
Italy,  bringing  out  Adriano  in  Siria 
at  Milan.  He  then  returned  to  Brazil 
and  spent  the  rest  of  his  life  at  Rio 
de  Janeiro.  Some  thirteen  of  his  forty 
operas  are  now  extant.  He  also  wrote 
pieces  for  special  occasions;  farces 
and  burlettas  for  Lisbon  and  Rio  de 
Janeiro;  masses,  five  with  orchestra 
and  five  with  organ,  etc.;  two  Te 
Deums,  with  orchestra;  psalms,  with 
orchestra;  and  other  church-music. 

Potter,  Philip  Cipriani  Hambly.     1792- 


Pianist  and  teacher;  born  and  died 
at  London.  He  came  from  a  musical 
family,  and  at  seven  years  of  age 
began  to  study  the  piano  with  his 
father,  a  teacher  of  repute  in  London. 
Later  was  a  pupil  of  Attwood  in 
counterpoint,  Callcott  and  Crotch  in 
theory,  and  for  five  years  of  Woelfl. 
In  1816  an  overture  of  his  was  played 
at  a  Philharmonic  concert,  and  shortly 
afterward  he  made  his  debut  at  a 
performance  of  that  society.  His  works 
were  coldly  received  and  he  went  to 
Vienna,  where  during  1817  and  1818, 
he  studied  under  Forster  and  held 
friendly  intercourse  with  Beethoven, 
who  commended  his  work.  In  1821 
he  became  professor  of  piano  at  the 


Roj-al  Academy  of  Music,  and  from 
1832  to  1859  was  principal  of  that 
institution.  He  trained  many  pupils 
who  later  attained  eminence,  and  set 
the  Academy  on  a  sure  financial  basis. 
From  1858  to  1865  he  was  treasurer 
of  the  Society  of  British  Musicians. 
He  did  not  give  up  his  conductorship 
of  the  Madrigal  Society,  given  him 
in  1855,  until  1870.  He  also  fre- 
quently directed  the  Philharmonic 
concerts  and  made  a  fine  reputation 
as  a  conductor  as  well  as  a  pianist. 
His  works  are  now  nearly  all  neg- 
lected. He  wrote  nine  symphonies; 
four  overtures;  three  concertos;  a  con- 
certante;  sonatas,  for  piano  solo,  and 
a  sonata  di  bravura;  fantasias;  two 
toccatas;  six  sets  of  variations;  tran- 
scriptions; and  many  other  composi- 
tions for  piano.  He  also  edited  the 
Complete  Piano  Works  of  Mozart, 
and  Schumann's  Album  fiir  die 
Jugend,  and  wrote  Recollections  of 
Beethoven.  His  Hints  on  Orchestra- 
tion appeared  in  the  Musical  World 
in  1836.  Onlj'  a  few  months  before 
his  death  he  played  at  a  private  con- 
cert in  the  first  performance  of 
Brahms*  requiem  in  London.  An 
exhibition  or  scholarship,  bearing  his 
name,  was  founded  at  the  Royal 
Academy  of  Music. 

Pougin   (poo-jah'),  Fransois  Auguste 

Arthur  Paroisse.     1834- 

Known  as  Arthur  Pougin.  A  French 
musician  and  writer  of  note;  born  at 
Chateauroux,  Indre.  The  son  of 
itinerate  actors;  he  was  first  in- 
structed in  music  by  his  mother.  At 
the  Paris  Conservatory  he  studied  the 
violin  under  Alard  and  Guerin,  and 
harmony  under  Reber  and  Lhote,  later 
finjshing  in  violin  under  Berou.  In 
1855  he  became  conductor  of  the 
Theatre  Beaumarchais;  later  led  the 
Musard  concerts,  and  from  1860  to 
1863  the  orchestra  of  the  Opera  Co- 
mique,  while  from  1856  to  1859  he 
was  assistant  conductor  and  director 
of  rehearsals  at  the  Folies  Nouvelles. 
He  then  gave  up  these  positions,  dis- 
continued teaching  and  devoted 
himself  to  literature  of  all  kinds,  espe- 
cially music.  He  was  musical  critic 
of  the  fivenement,  Le  Soir,  Le  Trib- 
une, and  since  1878  of  the  Joiirnal 
Officiel.  He  also  contributed  to  the 
France  Musicale,  Chronique  musicale, 
L'  Art  Musical,  Le  Guide  Musical, 
Revue  de  Monde  Musical,  and  Le 
Theatre.    He  was  editor  of  the  Revue 



de  la  Musique  in  1876,  and  has  held 
that  position  on  Le  Menestrel  since 
1885.  Through  h'is  efforts  a  national 
festival  was  held  at  Rouen  in  1875  in 
honor  of  the  centennary  of  Boiel- 
dieu,  and  he  has  aided  Lamoureux  in 
forming  a  Societe  d'Harmonie  Sacree. 
He  edited  the  articles  on  musical 
subjects  in  Larousse's  Dictionnaire 
universel  and  the  new  edition  of  Dic- 
tionnaire Lyrique  by  Clement  and 
Larousse.  He  is  an  officer  of  the 
Academy,  and  in  1905  was  decorated 
with  the  Order  of  the  Crown  by  the 
King  of  Italy.  His  largest  work,  the 
Supplement  to  Fetis'  Biographie  Uni- 
verselle  des  Musiciens,  was  published 
in  two  volumes  in  1878  and  1880. 
Among  his  early  works  were  Musi- 
ciens frangais  du  XVHIe  siecle;  a 
biography  of  Meyerbeer,  and  numer- 
ous biographies  of  important  musi- 
cians. His  essay  on  The  Situation 
of  Composers  of  Music,  and  the 
Future  of  Music  in  France  appeared 
in  1867.  He  also  wrote  on  Musical 
Literature  in  France;  Figures  of  tlie 
Comic  Opera;  on  the  Question  of  the 
Liberty  of  Theatres;  on  the  Question 
of  the  Theatre  Lyrique;  on  the  The- 
atre of  France  during  the  Revolution; 
The  Real  Creators  of  the  French 
Opera,  Perrin  and  Cambert;  Histori- 
cal essay  on  Music  in  Russia;  Actors 
and  Actresses  of  Former  Times;  and 
Origin  of  the  Gamut  and  the  Seven 
Notes  which  Compose  It.  His  most 
important  work  is  his  biography  of 
Giuseppe  Verdi,  published  in  Italian 
in  1881,  and  translated  by  J.  E.  Mat- 
thew in  1887.  He  found  the  record 
of  Verdi's  birth  and  thus  settled  a 
much  disputed  point. 

Powell,  Maud.     1868- 

American  violinist;  born  at  Peru, 
Illinois.  The  family  moved  to  Aurora, 
and  there  she  had  her  first  training 
under  Mr.  Fickensher;  studied  under 
William  Lewis  at  Chicago  and  laid  the 
foundation  of  an  excellent  style,  de- 
veloped later  under_  Schradieck  at 
Leipsic  and  Dancla  in  Paris.  After 
playing  in  London,  and  touring  Eng- 
land with  Jose  Sherrington,  she 
became  one  of  Professor  Joachim's 
favorite  pupils  at  the  Hochschule  in 
Berlin,  and  in  1885  made  her  debut 
at  the  Philharmonic  Society,  with 
Bruch's  concerto  in  G  minor.  The 
same  year  she  appeared  for  the  first 
time  in  America  at  the  concerts  of 
the    New    York    Philharmonic.      She 


has  toured  this  country  under  Thomas, 
Seidl,  Damrosch,  Gericke,  Nikisch 
and  others,  and  in  1892  visited  Ger- 
many and  Austria  with  the  New  York 
Arion  Society.  She  played  at  the 
World's  Columbian  Exhibition  in 
Chicago,  read  an  article  on  Woman 
and  the  Violin  before  the  Women's 
Musical  Congress,  and  appeared  in 
the  Symphony  concerts.  She  organ- 
ized a  string-quartet  in  1894;  went 
abroad  in  1898;  performed  at  the 
Philharmonic  and  Saturday  Popular 
concerts  in  London,  and  with  Halle 
and  Scottish  Orchestras  in  other 
cities;  visited  Holland,  Belgium,  Ger- 
many, France,  Austria,  Russia  and 
Denmark,  and  after  a  short  tour 
through  the  United  States  returned  to 
London  in  1901.  Early  in  1906  she  gave 
forty  concerts  in  South  Africa.  During 
the  fall  of  1907  she  appeared  in  New 
York,  and  also  with  the  Thomas 
Orchestra  in  Chicago.  She  has  intro- 
duced to  America  Saint-Saens'  con- 
certo in  C  minor;  Arensky's  violin 
concerto;  Lalo's  concerto  in  G  major, 
and  works  of  American  composers, 
as  well  as  Dvorak's  violin  concerto, 
played  under  his  own  direction  at  a 
New  York  Philharmonic  concert. 
Miss  Powell,  or  rather  Mrs.  H.  God- 
frey Turner  (she  was  married  in 
1904),  possesses  a  technique  so  fine, 
a  style  so  broad,  and  such  excellent 
powers  of  expression  and  interpreta- 
tion that  she  is  considered  probably 
the  greatest  woman  violinist  of  the 
world,  as  well  as  the  best  violinist  of 
America.  She  is  unaffected  and  calm 
in  her  playing,  yet  has  spirit  and 
personal  charm  which  delight  her 
hearers.  Her  home  is  at  Mt.  Vernon, 
New  York. 

Pradher  (pra-dar),  Louis  Barthelemy. 


Pianist  and  teacher,  son  of  a  vio- 
linist; born  at  Paris.  Studied  under 
his  uncle,  Lefevre,  and  at  the  Royal 
School  of  Music  under  Gobert.  Ma- 
dame Montgeroult  was  his  teacher 
for  a  short  time,  and  later,  at  the 
Conservatory,  he  studied  under  Gobert 
and  took  theory  from  Berton.  Mar- 
ried Andre  Philidor's  daughter.  In 
1802  he  took  Hyacinthe  Jadin's  posi- 
tion as  professor  of  piano  at  the  Con- 
servatory. He  taught  the  daughters 
of  Louis  Philippe,  and  was  Court 
accompanist  to  Louis  XVIII.  and 
Charles  X.  He  married  for  his  second 
wife  the  opera  singer,  Felicite  More, 



and  in  1827  retired,  on  a  pension,  to 
Toulouse,  where  he  was  professor  of 
the  Conservatory  for  some  time.  He 
died  at  Gray,  Haute  Saone.  His  com- 
positions include  the  comic  operas, 
Le  Chevalier  d'Industrie;  La  Folic 
Musicale:  Jeune  et  Vieille;  L'Em- 
prunte  Secret;  Philosophie  en  voyage; 
and  Jenny  la  Bouquetiere;  and  numer- 
ous compositions  for  the  piano. 

Prager  (pra'-ger),  Ferdinand  Chris- 
tian Wilhelm.  1815-1891. 
German  pianist,  teacher,  composer, 
and  writer;  born  at  Leipsic.  His 
father  was  a  violinist  and  composer, 
and  Ferdinand  early  showed  musical 
ability.  He  played  the  cello  at  nine 
years  of  age,  but  Hummel  advised 
him  to  turn  to  the  piano,  and  after 
studying  under  him  and  Pape  he  set 
up  as  a  teacher  at  The  Hague,  though 
only  sixteen  years  old.  In  1834  he 
went  to  London  and  spent  the  rest 
of  his  life  there,  highly  esteemed  as 
a  teacher.  In  1842  Schumann  ap- 
pointed him  London  correspondent  to 
the  Neue  Zeitschrift  fiir  Musik.  He 
was  a  staunch  Wagnerite  and  through 
his  influence  Wagner  conducted  the 
Philharmonic  concerts  at  London  in 
1855.  His  works  include  an  overture, 
Abellino;  a  piano  trio;  and  a  sym- 
phonic prelude  to  Manfred.  A  collec- 
tion of  his  piano-pieces,  Prager 
Album,  was  published  at  Leipsic.  His 
book,  Wagner  as  I  Knew  Him,  was 
published  in  1885,  and  republished  in 
1892,  despite  contentions  and  criti- 
cisms. To  him  is  also  due  the  trans- 
lation of  Xaumann's  History  of  Music. 

Praetorius    (pra-to'-ri-oos),    Hierony- 
mus.    1560-1629. 

This  name  is  the  Latin  equivalent 
of  Schultz,  the  name  of  a  number  of 
German  musicians.  Hieronymus  was 
born  and  died  at  Hamburg.  He  was 
taught  by  his  father,  studied  at 
Cologne,  and  in  1580  became  town 
cantor  at  Erfurt.  Two  years  later  he 
succeeded  his  father  as  organist  of 
St.  James'  Church,  Hamburg,  a  posi- 
tion which  he  held  for  the  rest  of  his 
life.  With  Decker,  Scheidemann,  and 
his  son  Jacob,  he  brought  out  the 
Hamburger  Melodeyen  -  Gesangbuch, 
in  which  are  some  twenty  chorale 
settings,  for  four  voices,  by  him.  His 
other  works  are  collected  as  Opus 
Musicum,  in  five  books,  containing 
cantiones  sacrae;  magnificat;  Liber 
missarum;  cantiones  variae;  and  can- 

tiones  novae.  His  son  Jacob  (1586- 
1651),  a  pupil  of  Sweelinck,  was 
organist  of  St.  Peter's  Church  at 
Hamburg,  and  was  also  known  as  a 
teacher  and  composer.  His  wedding 
songs  were  very  fashionable. 

Praetorius,  Michael.     1571-1621. 

German  composer  and  writer;  born 
at  Kreuzburg,  Thuringia.  His  first 
position  was  chapelmaster  at  Lune- 
burg.  In  1604  he  became  organist  to 
the  Duke  of  Brunswick,  who  later 
made  him  chapelmaster  and  secretary. 
Praetorius  was  also  Prior  of  the 
Monastery  of  Ringelheim,  near  Goz- 
lar,  but  did  not  spend  all  his  time 
there.  He  died  on  his  fiftieth  birth- 
day, at  Wolfenbiittel.  He  left  a  great 
mass  of  compositions,  among  them 
Musae  Sioniae,  in  nine  parts,  some  in 
Latin,  the  rest  in  German,  including 
one  thousand  two  hundred  and  forty- 
four  pieces  —  parts  1-4,  concert  pieces, 
arranged  from  German  sacred  music; 
another  part,  songs  and  psalms;  and 
four  parts,  church  songs,  written  in 
strict  counterpoint;  Musarum  Sion- 
iarum,  consisting  of  eight  volumes  of 
motets  and  psalms;  Kleine  und  Grosse 
Litanei;  Eulogodia  Sionia,  sixty  mo- 
tets; Missodia  Sionia;  Hymnodia 
Sionia,  six  volumes  of  hymns;  and 
Megalynodia,  six  volumes  of  madri- 
gals and  motets;  and  nine  volumes  of 
secular  music,  two  entitled  Terpsich- 
ore, two  Calliope,  two  Thalia,  and 
one  each  Erato,  Diana  Teutonica,  and 
Regensburgische  Echo,  collected 
under  the  general  title  of  Musa  Aonia. 
His  catalog  of  works  is  found  at  the 
end  of  Syntagma  Musician,  a  rare 
and  valuable  treatise,  for  which  his 
name  is  now  known.  It  was  planned 
to  be  a  complete  encyclopedia  of  the 
art  and  practise  of  music,  in  four  vol- 
umes, but  death  prevented  the  com- 
pletion of  the  last  one,  which  was  to 
have  been  on  counterpoint.  Vol.  I  is 
devoted  to  ecclesiastical  music,  its 
use  in  different  churches,  the  mass, 
and  other  forms  of  vocal  music,  as 
well  as  instrumental  church-music, 
and  the  origin,  structure,  and  use  of 
the  art  of  music  and  secular  musical 
instruments.  Vol.  II,  called  Organ- 
ographia,  deals  with  the  instruments 
in  use  during  the  Seventeenth  Cen- 
tury, especially  the  organ.  Vol.  Ill 
has  three  sections  treating  of  the 
theory  of  music.  The  appendix  of 
forty-two  wood-cuts  illustrates  the 
instruments  spoken  of  in  Vol.  II, 



Pratt,  Silas  Gamaliel.    1846- 

American  composer;  born  at  Addi- 
son, yermont,  but  raised  at  Plainfield, 
Illinois.  At  twelve  years  of  age  he 
came  to  Chicago  and  obtained  a  posi- 
tion, first  in  the  music  house  of 
H.  M.  Higgins,  and  later  with  Lyon 
&  Healy.  He  studied  and  practised 
the  piano  diligently,  and  in  1868  gave 
a  series  of  recitals.  Later  that  year 
he  went  to  Berlin,  where  he  studied 
the  piano  with  Bendel  and  Kiel, 
working  so  assiduously  that  he  dis- 
abled his  right  wrist  and  was  forced 
to  take  a  tour  through  Germany  to 
restore  his  broken  health.  Returning 
to  Berlin  he  turned  to  composition, 
studied  under  Wiierst  and  Kiel  and 
wrote  his  first  work  for  orchestra, 
Magdalena's  Lament,  a  symphonic 
sketch,  in  1870.  The  next  year  he 
returned  to  Chicago,  and  in  April, 
1872,  appeared  in  a  concert  of  his  own 
vocal  and  piano  compositions.  He 
accepted  his  old  position  at  Lyon  & 
Healy's  and  organized  the  Apollo 
Club.  He  returned  to  Europe  in  1875, 
was  at  Bayreuth,  played  before  Liszt, 
and  studied  score-reading  under  Hein- 
rich  Dorn  at  Berlin,  where  in  1876  he 
produced  his  second  symphony.  The 
Prodigal  Son,  an  overture  for  the 
Centennial  Anniversary  of  our  Inde- 
pendence. In  1877  he  visited  Paris 
and  London,  where  he  received  warm 
praise  for  his  Anniversary  overture, 
played  at  the  Crystal  Palace  concerts 
m  honor  of  General  Grant,  and  the 
march.  Homage  to  Chicago,  conducted 
by  him  at  Alexander  Palace.  In  1878 
he  gave  symphony  concerts  in  Chi- 
cago and  began  his  opera,  Zenobia, 
which  was  produced  in  1880.  He 
visited  London  again  in  1885,  giving 
recitals  and  producing  The  Prodigal 
Son  and  selections  from  Zenobia  at 
the  Crystal  Palace.  He  had  already 
organized  and  directed  the  Omaha 
Festival  and  the  Chicago  Grand  Opera 
Festival  in  1884,  and  on  his  return  in 
1886  he  devoted  himself  to  directing 
festivals  and  teaching  the  piano.  Late 
in  1889  he  removed  to  New  York,  and 
in  1890  entered  upon  his  duties  as 
piano  professor  at  the  Metropolitan 
Conservatory.  In  1893,  however,  he 
directed  musical  performances  at  the 
Chicago  World's  Columbian  Exposi- 
tion, and  at  the  Antwerp  Exhibition  of 
1895  he  conducted  the  Grand  Ameri- 
can concerts.  He  is  at  present  prin- 
cipal of  the  West  End  Private  School 
of  Piano-Playing  in  New  York.    Mr, 


Pratt  is  very  ambitious  for  the  cause 
of  American  music,  and  has  written 
several  large  patriotic  works,  Centen- 
nary  Hymn  to  Washington;  Triumph 
of  Columbus,  an  opera;  and  the  or- 
chestral works,  Paul  Revere's  Ride, 
The  Battle  Fantasia  (descriptive  of 
the  Civil  War),  and  The  Battle  of 
Manila.  Besides  the  works  already 
mentioned  he  has  composed  the  opera 
Antonio,  produced  as  Lucille;  The 
Last  Inca,  a  cantata;  a  symphonic 
suite  on  Shakespeare's  Tempest; 
grotesque  suite.  The  Brownies;  sere- 
nade, and  canon,  for  string  orchestra; 
a  number  of  small  orchestral  works; 
Soul  Longings,  for  strings  and  piano; 
some  fifty  piano-pieces;  and  numerous 
songs  and  part-songs. 

♦  Pratt,  Waldo  Seldon.    1857- 

Musical  educator  and  writer  on 
musical  subjects;  born  at  Philadelphia. 
After  being  graduated  from  Williams 
College  in  1878  he  studied  two  years 
at  Johns  Hopkins  University.  From 
1880  to  1882  he  was  assistant  director 
of  the  Metropolitan  Museum  of  Art. 
From  1882  to  1891  he  played  the 
organ  at  Asylum  Hill  Congregational 
Church,  Hartford,  and  during  this 
time  conducted  the  Hosmer  Hall 
Choral  Union  of  that  city,  and  from 
1884  to  1888  led  the  St.  Cecilia  Club. 
He  taught  elocution  at  Trinity  Col- 
lege in  Hartford  from  1891  to  1905, 
and  is  professor  of  music  and  hym- 
nology  at  Hartford  Theological  Semi- 
nary, a  position  he  has  held  since  1882. 
He  is  also  lecturer  on  history  and 
musical  science  at  Smith  College  and 
Mount  Holyoke  College.  He  is  now 
president  of  the  Music  Teachers'  Na- 
tional Association,  honorary  vice-pres- 
ident of  the  American  Guild  of 
Organists  and  a  member  of  the  Inter- 
national Society  of  Musicians,  and  has 
contributed  addresses  and  articles  to 
various  musical  societies.  He  wrote 
the  article  on  music  for  the  Interna- 
tional Encyclopaedia;  articles  for  the 
Century  Dictionary,  and  Musical  Edi- 
tor; and  has  edited  St.  Nicholas  Songs, 
Aids  to  Common  Worship,  and  Songs 
of  Worship.  His  latest  work  is  the 
History  of  Music,  published  in  1907. 

Prentice,  Thomas  Ridley.     1842-1895. 

English  pianist,  teacher,  composer 
and  writer.  Born  at  Paslow  Hall, 
Ongar.  He  studied  at  the  Royal 
Academy  of  Music  from  1861,  under 
Walter  Macfarren  in  piano  and  George 
Macfarren  in  counterpoint,  and  in  1863 





took  the  silver  medal  and  the  Potter 
Exhibition  prize.  He  was  made  an 
associate  of  the  Academy  and  taught 
piano  there.  In  1872  he  became  organ- 
ist at  Christ's  Church,  Lee  Park,  but 
poor  health  forced  him  to  resign.  Yet, 
in  1880,  he  was  made  professor  of 
piano  at  the  Guildhall  School  of 
Music.  In  1881  he  was  professor  of 
piano  and  harmony  at  the  Blackheath 
Conservatory  and  two  years  later 
became  director  of  the  Beckenham 
and  Windledon  schools  of  music.  His 
educational  studies  include  Hand 
Gymnastics,  one  of  the  Novello  Music 
Primers;  and  The  Musician,  a  Guide 
for  Piano  Students.  He  wrote  a  ga- 
votte fantastique;  elegy,  and  other 
piano-music;  besides  the  cantata,  Lin- 
da; anthems;  and  part-songs.  He 
died  at  Hampstead. 

Presser,  Theodore.    1848- 

Able  American  teacher,  writer  and 
publisher;  born  at  Pittsburg,  Pa., 
of  German  parents.  He  was  educated 
at  Mt.  Union  College,  Ohio,  and,  hay- 
'ing  studied  music,  entered  a  music 
store  at  Philadelphia,  where  in  four 
years  he  rose  from  clerk  to  manager. 
After  teaching  music  at  a  number  of 
Ohio  colleges  he  studied  at  Boston 
and  at  the  Leipsic  Conservatory.  On 
his  return  Hollins  Institute  secured 
his  services.  He  made  for  himself  an 
excellent  reputation  as  a  teacher,  and 
the  experience  thus  gained  has  been 
of  great  importance  in  making  The 
fitude,  his  monthly  musical  magazine, 
valuable  to  both  teacher  and  pupil. 
He  has  lived  in  Philadelphia  since 
1884,  editing  The  fitude  and.  conduct- 
ing his  music  publishing  house.  He 
has  given  private  lessons  and  written 
numerous  piano  studies  for  use  in 
teaching,  some  of  which  have  been 
published,  and  some  sixty  of  which 
are  still  in  manuscript. 

Prevost    (pra-v6),    Eugene    Prosper. 

French  conductor  and  opera  com- 
poser; born  at  Paris.  He  studied  at 
the  Paris  Conservatory,  Jelensperger 
and  Seuriot  being  his  teachers  in  har- 
mony and  Lesueur  in  composition. 
In  1831  he  obtained  the  Grand  Prize 
of  Rome  for  the  cantata,  Bianca  Ca- 
pello.  He  had  already  produced  the 
one-act  operas,  L'Hotel  des  Princes, 
and  Le  Grenadier  de  Wagram,  and 
after  his  return  from  Italy  he  brought 
out  Cosimo  and  Le  Bon  gargon.  He 
went  to  H&vre  as   conductor  of  the 

theatre  there,  but  in  1838  he  came 
to  New  Orleans,  where  he  spent  the 
rest  of  his  life,  with  the  exception  of 
the  years  of  the  Civil  War,  when  he 
conducted  the  Bouffes  Parisiens  and 
the  Champs-filysees  concerts  at  Paris. 
At  New  Orleans  he  produced  Blanche 
et  Rene,  and  Esmeralda  at  the  French 
Theatre,  of  which  he  was  conductor, 
and  had  a  high  reputation  as  a 
teacher.  He  also  wrote  masses,  one 
of  which,  for  full  orchestra,  was  very 

Preyer  (pri'-er),  Gottfried,    1808-1901. 

Austrian  conductor,  organist  and 
composer;  born  at  Hausbrunn.  He 
studied  at  Vienna  under  Sechter  from 
1828  to  1834,  and  the  next  year  became 
organist  of  the  Reformed  Church.  In 
1844  he  was  appointed  assistant  chap- 
elmaster  of  the  court.  In  1844  he 
also  was  made  director  of  the  Con- 
servatorium  fiir  der  Musikfreunde, 
where  he  taught  harmony  and  coun- 
terpoint and  conducted  the  concerts. 
In  1846  he  became  Court  organist, 
and  after  1853  was  chapelmaster  of  St. 
Stephen's.  In  1876  he  was  pensioned 
as  vice  Court  chapelmaster.  He  died 
at  Vienna.  Works:  The  operas,  Wal- 
ladmor;  Freimannshohle,  and  Ama- 
ranth; the  oratorio,  Noah;  a  number 
of  masses;  a  requiem;  Te  Deum; 
hymns  for  the  Greek  Catholic  Church, 
in  three  books,  and  other  church- 
music;  a  symphony;  string  quartet; 
three  festival  marches  for  military 
band;  songs;  and  organ  and  piano- 

Prill  (prll),  Carl.    1864- 

German  violinist;  born  at  Berlin. 
He  began  to  study  the  violin  with 
his  father  when  only  a  little  boy, 
and,  having  taken  piano  lessons  from 
Handwerg  and  toured  Germany,  Rus- 
sia, Sweden,  Denmark  and  Holland 
with  his  father  and  brothers,  he  took 
lessons  in  Berlin  from  Helmich  and 
Wirth  and  finished  under  Joachim  at 
the  Hochschule,  meantime  playing  in 
Brenner's  and  Laube's  Orchestras  and 
as  solo  violinist  from  1883  to  1885. 
He  was  then  in  the  Hlawacz  Orches- 
tra in  Pawlowsk,  Russia.  He  was 
engaged  in  1891  for  the  Opera  and  the 
Gewandhaus  Orchestras  at  Leipsic. 
He  is  now  Court  concertmaster,  and 
professor  in  a  Conservatory  in  Vienna. 

Proch  (prokh),  Heinrich.    1809-1878. 

Violinist,  conductor  and  composer. 
The  place   of  his   birth   is   uncertain, 



probably  being  Vienna.  He  studied 
music  under  Benesch,  and  frequently 
played  in  public,  becoming  a  member 
of  the  Imperial  Chapel  at  Vienna  in 
1834.  _  In  1837  he  was  appointed  musi- 
cal director  of  the  Josephstadt  Thea- 
tre and  was  in  the  same  capacity  at 
the  Imperial  Opera  from  1840  to 
1870.  He  then  retired  on  a  pension, 
but  in  1874  became  director  of  the 
Comic  Opera,  which  existed  but  a 
short  time.  He  died  in  Vienna.  His 
compositions  include  the  operas,  Ring 
und  Maske,  Die  Blutrache,  and  Der 
gefahrliche  Sprung;  masses;  offer- 
torios;  and  string  quartets,  and  trios; 
also  many  songs  with  piano,  cello,  and 
horn  accompaniment,  notably  Das 
Alpenhorn,  and  Wanderlied.  He  trans- 
lated into  German  II  Trovatore,  Don 
Pasquale,   and   other   Italian  operas. 

Prokscb  (proksh),  Josef.    1794-1864. 

Bohemian  piano  teacher,  composer 
and  writer.  Born  at  Reichenberg. 
Died  at  Prague.  Though  he  was 
blind  from  youth  he  studied  the  piano 
with  Kozeluch  and  with  Logier  at 
Berlin.  In  1830  he  established  the 
Musikbildungsanstalt,  his  excellent 
musical  school  at  Prague.  After  his 
death  it  was  continued  by  his  son 
Theodor  (1843-1876)  and  his  daughter 
Marie.  Bendel,  Kuhe,  Smetana,  Ma- 
dame Szarvady  and  Madame  Ausptiz- 
Kolar  were  pupils  of  this  institute. 
Josef  Proksch  is  the  author  of  several 
volumes,  including  Versuch  einer 
rationellen  Lehrmethode  im  Piano- 
fortespiel;  Allgemeine  Musiklehre; 
Aphorismen  iiber  kathoHsche  Kirch- 
enmusik.  His  compositions  include 
cantatas;  sacred  songs;  masses;  sona- 
tas; a  concerto  for  three  pianos;  and 
transcriptions  of  orchestral  classics 
for  four  to  eight  pianos. 

Proske  (prosh-ke),  Karl.     1794-1861. 

German  musicographer;  born  at 
Grobnig,  in  Upper  Silesia.  Having 
studied  medicine  he  was  an  army 
surgeon  during  the  war  from  1813  to 
1815.  He  practised  medicine  for  a 
time,  but,  becoming  a  religious  enthu- 
siast, began  in  1823  to  study  theology 
at  Ratisbon  University,  and  was  or- 
dained in  1826.  The  next  year  he 
became  choral  vicar  in  the  Church  of 
Our  Lady,  and  in  1830  was  made 
chapelmaster  and  canon.  He  then 
began  collecting  and  copying  sacred 
manuscripts  of  the  composers  of  the 
Sixteenth  and  Seventeenth  Centuries, 


first  in  Germany  and  later  in  Italy. 
His  important  collection,  Musica 
Divina,  contained  these  sacred  compo- 
sitions, many  of  them  by  the  early 
church  composers.  This  work  was  in 
four  volumes,  each  volume  containing 
a  preface  and  biographical  notices  of 
the  composers  represented.  He  also 
published  Selectus  Novus  Missarum, 
containing  masses.  Proske's  valuable 
library  is  now  in  the  possession  of 
the  Episcopal  authorities  at  Ratisbon. 

Prout,  Ebenezer.     1835- 

English  theorist  and  composer; 
born  at  Oundle,  Northampton.  Was 
graduated  from  London  University  in 
1854.  Was  very  fond  of  music  as  a 
boy,  but  his  father,  a  Congregational 
minister,  objected  to  his  following 
music  as  a  career.  After  teaching  for 
several  years  he  adopted  music  as  a 
profession  in  1859,  and  became  organ- 
ist successively  of  several  different 
churches.  In  1860  he  had  become  pro- 
fessor of  piano  at  the  Crystal  Palace 
School  of  Art,  and  retained  that  posi- 
tion until  1885,  when  he  changed  to 
the  Guildhall  School.  When  a  boy 
he  had  taken  a  few  lessons  in  piano 
and  later  a  course  from  Charles  Sal- 
aman,  but  this  was  the  only  instruc- 
tion he  ever  received.  From  1876  to 
1882  he  taught  harmony  and  composi- 
tion at  the  National  Training  School, 
and  in  1879  he  took  Sullivan's  class  at 
the  Royal  Academy  of  Music.  As 
conductor  of  the  Hackney  Choral 
Association,  from  1876  to  1890,  he 
brought  out  many  excellent  works, 
some  for  the  first  time  in  England. 
As  a  writer  he  is  very  promment. 
From  1871  to  1874  he  was  editor  of 
the  Monthly  Musical  Review;  was 
musical  critic  of  the  Academy  from 
1874  to  1879,  and  of  the  Athenaeum 
for  the  next  ten  years.  He  is  the 
author  of  a  series  of  valuable  educa- 
tional works,  including  Instrumenta- 
tion; Harmony,  Theory  and  Practise; 
Counterpoint,  Strict  and  Free;  Double 
Counterpoint  and  Canon;  Fugue;  Fu- 
gal  Analysis;  Musical  Form;  Applied 
Forms;  and  The  Orchestra,  in  two 
volumes.  Since  1894  he  has  been  pro- 
fessor of  music  at  Dublin  University, 
and  in  1895  was  given  the  Doctor's 
degree  by  both  Dublin  and  Edinburgh 
Universities.  He  destroyed  all  his 
compositions  written  prior  to  1856. 
Those  which  he  preserved  are  the 
cantatas,  Hereward,  Alfred,  Queen 
Aminee,  The  Red  Cross  Knight,  and 




Damon  and  Phintias;  an  unfinished 
setting  of  Scott's  drama,  The  Doom 
of  Devorgoil;  for  orchestra,  four  sym- 
phonies, still  in  manuscript;  a  minuet 
and  trio;  overtures  to  Twelfth  Night, 
and  Rokeby;  Suite  de  Ballet;  a  suite 
in  D,  unpublished;  much  chamber- 
music,  including  two  string  quartets, 
which  took  the  prizes  of  the  Society 
of  British  Musicians  in  1862  and  1865; 
piano  and  organ  music;  church-music; 
also  songs,  part-songs,  and  choruses. 
There  is  in  manuscript  a  comic  opera, 
Love  and  Taxation,  written  in  1883. 
The  speed,  thoroughness  and  perse- 
verance shown  in  his  work  is  mar- 
velous, as  is  his  memory.  He  plays 
almost  entirely  without  notes  and 
transposes  from  key  to  key  with  the 
greatest  ease.  He  is  the  owner  of  a 
splendid  library,  containing  many  full 
scores  and  complete  editions.  Prout 
is  very  fond  of  Bach,  and  has  written 
amusing  words  to  his  forty-eight  pre- 
ludes and  fugues. 

Pruckner  (prook-ner),  Caroline.   1832- 

Excellent  dramatic  soprano;  born 
at  Vienna.  In  1850  she  began  her 
engagement  at  the  Hanover  Court 
Theatre,  going  in  1852  to  the  Court 
Theatre  at  Mannheim,  but  in  1855  her 
voice  suddenly  failed,  and,  giving  up 
the  stage,  she  retired  to  Vienna, 
studied,  and  in  1870  opened  a  school 
for  opera-singers..  Her  reputation 
as  a  teacher  is  very  high  and  she 
holds  the  title  of  professor,  given 
her  by  the  Grand  Duke  of  Mecklen- 
burg on  the  publication  of  her  treatise, 
Theorie  und  Praxis  der  Gesangskunst, 
in  1872. 

Pruckner,  Dionys.     1834-1896. 

German  pianist  and  teacher;  born 
at  Munich.  He  studied  under  Niest, 
and,  after  playing  at  the  Gewandhaus 
concerts  at  seventeen  years  of  age, 
was  a  pupil  of  Liszt,  at  Weimar,  from 
1852  till  about  1855.  He  then  made 
Vienna  his  home,  and  from  there  went 
on  concert  tours.  In  1859  he  was 
appointed  piano  teacher  at  the  Con- 
servatory in  Stuttgart,  and  in  that  city 
he  and  Edmond  Singer  established 
successful  chamber-music  concerts.  In 
1871  and  1872  he  toured  America  with 
great  success,  and  appeared  for  a 
short  time  at  New  York  in  1874.  He 
was  appointed  pianist  to  the  King  of 
Wiirtemburg  in  1864,  and  in  1868  was 
given  the  title  of  professor.  He  died 
at  Heidelberg. 

Prudent  (prii-dan),  fimile.  1817-1863. 
Able  French  pianist;  born  at  An- 
gouleme.  His  parents  both  died  when 
he  was  very  young  and  he  was 
adopted  by  the  piano-tuner,  Beunie, 
who  first  instructed  him  in  music.  At 
ten  years  of  age  he  entered  the  Paris 
Conservatory,  where  he  was  in  the 
classes  of  Le  Couppey,  Laurent  and 
Zimmermann,  and  won  the  first  prize 
for  piano  in  1833  and  the  second  for 
harmony  in  1834.  He  made  his  debut 
in  1840  at  Rennes  at  a  concert  with 
Thalberg.  In  1842  he  appeared  in 
Paris;  visited  other  parts  of  France, 
and  gave  concerts  in  Germany,  Bel- 
gium and  other  European  countries. 
He  played  in  London  in  1848,  1852  and 
1853.  Though  at  first  he  had  a  strug- 
gle to  make  himself  known,  he  ulti- 
mately became  very  popular  in  Paris, 
both  as  a  pianist  and  teacher.  He  was 
excellent  in  technique,  and  many  of 
his  pupils  became  distinguished.  His 
compositions  are  not  very  original, 
but  are  melodious  and  charming  and 
designed  to  show  the  qualities  of  the 
executant.  They  number  about  sev- 
enty, including  a  symphonic  concerto, 
Les  Trois  Reves,  for  piano  and 
orchestra;  etudes,  and  numerous  other 
salon-pieces;  and  transcriptions. 

Prume     (priim),    Francois     Herbert. 


Talented  Belgian  violinist;  son  of 
the  village  organist;  born  and  died  at 
Stavelot.  He  played  the  vioHn  when 
about  three  years  old,  and  at  five 
began  to  study  under  Malmedy.  From 
1827  to  1830  he  was  a  pupil  of  the 
then  new  Liege  Conservatory,  where, 
after  two  years  of  study  under  Habe- 
neck  at  the  Paris  Conservatory,  he 
became  professor  of  violin,  though 
but  seventeen  years  old.  In  1839 
he  made  a  tour  through  Germany, 
Hungary,  Russia,  Sweden,  Norway 
and  Denmark,  later  giving  concerts 
in  Holland  and  his  own  country,  and 
again  in  Germany,  where  he  received 
the  honorary  title  of  concertmaster. 
He  appeared  at  Paris  in  1844,  but 
was  summoned  back  to  the  Liege 
Conservatory  to  become  head  of  the 
violin  department.  For  the  last  few 
years  of  his  hfe  he  was  totally  blind. 
His  compositions  comprise  six  violin 
studies;  grand  polonaise;  a  concerto, 
for  violin  and  orchestra;  and  a  few 
concert-pieces,  La  Melancolie,  a  ro- 
mantic piece  for  violin  and  orchestra 
or  piano,  being  especially  popular. 



Prumier     (priim-ya),    Ange     Conrad. 

Son  of  the  following.  Born  and 
died  at  Paris.  In  1840  he  became 
harpist  of  the  Opera  Comique;  later 
was  in  the  orchestra  of  the  Opera, 
and  in  1870  took  Labarre's  place  as 
harp  teacher  in  the  Conservatory.  He 
had  studied  in  his  father's  class  in 
the  Conservatory,  where  he  took  sev- 
eral prizes,  and  was,  like  him,  an 
excellent  performer  on,  and  composer 
for,  the  harp.  Works:  solos  and 
studies  for  harp;  two  nocturnes  for 
harp  and  horn;   and  sacred  songs. 

Prumier,  Antoine.     1794-1868. 

French  harpist,  composer  and 
teacher.  Born  and  died  at  Paris.  His 
mother  taught  him  the  harp,  and  later 
he  studied  harmony  under  Catel  at 
the  Conservatory,  winning  second 
prize  in  1812.  He  was  then  obliged 
to  go  to  the  ficole  polytechnique,  a 
military  school,  but  in  1815  returned 
to  the  Conservatory  as  a  pupil  of  Eler 
in  counterpoint.  His  studies  finished, 
he  became  harpist  of  the  orchestra  at 
the  Theatre  des  Italiens.  In  1835  he 
changed  to  the  Opera  Comique,  where 
his  son  succeeded  him  in  1840.  From 
1835  until  1867,  when  he  was  pen- 
sioned, he  taught  at  the  Conservatory. 
He  received  the  cross  of  the  Legion 
of  Honor  in  1845,  and  for  seventeen 
years  was  president  of  the  Association 
des  artistes  musiciens.  His  published 
works  include  some  hundred  fan- 
taisies,  rondos,  and  airs  with  varia- 
tions for  the  harp. 

Puccini  (poot-che'-ne),  Giacomo.  1858- 
The  leading  composer  of  the  day 
in  Italy,  and  probably  the  greatest 
living  opera-writer.  Born  at  Lucca. 
For  five  generations  members  of  his 
family  have  held  positions  of  varying 
importance  in  the  musical  affairs  of 
Italy.  Michele,  the  present  Puccini's 
father,  was  the  pupil  of  his  grand- 
father, Antonio,  of  Mattel,  Mercadente 
and  Donizetti,  and,  after  returning  to 
Lucca,  was  appointed  inspector  of  the 
then  new  Institute  of  Music.  He  com- 
posed an  opera,  and  several  masses, 
but  was  better  known  as  a  teacher. 
He  died  in  1864,  when  Giacomo  was 
but  six  years  old,  leaving  the  mother 
to  raise  a  large  family. 

Giacomo  was  too  wayward  to  be 
successful  in  his  studies,  and  an 
uncle's  severe  training  also^  failed  to 
make  him  a  singer;  but  his  mother 


felt  that  he  was  to  be  a  musician,  and 
managed  to  send  him  to  the  Pacini 
Institute,  where  Angeloni  was  his 
teacher.  Having  become  a  fair  organ- 
ist, Puccini  went  from  village  to  vil- 
lage, often  scandalizing  the  priests 
by  playing  original  variations  on  opera 
airs  during  the  service.  In  1877  a 
competition  took  place  at  Lucca,  on  a 
setting  for  the  cantata  Juno,  and  Puc- 
cini entered.  When  his  work  was 
rejected  he  did  not  despair,  but  had 
it  performed  on  his  own  account,  and 
it  met  with  success.  He  now  decided 
that  he  must  study  at  Milan,  and  his 
mother,  unable  to  meet  the  whole 
expense,  applied  for  help  to  Queen 
Margarita.  The  Queen  subscribed 
enough  for  the  first  year's  tuition  and 
his  uncle  provided  for  the  other  two 
years,  but  Giacomo  and  his  brother, 
with  whom  he  lived,  had  a  hard  strug- 
gle. Some  of  their  experiences  were 
used  as  details  in  La  Boheme.  He 
did  not  immediately  succeed  in  pass- 
ing the  examination,  but  in  October, 
1880,  he  entered  the  Conservatory,  the 
highest  of  all  the  candidates.  He 
made  such  progress  that  on  being 
graduated  his  composition,  a  Sinfonia 
Capriccio,  showed  strength  surprising, 
even  to  his  teachers,  Bazzini  and  Pon- 
chielli.  In  this,  his  first  work  of  any 
consequence,  are  found  the  freedom, 
boldness  and  grasp  of  resources, 
which  have  characterized  his  later 
works.  It  was  produced  by  Faccio 
and   met  with  great  approval. 

Directly  after  this  success  Pon- 
chielli  suggested  that  he  write  an 
opera, _  and  introduced  him  to  the 
librettist,  Fontana.  The  Sozogno  com- 
petition was  drawing  to  a  close,  so 
they  decided  upon  Le  Villi  for  a  one- 
act  opera.  Puccini's  writing  is  almost 
undecipherable  and  it  was  perhaps  for 
this  reason  that  the  score  was  returned 
unread.  Nevertheless,  with  the  assist- 
ance of  Arrigo  Boito  and  other 
friends,  he  was  able  to  produce  it  at 
the  Teatro  dal  Verme,  May  31,  1884, 
the  Conservatory  pupils  taking  the 
roles,  and  its  signal  success  prompted 
the  Ricordi  Company  to  buy  the 
score.  It  was  presented  in  its  present 
revised  form  (two  acts)  at  La  Scala, 
Jan.  24,  1885,  and  given  for  the  first 
time  in  England  by  the  Rousby  Com- 
pany at  Manchester. 

Shortly  after  the  production  of  Le 
Villi,  Puccini's  mother  died,  and  be- 
sides the  great  sorrow  which  this 
loss  brought  him  he  had  to  bear  even 




harder  pinchings  of  poverty.  Under 
these  circumstances  Edgar,  a  gypsy 
opera  similar  to  Carmen,  was  written, 
again  on  a  libretto  by  Fontana,  and 
on  April  21,  1889,  it  had  its  initial 
performance  at  La  Scala.  The  music 
shows  an  advance  over  Le  Villi,  but 
the  opera  lacks  sufficient  interest  to 
keep  the  stage,  though  it  holds  its 
place  in  Puccini's  affection.  The  blame 
is  laid  on  the  libretto,  which  is  even 
more  impossible  that  De  Musset's 
drama.  La  Coupe  et  les  Levres  (Twixt 
cup  and  lip)  on  which  it  was  founded. 
His  next  opera,  Manon  Lescaut,  was 
introduced  at  the  Reggio  Theatre  at 
Turin,  Feb.  1,  1893,  and  by  its  success 
assured  Puccini's  position.  A  string 
of  detached  scenes  from  Abbe  Pre- 
vost's  romance,  which  had  already 
been  the  foundation  of  an  opera  by 
Auber,  in  1856,  and  by  Massenet  in 
1884,  were  adapted  for  the  libretto  by 
Puccini  and  Ricordi.  Auber's  opera 
is  now  nearly  forgotten,  but  com- 
parisons continually  arise  between 
Puccini's  work  and  Massenet's,  from 
which  it  differs  widely  in  spirit  and 
considerably  in  the  selection  of  scenes. 
Puccini  visited  England  for  the  first 
time  for  the  initial  performance  of 
this  work  in  London  at  Covent  Gar- 
den, May  14,  1894.  More  popular  is 
La  Boheme,  based  on  Henri  Murger's 
novel.  Vie  de  Boheme..  This  opera 
was  given  at  Turin,  Feb.  1,  1896. 
Puccini  went  to  England  to  rehearse 
the  players  for  its  first  performance 
there  by  the  Carl  Rosa  English  Opera 
Company  at  Manchester,  April  22, 
1897.  The  following  October  it  was 
presented  at  Covent  Garden.  A  good 
deal  of  the  score  was  written  at 
Castellaccio,  near  Pescia,  where  Puc- 
cini stayed  for  a  time  before  set- 
tling on  a  site  for  his  villa  at  Torre 
del  Lago,  which  was  built  in  1900. 
Puccini,  now  master  of  his  resources, 
produced  in  this  work  a  score  marked 
by  continuity  and  polish,  which  has  in 
it  an  unmistakable  atmosphere  of 
Bohemian  life  with  its  charm  and 
pathos.  In  1898  Puccini  visited  Paris 
for  the  first  performance  of  this  opera 
there,  and  at  that  time  made  arrange- 
ments with  Sardou  to  use  his  play. 
La  Tosca,  for  an  opera.  La  Tosca 
is  intensely  dramatic  and  tragic  almost 
to  excess,  and  in  it,  perhaps  better 
than  in  any  other  work,  does  the 
music  fit  the  varying  moods  in 
the  story,  so  much  so,  indeed,  that  the 
main   interest   lies   in   the   action.     It 


is  the  only  one  of  Puccini's  works 
called  an  opera.  The  first  performance 
was  at  Costanzi  Theatre,  Rome,  Jan. 
14,  1900.  July  12  of  the  same  year  it 
was  presented  at  Covent  Garden.  It 
was  played  for  the  first  time  in  New 
York  at  the  Metropolitan  Opera 
House,  Feb.  4,  1901,  and  not  long 
after  was  given  in  English  by  the 
Henry  W.  Savage  Company  at  Buf- 
falo. In  orchestration  this  opera 
shows  an  advance  over  La  Boheme, 
in  symphonic  fulness  and  a  greater 
use  of  representative  themes;  that  is, 
themes  characteristic  of  certain  indi- 
viduals which  always  accompany  their 

The  success  of  Madame  Butterfly, 
his  latest  opera,  has  been  almost  phe- 
nomenal, yet  when  first  produced  at 
La  Scala,  Feb.  17,  1904,  it  met  such 
disapproval  that  Puccini  withdrew  it 
after  the  first  night,  without  giving 
the  people  a  chance  to  change  their 
minds.  Madame  Butterfly  was  re- 
touched and  brought  out  with  great 
success  at  Brescia,  May  28,  and  since 
then  has  had  an  unabated  triumph.  In 
July,  1904,  it  was  presented  at  Buenos 
Ayres;  then  at  Montevideo  and  else- 
where in  South  America,  at  Alexan- 
dria in  Egypt,  again  at  Milan,  at 
Turin,  Naples,  Palermo  and  Buda- 
pest, and  for  the  first  time  in  Amer- 
ica at  Washington,  D.  C,  October  15; 
and  at  the  close  of  1906  at  the  Opera 
Comique  in  Paris.  Puccini  visited 
New  York  in  January,  1907,  to  super- 
intend its  initial  performance  there, 
as  well  as  to  be  present  at  the  Puccini 
cycle,  consisting  of  Manon  Lescaut, 
La  Boheme,  La  Tosca,  and  Madame 
Butterfly,  given  by  the  Metropolitan 
Company.  The  Savage  Company  has 
toured  the  United  States  with  Madame 
Butterfly  exclusively,  and  everywhere 
it  is  enthusiastically  received.  Puccini 
calls  it  a  Japanese  tragedy,  and  he 
has  used  some  actual  Japanese  melo- 
dies obtained  through  the  Japanese 
ambassadress  at  Rome  to  add  local 
color,  but  it  is  essentially  as  Itahan 
as  La  Boheme.  The  plot  is  hardly 
adaptable  to  music,  but,  to  quote 
Baughan's  criticism,  "The  composer 
has  overcome  many  of  the  difficulties 
with  much  cleverness.  When  the 
stage  itself  is  not  musically  inspiring, 
he  falls  back  on  his  orchestra  with 
the  happiest  effect.  The  gradual 
smirching  of  this  butterfly's  bright- 
ness until  in  the  end  she  becomes  a 
wan  little  figure  of  tragedy  is  subtly 




expressed  in  the  music.  It  is  not  deep 
music  —  indeed,  it  should  not  be  —  but 
it  has  all  the  more  effect  because  it 
is  thoroughly  in  character." 

It  is  said  that  Illica  is  at  work  on 
the  librettos  for  The  Girl  of  the  Golden 
West,  after  Belasco's  play,  and  Marie 
Antoinette.  "  My  next  plot,"  Wake- 
ling  Dry  reports  Puccini  to  have  said, 
"  must  be  one  of  sentiment  to  allow 
me  to  work  in  my  own  way.  I  am 
determined  not  to  go  beyond  the  place 
in  art  where  I  find  myself  at  home." 
And  even  this  statement  was  hard 
to  get  from  the  modest  and  retiring 
composer.  Puccini's  rank  seems  des- 
tined to  be  a  high  one.  The  works  he 
has  already  produced  show  him  to  be 
much  superior  to  Mascagni  and  Leon- 
cavallo, and,  indeed,  worthy  to  be  the 
successor  of  Verdi,  as  that  master  pre- 
dicted. In  his  music  he  combines  the 
old  and  truly  national  characteristic 
of  Italian  Opera  with  modern  dra- 
matic power  and  orchestral  coloring, 
and  his  mastery  of  the  light  lyric 
style  makes  him  very  popular  in  the 
present  day.  At  New  York  during 
the  season  of  1907  his  four  later 
operas  were  given  twenty-one  times, 
while  eight  of  Wagner's  had  only 
twenty-four  performances. 

Puccini  married  Elvira  Bonturi,  of 
Lucca,  and  their  son,  Antonio,  was 
born  in  1886.  The  composer  spends 
most  of  his  time  at  Torre  del  Lago, 
where  wild  ducks  and  other  game  is 
plenty,  and  delights  in  a  "  shoot "  and 
in  sailing  the  lakes  in  his  American 
motor-boat,  Butterfly,  in  which  he 
conceives  many  of  his  ideas.  He  also 
has  a  villa  at  Chiatri  Hill,  across  the 
lake  from  Torre  del  Lago,  and  a  house 
in  Milan,  in  which  city  he  teaches 
composition  at  the  Conservatory.  He 
is  a  member  of  the  committee  which 
is  preparing  for  the  one  hundredth 
anniversary  of  this  Conservatory.  For 
a  most  interesting  account  of  Puccini 
and  his  works  see  Wakeling  Dry's 
Giacomo  Puccini,  published  in  1906, 
one  of  the  Living  Masters  of  Music 

Puccitta  (poo-chit'-ta),  Vincenzo.  1778- 

Also  spelled  Pucita.  He  composed 
about  thirty  operas;  also  songs,  ten 
volumes  of  which,  Mille  Melodie,  were 
published  by  Ricordi.  He  was  born  in 
Civitavecchia  and  studied  at  Naples  in 
the  Conservatorio  della  Pieta  under 
Fenaroli  and  Sala.  The  operas,  L'amor 

platonico  and  Le  nozze  senza  spoza, 
were   given   at   Lucca   and   Parma   in 

1800,  and   II  furoruscito  at  Milan   in 

1801,  but  his  first  great  success  was 
I  due  prigionieri,  at  Rome  in  1801, 
In  1809  he  was  in  London  directing 
the  music  of  the  Opera,  where  he 
produced  I  Villeggiatori  bizarri;  La 
Vestale,  his  best  opera;  Le  tre  sultane, 
and  others.  Then,  after  traveling 
with  Catalani  as  accompanist,  he  was 
with  her  at  the  Italian  Opera  in  Paris 
from  1815  to  1817;  returned  hence  to 
Italy,  and  remained  there  until  his 
death  at  Milan.  Among  his  best 
operas  are  I  prigionieri,  and  Adolfo  e 
Chiara.  He  had  considerable  ability, 
but  lacked  originahty. 

Puchet  (poo'-khat).  Max.    1859- 

German  composer  and  pianist;  born 
at  Breslau.  He  studied  at  Berlin  under 
Kiel  and  in  1884  took  the  Mendels- 
sohn prize.  Besides  numerous  songs 
he  has  written  a  concerto  in  C  minor, 
for  the  piano;  an  overture;  and  the 
fine  symphonic  poems,  Euphorion,  in 
1888,  and  Tragodie  eines  Kiinstlers, 
five  movements,  in   1894. 

Pugnani  (poon-ya'-ne),  Gaetano.  1731- 


Famous  Italian  violinist,  teacher 
and  composer.  Born  and  died  at 
Turin.  He  studied  first  under  Somis, 
a  distinguished  pupil  of  Corelli,  and 
later,  at  Padua,  under  the  great  Tar- 
tini,  combining  the  two  styles  to 
form  the  broad,  sweeping  method  and 
agile  bowing,  which  he  transmitted  to 
his  most  famous  pupil,  Viotti.  In  1752 
he  was  appointed  leader  of  the  Court 
Orchestra  at  Turin  and  director  of  the 
King's  concerts.  In  1754  he  began 
his  travels;  played  at  the  Concerts 
Spirituels  in  Paris;  led  the  orchestra 
of  the  Italian  Opera  at  London,  and 
appeared  with  great  success  in  most 
of  the  European  countries.  He  re- 
turned to  Turin  in  1770  and  there  he 
spent  the  rest  of  his  life  conducting 
the  Court  Theatre  and  teaching.  He 
had  a  wonderful  gift  for  conducting 
and  imparted  this  to  his  pupils. 
Among  his  works  are  a  dramatic 
cantata,  Issea;  L'Aurora,  a  cantata; 
the  operas,  Demetrio  a  Rodi,  Tamas 
Koulikan,  Adone  e  Venere,  Nanetta  e 
Lubiono;  an  opera  buffa,  Achille  in 
Sciro;  and  the  ballet,  Coreso  e  Cal- 
liroe;  besides  a  great  quantity  of 
instrumental  music,  some  overtures, 
and  twelve  symphonies. 



Pugno     (pun-yo),     Stephane     Raoul. 

Brilliant  French  pianist  and  com- 
poser; born  at  Montrouge,  near  Paris. 
He  studied  at  the  Paris  Conservatory, 
and  won  the  first  prizes  in  piano,  har- 
mony and  organ  in  1866,  1867  and 
1869.  He  was  organist  of  Saint  Eu- 
gene from  1872  to  1892,  and  for  the 
next  four  years  he  taught  harmony 
at  the  Conservatory  and  piano  there 
from  1896  to  1901.  He  has  written 
a  number  of  pieces  for  the  stage:  the 
fairy  play,  Le  fee  Cocotte,  Melusine, 
Les  Pauvres  Gens,  and  other  light 
works;  the  comic  operas,  Ninetta,  Le 
Sosie,  Le  Valet  de  Coeur,  and  Le 
Retour  d'UIysse;  the  vaudeville  oper- 
etta. La  petite  Poucette;  the  panto- 
mime, La  Danseuse  de  Corde;  the 
mimodrame.  Pour  le  Drapeau;  and  the 
ballets,  Les  Papillons,  Viviane,  and 
Le  Chevalier  aux  Fleurs.  He  is  known 
chiefly  as  a  pianist,  however.  He 
made  his  London  debut  in  1894,  and 
toured  the  United  States  with  Ysaye 
in  the  season  of  1897-1898.  In  1907  he 
visited  England,  and  appears  fre- 
quently at  Brussels,  where  he  played 
for  the  Ysaye  concerts  of  the  season 
of  1907-1908.  His  playing  is  refined 
and  exquisite,  combining  delicacy  of 
touch  with  boldness  and  dash. 

Puppo    (poop'-p6),    Giuseppe.      1749- 

Eccentric  but  talented  Italian  vio- 
linist. Born  at  Lucca.  He  studied  at 
the  Conservatory  of  San  Onofrio  in 
Naples,  made  rapid  progress,  and 
early  set  out  on  a  tour  of  Italy  and 
France.  He  was  in  Paris  in  1775;  then 
made  a  fortune  in  Spain  and  Portugal, 
and  lived  in  London  until  1784.  He 
then  returned  to  Paris  and  became 
leader  of  the  orchestra  at  the  Theatre 
de  Monsieur,  under  Viotti,  in  1789, 
and  at  the  Theatre  Frangais  in  1799 
and  also  taught  and  played  accompani- 
ments in  fashionable  society.  In  1811 
he  abandoned  his  family,  returned  to 
Italy,  and  conducted  at  the  San  Carlo 
Theatre  in  Naples.  In  1817  he  went 
to  Lucca,  and,  utterly  destitute,  died 
in  a  hospice  at  Florence.  Works: 
three  concertos,  two  duets,  and 
studies,  for  violin;  six  fantasias,  and 
other  piano-music,  a  few  of  which 
were  published. 

Purcell,    Daniel.      1660-1717. 

Youngest  brother  and  probably  pupil 
of   the    great    Henry    Purcell.      Born 


and  died  at  London.  From  1688  to 
1695  he  was  organist  of  Magdalen 
College,  Oxford,  but  then  went  to 
London,  where  he  became  known  as 
a  composer.  In  1713  he  was  appointed 
organist  of  St.  Andrew's,  Holborn,  a 
post  which  he  retained  until  his  death. 
Besides  numerous  odes  for  St.  Ce- 
cilia's Day,  the  setting  of  Tate's  ode 
on  the  Death  of  Henry  Purcell;  the 
Psalms  set  full  for  Organ  and  Harpsi- 
chord; anthems;  songs;  six  cantatas; 
and  sonatas,  he  wrote  music  for  a 
large  number  of  plays,  including  Ibra- 
him XIII.;  Brutus  of  Alba;  Love's 
Last  Shift;  Swaney, .the  Scot,  adapted 
from  the  Taming  of  the  Shrew;  The 
Grove  of  Love's  Paradise,  probably 
his  best  work;  The  Pilgrim;  The  Un- 
happy Penitent;  The  Humour  of  the 
Age;  The  Inconstant;  and  Orlando 

Purcell,  Henry.     1658-1695. 

England's  greatest  composer.  Tra- 
dition makes  St.  Ann's,  Old  Pye 
Street,  Westminster,  his  birthplace. 
Yet  it  is  not  certain  where  he  was 
born,  nor  when,  but  it  must  have 
been  some  time  between  Nov.  21, 
1658,  and  Nov.  20,  1659.  The  lad 
became  one  of  the  children  of  the 
Chapel  Royal  immediately  after  his 
father's  death,  and  began  his  musical 
studies  under  Captain  Henry  Cooke, 
formerly  a  musician  to  Charles  I.,  and 
afterwards  master  of  the  children  of 
the  Chapel  Royal  under  Charles  II. 
For  eight  years  Purcell  worked  under 
Cooke's  guidance,  and  a  number  of  his 
anthems,  still  in  use,  were  written  at 
this  time.  In  1667  a  three-part  song, 
Sweet  Tyranness,  I  Now  Resign,  was 
printed  by  Playford  in  the  Musical 
Cornpanion.  This  has  been  attributed 
to  his  father,  but  is  usually  considered 
the  work  of  Henry,  junior.  There  is 
no  doubt,  however,  that  he  wrote  The 
Address  of  the  Children  of  the  Chapel 
Royal  to  the  King,  and  their  master. 
Captain  Cooke,  on  his  majesty's 
birthday,  A.  D.  1670.  He  is  also 
thought  to  be  the  composer  of  the 
Macbeth  music  usually  attributed  to 
Matthew  Locke,  though  Locke's 
music,  some  of  which  is  still  extant, 
is  very  diflferent.  A  copy  of  the  score 
in  Purcell's  hand  is  in  W.  C.  Cum- 
ming's  library.  In  1672  Cooke  died, 
and  his  pupil,  Pelham  Humphreys, 
became  master.  Humphreys  had 
shown  such  remarkable  talent  that 
Charles    II,    sent    him    to    France   to 



learn  the  method  of  Lully,  and  on  his 
return  he  introduced  the  French  style 
to  his  pupils;  yet,  during  the  two  years 
in  which  Purcell  was  his  pupil,  the  lad, 
though  profiting  by  the  study  of  the 
French  master,  kept  his  own  individ- 
uality. When  Dr.  Blow  succeeded  to 
the  post  of  master,  Purcell  stayed  on, 
probably  as  a  supernumerary,  for  his 
voice  must  have  changed  by  this  time. 
This  kind,  amiable  and  sound  musi- 
ciian,  whose  tombstone  announces  him 
"  Master  to  the  famous  Henry  Pur- 
cell," exerted  an  excellent  influence 
over  his  gifted  pupil.  In  1680  he 
resigned  the  post  of  organist  at  West- 
minster Abbey  in  Purcell's  favor,  but 
succeeded  to  it  again  after  his  death. 
The  fact  that  he  was  so  closely  con- 
nected with  the  Cathedral  did  not  pre- 
vent Purcell  from  composing  for  the 
stage,  and  he  was  in  great  demand  to 
write  incidental  music  for  plays.  Just 
when  he  began  writing  for  the  thea- 
tres is  a  disputed  matter. 

In  1677  Purcell  wrote  an  elegy  on 
the  death  of  Matthew  Locke,  and  in 
1678  an  arrangement  of  Sweet  Tyran- 
ness,  for  one  voice,  and  five  other 
songs  appeared.  It  was  about  this 
time  that  he  composed  anthems,  espe- 
cially for  the  Rev.  John  Gosling,  a 
favorite  of  the  King,  whose  voice  was 
a  very  low  bass.  One  of  these,  They 
That  Go  Down  to  the  Sea  in  Ships, 
written  after  the  escape  of  the  King 
and  his  party.  Gosling  among  them, 
from  drowning  in  a  terrible  storm  ofif 
North  Foreland,  goes  down  to  double 
D.  In  1680  he  wrote  the  music  for 
Theodosius,  or  the  Force  of  Love,  and 
his  first  odes,  a  welcome  song  for  his 
Royal  Highness'  return  from  Scotland, 
and  a  song  to  welcome  His  Majesty 
home  from  Windsor.  These  were  fol- 
lowed the  next  year  by  another. 
Swifter,  Isis,  Swifter  Flow,  and  from 
that  time  until  his  death  many  a  spe- 
cial occasion  was  celebrated  by  an  ode 
from  him,  particularly  after  his  ap- 
pointment, in  1683,  as  composer  in 
ordinary  to  the  King.  Among  Pur- 
cell's odes  are  four  for  St.  Cecilia's 
Day.  He  had  been  made  organist 
of  the  Chapel  Royal  in  1682,  and  it  was 
that  year  that  his  first  son,  John  Bap- 
tista,  was  born  and  died.  In  1683  he 
published  his  sonatas  in  three  parts, 
composed,  he  says  in  his  dedication, 
in  imitation  of  the  Italian  composers. 
In  1684  occurred  the  competition  over 
the  new  organ  for  Temple  Church. 
It  was  probably  at  Purcell's  sugges- 


tion  that  this  instrument  was  built 
with  two  extra  quarter  tones  in  each 
octave,  which  gave  an  opportunity  for 
more  varied  modulation.  The  next 
year  Purcell  superintended  the  build- 
ing of  the  new  organ  at  Westminster 
Abbey  for  the  coronation  of  James 
II.,  for  which  occasion  he  wrote  the 
anthems,  I  Was  Glad,  and  My  Heart 
is  Inditing.  His  march  and  quickstep, 
which  is  said  to  have  helped  to  bring 
on  the  revolution  of  1688,  was  printed 
in  The  Delightful  Companion  in  1686. 
This  song,  according  to  Lord  Whar- 
ton, "  Sung  a  deluded  Prince  out  of 
three  kingdoms."  The  music  appeared 
as  A  New  Irish  Tune  in  Musick's 
Handmaid,  in  1689.  It  is  still  sung 
in  the  north  of  Ireland  as  a  party 
song.  Of  his  music  for  plays  in  1690, 
The  Prophetess,  or  the  History  of 
Dioclesian,  was  printed,  and  in  the 
dedication  to  the  Duke  of  Somerset  is 
an  interesting  expression  of  his  opin- 
ions. "  Music  and  poetry,"  he  wrote, 
"  have  ever  been  acknowledged  sisters, 
which,  walking  hand  in  hand,  support 
each  other;  as  poetry  is  the  harmony 
of  words,  so  music  is  that  of  notes; 
and  as  poetry  is  a  rise  above  prose 
and  oratory,  so  is  music  the  exulta- 
tion of  poetry.  Both  of  them  excel 
apart,  but  sure  they  are  most  excellent 
when  they  are  joined,  because  nothing 
is  then  wanting  to  either  of  their  per- 
fections." Dioclesian  is  the  first  of 
his  incidental  music  to  be  elaborately 
scored.  Selections  from  the  Fairy 
Queen  were  published  in  1692,  but 
the  score  was  lost.  In  1700  a  reward 
of  twenty  guineas  was  offered  for  it, 
but  it  was  not  recovered  until  1891, 
when  it  was  found  in  the  library  of  the 
Royal  Academy  of  Music.  One  of  the 
airs,  If  Love's  a  Sweet  Passion,  was 
used  in  the  Beggar's  Opera._  The 
same  year,  1692,  he  wrote  his  fine 
ode.  Hail,  Great  Cecilia,  but  the  most 
famous  of  his  music  for  St.  Cecilia's 
Day  is  the  magnificent  Te  Deum  and 
Jubilate  in  D,  composed  in  1694. 

At  the  close  of  1694  Queen  Mary 
died,  and  for  her  funeral,  the  follow- 
ing March,  Purcell  wrote  two  an- 
thems, Blessed  is  the  Man  that 
Feareth  the  Lord,  and  Thou  Knowest, 
Lord,  the  Secrets  of  Our  Hearts. 
The  latter  has  been  used  at  every  cho- 
ral funeral  service  since  at  Westmins- 
ter Abbey  and  St.  Paul's  Cathedral. 
Purcell's  health,  never  robust,  now  be- 
gan to  grow  very  delicate,  but  that 
did  not  prevent  him  from  composing 




music  for  The  Mock  Marriage;  The 
Rival  Sisters;  Oroonsko;  Bonduca; 
and  the  third  part  of  Don  Quixote, 
the  first  two  parts  of  which  had  been 
written  in  1694.  The  stirring  song,  To 
Arms,  and  Britons,  Strike  Home,  are 
from  Bonduca,  and  the  remarkable 
bass  solo,  Let  the  Dreadful  Engines, 
is  from  Don  Quixote.  His  last  piece, 
the  cantata.  From  Rosie  Bowers,  for 
the  same  play,  was  written  during  his 
illness.  He  died  November  21,  on 
the  eve  of  St.  Cecilia's  Day.  Purcell 
was  buried  November  26,  under  the 
organ  in  the  north  aisle  of  Westmin- 
ster Abbey. 

Purcell  must  have  been  of  amiable 
disposition  and  fond  of  jollity,  for 
he  is  thought  to  have  often  enjoyed 
the  company  of  the  musical  wits  who 
gathered  at  Cobweb  Hall,  a  tavern 
kept  by  Owen  Swan,  and  at  Purcell's 
Head,  where  a  half-length  portrait  of 
the  composer  in  a  green  nightgown 
and  a  full-bottomed  wig  was  the  sign, 
and  there  his  catches  and  glees  were 
sung.  The  story  got  abroad  that  his 
death  resulted  from  a  cold  caught 
while  staying  outside  the  door  all 
night  because  he  came  home  later 
than  the  hour  set  by  his  wife  and 
was  refused  admittance,  but  there  is 
probably  little  truth  in  this  tale.  He 
IS  thought  to  have  died  of  consump- 
tion. Purcell  and  Dryden  seem  to 
have  been  intimate,  for  it  is  said  that 
the  latter  often  took  refuge  in  Pur- 
cell's apartment  in  the  clock  tower 
of  the  Temple  to  escape  debtors' 
prison.  Purcell  was  held  in  the  high- 
est esteem  by  his  contemporaries. 
The  admiration  for  bim  did  not  con- 
fine itself  to  England,  for  it  is  said 
that  Corelli  was  about  to  visit  Eng- 
land to  see  him,  whom  he  considered 
the  only  thing  worth  seeing  in  Eng- 
land, when  he  died.  The  sentiments 
of  Purcell's  English  admirers  were 
voiced  in  numerous  poems,  praising 
him  as  a  man  and  artist. 

Purcell's  works  include  twenty-nine 
odes  or  welcome  songs  for  special 
occasions;  music  to  fifty-one  plays; 
about  one  hundred  anthems,  hymns, 
and  church-services;  some  two  hun- 
dred songs,  duets,  trios,  and  catches; 
fantasias  for  strings,  similar  to  those 
of  Orlando  Gibbons;  two  sets  of  vio- 
lin sonatas;  organ  and  harpsichord 
music.  There  was  a  Purcell  Club 
from  1836  to  1863,  but  not  until  the 
Purcell  Society  was  founded  in  1876 
was  a  complete  edition  of  his  works 


started.  Fourteen  volumes  have 
now  been  published.  The  Yorkshire 
Feast  Song;  Masque  in  Timon  of 
Athens;  Dido  and  .(Eneas;  Duke  of 
Gloucestershire's  Ode;  twelve  sonatas 
of  three  parts;  harpsichord  and  organ 
music;  ten  sonatas  of  four  parts;  ode 
on  St.  Cecilia's  Day,  Hail  Great  Ce- 
cilia; Dioclesian;  three  odes  for 
St.  Cecilia's  Day,  written  in  1683; 
birthday  odes  for  Queen  Mary;  The 
Fairy  Queen;  sacred  music;  and  wel- 
come songs.  A  complete  list  of  his 
works  is  given  at  the  end  of  volume 
thirteen.  The  research  which  was 
necessary  in  publishing  this  set  has 
brought  about  a  considerable  change 
of  opinion  about  the  dates  of  Purcell's 
dramatic  compositions. 

Music  was  not  in  a  very  propitious 
state  at  the  advent  of  Purcell,  and  it 
is  remarkable  that  his  works  should 
have  been  so  great.  The  Puritans  had 
destroyed  many  of  the  organs  and 
most  of  the  church-music;  there  had 
never  been  opera  in  England,  it  being 
only  in  its  beginning  in  Italy  and 
France;  and  there  were  no  great  pred- 
ecessors to  follow,  for  the  great 
masters  were  yet  unborn  or  in  their 
infancy;  yet  here  was  a  musical  genius 
whose  sacred  works  exercised  a  great 
influence  over  Handel,  and  whose  dra- 
rnatic  music  foreshadowed  the  prin- 
ciples of  Gluck  and  Wagner.  In  his 
works  he  not  only  showed  himself 
a  master  of  contrapuntal  devices,  but 
did  not  fear  to  introduce  bold  and 
unheard-of  harmonies,  frequently  using 
false  relations  effectively,  nor  to  ex- 
tend the  existing  melodic  forms,  and 
employ  in  a  most  ingenious  way  the 
meager  orchestra  at  his  command, 
not  only  in  his  stage  but  in  his  church- 
music.  He  often  repeated  his  phrases, 
and  sometimes  overdid  in  illustrating 
the  words,  as  by  making  the  bass 
descend  to  double  D  on  the  word 
"  down "  in  they  that  go  down  to 
the  sea  in  ships.  Perhaps  his  great- 
est accomplishment  was  his  perfect 
accentuation,  an  art  in  itself.  His 
beauties  in  composition  were  entirely 
his  own,  while  his  occasional  bar- 
barisms may  be  considered  as  un- 
avoidable compliances  with  the  age 
in  which  he  lived.  The  following 
words  of  Charles  Burney  are  often 
quoted  by  the  zealous  admirer  of  the 
great  English  composer:  "While  a 
Frenchman  is  loud  in  the  praise  of  a 
Lully  and  a  Rameau;  the  German  in 
that   of   a   Handel   and   a   Bach;    and 




the  Italian  of  a  Palestrina  and  a  Per- 
golesi;  not  less  is  the  pride  of  an 
Englishman  in  pointing  to  a  name 
equally  dear  to  his  country,  for  Pur- 
cell is  as  much  the  boast  of  England 
in  music  as  Shakespeare  in  the  drama, 
Milton  in  epic  poetry,  Locke  in  meta- 
physics, or  Sir  Isaac  Newton  in 
mathematics  and  philosophy."  The 
attitude  is  still  the  same,  only,  nowa- 
days. Englishmen  are  more  active  in 
showing  their  admiration.  In  Novem- 
ber, 1895,  the  bicentennial  of  Purcell's 
death  was  celebrated.  The  pupils  of 
the  Royal  College  of  Music,  under  the 
direction  of  C.  V.  Stanford,  gave  Dido 
and  -ilineas  at  the  Lyceum  Theatre  on 
the  20th.  On  the  21st  a  service  was 
held  in  Westminster  Abbey,  at  which 
his  Te  Deum  and  several  of  his  an- 
thems were  sung  as  nearly  like  the 
original  as  possible,  and  at  the  British 
Museum  an  exhibit  of  manuscripts, 
portraits  and  letters,  under  the  direc- 
tion of  William  Barkley  Squire,  was 


Cummings,  W.  H.  —  Purcell.     1881. 

Dole,  Nathan.  —  A  Score  of  Famous 

Famous  Composers  and  Their 
Works,  edited  by  Paine,  Thomas 
and  Klauser. 

Hogarth,  George.  —  Musical  His- 
tory.    Memoires   of  the  Opera. 

Rockstro,  W.  S.  —  History  of  Music. 

Smith,  Fanny.  —  Century  Library  of 

Streatfield,  R.  A.  —  History  of 
Opera.    Modern  Music  Musicians. 

Pye,  Kellow  John.    1812-1901. 

English  pianist  and  composer;  born 
at  Exeter.  He  studied  at  the  Royal 
Academy  of  Music  from  1823  to  1829 
under  Cipriani  Potter  in  piano  and 
Doctor    Crotch   in    composition,   and 


the  next  year  went  back  to  his  native 
place,  where  he  lived  until  1840.  Took 
the  degree  of  Bachelor  of  Music  from 
Oxford  in  1842,  and  then  lived  in  Lon- 
don, where  he  was  on  various  com- 
mittees of  the  Royal  Academy  of 
Music,  the  National  Training  School 
and  the  Royal  College  of  Music.  He 
was  also  a  fellow  of  the  Royal  Acad- 
emy of  Music  and  a  member  of  the 
Madrigal  Society,  of  which  he  was 
vice-president  in  1891.  His  works 
consist  of  anthems;  madrigals;  glees 
and  songs;  and  some  piano-music. 

Pyne  (pin),  Louisa  Fanny.    1832-1904. 

Famous  English  soprano.  Her 
father  and  uncle  were  both  singers, 
and  she  early  showed  ability  She 
studied  under  Sir  George  Smart,  and 
in  1842  sang  in  public.  In  1847  she 
created  great  enthusiasm  in  Paris, 
and  in  1849  made  a  successful  debut 
as  Amina  in  La  Sonnambula  at  Bou- 
logne. Returning  to  England  she 
appeared  on  the  stage  for  the  first 
time  in  London,  as  Zerlina  in  Don 
Juan.  In  1854  she  came  to  America, 
and  created  quite  a  furor,  while  in 
New  York  giving  free  concerts  for 
the  high  schools  and  asylums.  Re- 
turning to  England  in  1856  she  and 
Mr.  Harrison  formed  their  well- 
known  English  opera  company,  which 
played  until  1862.  Her  last  engage- 
ment was  at  Her  Majesty's  Theatre, 
and  after  marrj^ing  Mr.  Frank  Bodda, 
in  1868,  she  retired  and  taught  sing- 
ing. Her  voice  was  exquisitely  rich 
and  flexible,  her  power  of  vocaliza- 
tion remarkable,  and  though  she  em- 
ployed ornament  it  was  with  good 
taste.  Her  acting  was  no  less  com- 
mendable than  her  singing.  Among 
her  roles  were  Bohemian  Girl,  Rose 
of  Castile,  Maritana,  Lurline,  Daugh- 
ter of  the  Regiment  and  Traviata. 


Quadri   (kwa-dre),  Domenico.     1801- 


Born  at  Vicenza,  Italy.  Studied 
under  Marchesi  and  Pilotti.  Aside 
from  teaching  he  devoted  his  time  to 
theoretical  research.  In  1830  he  pub- 
lished   two     parts     of    a    work,     La 

Ragione  armonJca,  which  advocated 
the  system  of  building  up  chords  by 
thirds.  The  next  year  he  opened 
a  school  in  Naples  for  teaching  har- 
mony. In  1832  he  published  another 
work  on  the  same  order,  Lezioni 
d'armonia.     His  innovation   was  not 




looked  upon  favorably  by  other 
musicians,  and  such  was  their  oppo- 
sition that  he  was  forced  to  submit. 
This  ruined  his  life,  and  he  died  in 
poverty  in  Milan. 

Quagliati   (kwal-ya'-te),  Paolo. 

Lived  in  Rome.  Was  a  harpsichord 
player,  and  in  1612  was  chapelmaster 
of  Santa  Maria  Maggiore.  The  year 
before  receiving  this  appointment  he 
published  Carro  di  fedelta  d'amore, 
one  of  the  oldest  musical  dramas  in 
existence.  This  work  contained 
monodies  and  ensemble-numbers  up 
to  five  voices.  In  1620  he  published 
Mottetti  and  Dialoghi. 

Quaisain  (ka-saii),  Adrian.  1766-1828. 

Parisian  singer  and  dramatic  com- 
poser. Studied  under  Berton  and  ap- 
peared in  public  in  1797.  His  first 
known  composition  was  performed  in 
1798,  an  operetta,  entitled  Silvain  et 
Lusette,  ou  la  Vendange.  From  1799 
to  1819  he  was  leader  of  the  orches- 
tra in  the  Theatre  de  I'Ambigu-Comi- 
que.  He  composed  a  large  number 
of  melodramas.  Some  of  his  works 
are  La  Musicomanie,  Les  deux 
ivrognes,  and  Les  amants  absents. 

Quantz     (kvants),    Johann    Joachim. 


Born  at  Oberscheden,  Hanover, 
where  his  father  was  a  blacksmith; 
he  early  showed  his  tendency  for 
music.  When  eight  years  old  he 
played  the  doublebass  at  village  fes- 
tivals. His  father  died  when  he  was 
ten  and  his  uncle,  the  town  musician 
of  Merseburg,  undertook  his  musical 
education.  When  nineteen  he  ob- 
tained a  position  as  oboeist  under 
Heine  in  the  town  orchestra  at 
Dresden.  He  went  to  Vienna,  where 
he  studied  counterpoint  under  Zelenka 
and  Fux.  In  1718  he  became  a  mem- 
ber of  the  Royal  Polish  Orchestra  at 
Dresden  and  Warsaw.  In  1724  he 
was  sent  by  the  Count  of  Saxony  to 
Rome,  where  he  at  once  took  up  the 
study  of  counterpoint  with  Gasparini. 
The  next  year  he  went  to  Naples, 
where  he  made  the  acquaintance  of 
Hasse,  Scarlatti,  Leo  and  other  em- 
inent musicians.  After  a  tour  of 
cities  in  Italy  and  France  he  arrived 
in  Paris,  where  he  spent  seven 
months.  Here  he  made  some  im- 
provements in  the  flute,  which  instru- 
ment he  took  up  after  a  course  of 
study   under    BuflEardin.      In    1728   he 


played  before  Frederick  the  Great  at 
Berlin,  who  was  so  pleased  with  him 
that  he  engaged  him  for  lessons  on 
the  flute.  When  Frederick  ascended 
the  throne,  in  1740,  he  appointed 
Quantz  chamber  musician  and  Court 
composer,  which  position  he  held 
until  his  death.  He  composed  three 
hundred  concertos  and  two  hundred 
other  pieces  for  the  flute.  He  also 
published  a  flute  method  that  was 
translated  into  French  and  Dutch; 
and  a  publication  entitled  Application 
pour  la  fliite  traversiere  a  deux  clefs. 

Quarenghi    (kwa-ran-ge),    Guglielmo. 


Violoncellist;  born  at  Casalmag- 
giore.  Studied  in  the  Milan  Conserv- 
atory from  1839  to  1842.  In  1850  he 
was  appointed  first  cello  at  La  Scala 
Theatre,  and  the  next  year  became 
professor  of  the  cello  at  the  Conserv- 
atory. He  was  also  made  chapter- 
master  of  the  cathedral  in  1879.  His 
works  include  an  opera,  several 
masses,  quartets,  caprices,  fantasies, 
etc.,  for  violoncello,  and  some  songs. 
He  also  published  an  excellent  cello 

Queisser    (kvls'-ser),    Carl    Traugott. 


Renowned  as  a  trombone-player. 
Born  at  Doben,  near  Leipsic.  His 
musical  talent  early  asserted  itself 
and,  while  still  young,  he  learned  to 
play  the  usual  orchestra  instruments. 
At  seventeen  years  of  age  he  obtained 
a  position  to  play  the  violin  and 
trombone  in  the  town  orchestra.  In 
1830  he  became  principal  trombone- 
player  in  the  Gewandhaus  Orchestra, 
Leipsic.  For  many  years  he  belonged 
to  Matthais'  quartet,  in  which  he 
played  the  viola.  He  also  played  that 
instrument  in  the  Gewandhaus  during 
his  later  years.  He  was  one  of  the 
founders  of  the  Leipsic  Euterpe,  and 
for  some  time  was  leader  of  its  or- 
chestra. Though  he  was  well  known 
throughout  Germany,  there  is  no  rec- 
ord of  his  ever  leaving  his  country. 
He  far  surpassed  any  trombone- 
player  of  his  time,  and  many  works 
were  composed  especially  for  him  by 
such  authors  as  C.  G.  Miiller,  F. 
David.  Meyer  and  Kummer. 

Quidant  (ke-dan),  Alfred-     1815-1893. 

Eminent  pianist  and  composer;  born 
at  Lyons.  In  1831  he  entered  the 
Paris  Conservatory,  soon  after  ob- 
taining a    position   in   firard's   ware- 



rooms  to  exhibit  pianos,  which 
position  he  held  for  thirty  years.  His 
compositions  are  mostly  piano-pieces 
which  have  become  very  popular.  He 
died  in  Paris. 

Quinault    (ke-no),    Jean    Baptiste 
Maurice.    -1744. 

Very  little  is  known  of  this  accom- 
plished man.     From  1712  to  1718  he 

had  a  position  as  singer  in  the 
Theatre  Frangais  in  Paris,  and  until 
1733  was  also  an  actor  there.  He  set 
to  music  more  than  twenty  pieces 
which  include  intermedes,  ballets, 
etc.  He  composed  a  grand  ballet  in 
four  acts  which  was  produced  at  the 
Grand  Opera  in  1729.  He  retired 
about  ten  years  before  his  death, 
which  occurred  in  Gien. 


Raaff  (raf),  Anton.     1714-1797. 

Celebrated  tenor;  born  at  Holzen, 
near  Bonn;  was  educated  for  a  priest, 
and  did  not  even  learn  to  sing  by 
note  until  he  was  twenty;  but  upon 
hearing  him  sing,  the  Elector  placed 
him  under  Fernandini  at  Munich; 
later  he  studied  under  Bernacchi  at 
Bologna,  and  made  an  Italian  debut 
at  Florence  in  1738,  singing  after- 
wards on  the  Italian  stage.  In  1742 
he  returned  to  Bonn,  and  for  ten 
years  sang  at  a  number  of  German 
courts,  notably  Vienna.  He  went  to 
Lisbon  where  he  sang  in  Italian 
Opera;  then  to  Madrid,  where  he 
sang  under  the  direction  of  Farinelli 
with  whom  he  went  to  Naples.  He 
returned  to  Germany  in  17/0,  where 
he  became  a  court  musician  to  the 
Elector  Karl  Theodor  at  Mannheim 
and  went  with  him  to  Munich,  where 
he  remained  till  his  death.  The  year 
previous,  however,  he  had  been  in 
Paris  with  Mozart,  who  wrote  for 
him  the  part  of  Idomeneo,  and  also 
the  air  known  as  "  Se  al  labro  mio." 
He  possessed  an  exceptional  voice, 
both  in  quality  and  compass,  un- 
usually distinct  enunciation,  and  the 
ability  to  sing  with  a  power  of  ex- 
pression that  equaled  his  execution. 

Rachmaninoff  (rakh-man' -ne-nof), 
Sergei  Vasselievitch.  1873- 
Noted  contemporary  Russian  com- 
poser; born  in  Novgorod,  and  received 
h'is  first  piano  lessons  from  his 
mother.  At  nine  years  of  age  he 
entered  the  Conservatory  in  St. 
Petersburg,  later  was  transferred  to 
Moscow,  where  he  became  a  pupil 
of  Siloti  for  piano  and  Arensky  for 
theory,   and   in    1891    won   the   great 

gold  medal  for  piano-playing,  also  the 
next  year  was  awarded  highest  honors 
for  composition.  He  has  made  con- 
cert tours  in  Russia  both  as  pianist 
and  as  director.  In  1899  he  visited 
London,  and  there  conducted  his 
fantasia  for  orchestra  at  a  Philhar- 
monic concert,  also  app